Russian Americanism. Why do we always live with an eye on the West
On TV Channel One, a new project was launched under the eloquent title Voice. But I will not speak about the advantages of this project or its shortcomings. I can only say that it is strikingly different from similar competitive singing programs in that they really sing and sing well here. Without phonograms, so-called. dancers and others borrowed from Western pops, "special effects". The first issues of “The Voice” were a real pleasure. And - no less strong disappointments: the project, as it turned out, was again from the “Made in USA” series, and the overwhelming majority of the contestants performed American works in English.
Sing in English?
The question did not give rest: is there really no longer any domestic music, no songs in Russian, or in any other language from the 130 nations and populations of Russia? In the end, it was possible to make a translation. But blaming young artists for this is simply not raising a hand.
Even to the jury, who actively demonstrated a good knowledge of the originals, singing and singing along, there are no special complaints: where did the fish come from? That's right - from the head.
And recently, the publication of RBC Daily pleased its readers with a publication on the construction of Moscow Manhattan alongside the Moscow Ring Road. And one more “joy”: it turns out, “a new highway was put into operation in Moscow, which allows you to get from Zvenigorodskoye highway to the international business center“ Moscow-City ”. In this connection, it is impossible not to inspire optimism in Muscovites, as well as guests of the capital, the message about the international exhibition at the All-Russian Exhibition Center “CityBuild. Urban technology.
These Moscow stories binds one thing: the pursuit of the golden calf, and the second, if not the third, concern about Russian culture. There are a lot of similar examples, and, unfortunately, not only in Moscow. In the depths of them, too, more than enough.
What about politics? Initially, Russia (Soviet Union) had its own president, as in America (not anywhere!). At one time there was even a vice-president: know, they say, ours! Then - his White House, again in the American way. Although the "white" house in Moscow is a completely different sign. And in this supposedly White House, the Prime Minister is sitting with Deputy Prime Ministers, although, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which is mandatory for all citizens, they are also called differently. There is in Russia and the legislative power - the State Duma and the Federation Council. They are headed by people occupying constitutional posts of chairmen, and they are called, again in the American manner, speakers. One speaker speaks in the Duma, the other in the Federation Council with his senses from where they came from. What is not another illustration of the fact that the requirements of the Constitution act selectively?
Analyzing today the course of the “reforms” of 1990's, we clearly see that the current oligarchs could hardly have managed so well to “throw” the whole of Russia if they hadn’t launched their crafty “vouchers”, they hadn’t renamed their familiar and customary Russian ears the words “marketing” and “consulting”, if the evils disguised by Americanisms - “killer” and “racketeer” - did not hide the true appearance of the murderers and extortionists. And now, officials prefer the strange Russian “meeting” to a strange “summit”. Americanization to this day knows no barriers.
The films are American, the shows are American, the presentations are American, the love is American, the dream is American (to make money). Beautiful, subtle, with the words almost unremitting feeling of love was replaced by rude, degrading human dignity - “to make love”. There is a kind of spiritual and linguistic occupation of our consciousness.
With Anglo-American words, the realities, patterns of behavior, way of life, morality, etc., they imply, are imposed. alien and alien to us cultural values. With the help of borrowings of the last two decades, manipulations of individual and social consciousness are carried out. The irrepressible invasion of Anglo-Americanisms on a threatening scale infests the minds of people, makes them difficult to communicate with each other, and, even worse, instills an alien world view, destroys our language ecology, devaluing the national word, its spiritual essence. Thus, foreign words play the role of a factor of external influence on society. It is not by chance that when the State Duma attempted to adopt a law on the protection of the Russian language, the liberal “howl” rose.
The strong pressure of American culture and the English language in its American version on other cultures and languages in many countries of the world caused serious concern about the preservation of the native language, national culture, thinking (mentality). Thus, in France, in 1994, the “Law on the Use of the French Language” (the so-called “Toubon Law”) was adopted. It prohibits the unreasonable use of Americanisms in a public and official speech under the threat of a large monetary fine. In music programs of foreign music should not be more than 40%. Special censors monitor the use of borrowing in newspapers, magazines, on television and radio. The adoption of the law on the protection of French served as a signal and incentive to discuss similar bills in other countries, as far as I know, in Germany, Poland (the law was adopted in 1999), Romania.
It would not hurt us to heed the advice of the famous American playwright Arthur Miller: “I really hope that there will not be another America in Russia. You do not need an imitative culture. For Russians, love of the word is much more common and more passionate than in most other countries. ”
Americanized speech in modern Russia, therefore, is not only an indicator of the state of the Russian language. At the same time, this is an indicator of the state of the Russian national psychology, which in the past has always served as the core of the Eurasian union of peoples and the Eurasian type of culture. From this it is clear: Russia cannot do without understanding its own history, inseparable from the history of other nations that belong to and within it, and its worthy place in the future of humanity. A certain amount of hope that everything is not lost is instilled, say, by the fact that recently, by decision of the Russian authorities, the activity of the USAID office has been terminated.
Recall that, in accordance with the US budget, funds allocated under the USAID item should be spent solely on promoting the US national security strategy in the territory of foreign countries. And they were successfully spent through NPOs, which were 1987 in Russia before 40, and now they bred to 300 000.
USAID in the Russian Federation focused on public administration - 316 works; health - 205 works; urban planning and development - 135 works; democracy and governance - 124 work, etc. (data at the beginning of October 2006 g.). According to well-known demographers I. Medvedev and T. Shishkov, USAID family planning and sexuality education programs stimulate young people’s early acquaintance with sex life, the increase in sexually transmitted diseases, the number of abortions, and ultimately, the extinction of the Russian population.
It turns out that this organization participated in the drafting of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the first part of the Civil Code, the Tax Code and the Land Code.
Practically all USAID initiatives in the field of reform of the judicial system of the Russian Federation were adopted, moreover, 5000 Russian judicial officials studied in the USA “democratic” justice. The restructuring and reform of RAO UES, the development of a competitive power industry market have not been without USAID.
And a lot of “very good” things were done by the representatives of this international agency for the development of “democracy” in Russia. Over the 20 years (1992-2012) the USA, through USAID, penetrated practically all government structures and caused Russia such damage, which can only be compared with the consequences of large-scale military operations on our territory. And these consequences will have to be eliminated for many years. And how many more organizations like USAID continue their subversive activities in Russia?
The ban on USAID activities in Russia is only the first step in countering the phenomenon that has swept over our country, which can be called "Russian Americanism", or rather, internal Americanism. Other steps in this direction will be given no less difficult, since Russian Americanism, among other things, has deep historical roots.
The idea that Russian Americanism appeared in Russia together with “perestroika”, was generated by it and was used as a tool in reforming the country took root in everyday consciousness. Far from it. The idea of the United States, as a model of government, the desire to "equip" Russian life on the American model emerged at the end of the XVIII century. Since its inception, our Americanism has passed a long way of development, leaving a noticeable mark in Russian history, in the Russian and Russian consciousness, in the personal destinies of a large number of people, and has become an integral part of the Russian mentality.
Today, probably, it would be possible to celebrate the 146 anniversary from the beginning of the official Americanization of Russia. More precisely, since 1866, when a delegation of the American Congress visited the Russian Empire. Americans were enthusiastically greeted across the country. It was an apotheosis in Russian-American relations. The writer Mark Twain, who visited the south of Russia a year later, said: "... here we felt that it was enough to be an American, we didn’t need any other visas ... Wherever we did not go ... we were welcomed with kindness and attention."
In search of a recipe for correcting Russian realities, a radical thought rushed abroad, first to Europe, then to the ocean, to the New World. America was perceived as an alternative to Russian life. So it is perceived now.
The negative attitude to domestic reality and the perception of the United States as a standard is the basis of Russian Americanism.
Such an assessment of the United States and Russia was peculiar, for example, to Alexander Radishchev, who considered the United States a country of freedom, and Russia - a sufferer. The United States saw him "slobbery", that is, famous, jubilant country, where they live "happy nations", which "gave liberty to chance".
In Russia, the works of Russian writers devoted to the USA were popular, for example, the book by P.P. Svinin, “The Experience of a Pictorial Journey through North America,” the works of K.S. Stanyukovich, in which it concerns the United States. Especially - his story "The Adventures of a Sailor." This story can be called a hymn to America: "... the free side, ... one fragrance!" - this is how the heroes of Stanyukovich speak of the United States. A theatrical figure Prince SI Volkonsky wrote in those days: “The amazing country is America, how it can make work, how it develops working capacity and workiness ... what a proud feeling you have when you come to America with your work: to enter this land not as a tourist, but as an employee “This is one of the most pleasant excuses for its existence.”
Acquaintance with the United States caused a desire to transfer the American experience on Russian soil. As it happened in 1893 with the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, the idea of which was to stop focusing on Europe and take the USA as a model.
In the middle of the XIX century. The expansion of American capital, technology and technology to Russia begins. In 1860's in the Russian Far East of all foreign merchants, regardless of their nationality, the settlers called the Americans. Americans took part in railway construction in Russia, the Russian navy was replenished with ships built in the USA or with the help of American materials and equipment. Russian army armed with American rifle weapons - with rifles of Berdan, with the revolvers of the Smith and Wesson system, and from 1896 the famous Maxim machine guns began to be received by the Russian troops. Agriculture used American machines, propaganda was carried out American agrotechnical achievements.
Since the birth of Russian Americanism, the United States has presented itself in the Russian consciousness as a promised land. It was from this point of view that the United States interested the Decembrists, members of the Cyril and Methodius Society. In the appeal of N.G. Chernyshevsky to “Barsky Peasants” said, for example, that the Swiss and Americans, who do not hold kings and choose “people's head” for a term, are particularly sensible. The country of freedom, where honest and open political struggle is possible, was considered by the United States to be Russian terrorists from the People’s Will organization, who in 1881 condemned the assassination of 20 US President James Garfield as a terrorist by C. Gito.
The People of the People who assassinated Tsar Alexander II in the same year believed that political terror in the United States was a crime, and in Russia terror was an acceptable tool in the fight against power.
Similar political standards are also used by the modern Russian opposition.
However, Russian Americanism most fully declared itself in Siberia, where in the first half of the nineteenth century. the idea of separatism arose. The researcher of the Siberian history B. G. Kubalov noted that the separatists dreamed "not so much about the autonomy of Siberia, as about the possible separation of Russia from Russia, following the example of the United States of America, Canada or Australia." And the Siberian researcher G.F. Kungurov stated that "comparing the future of Siberia with America was particularly fashionable, it was considered the peak of what was desired." In 60's XIX century. the separatists were preparing an uprising, which was to lead to the proclamation of the independent state of "Svoboslavia" in Siberia. The most important function of the new state was to be a war with imperial Russia.
During this period, the tradition of the union of Russian revolutionary-minded radicals and American citizens in the struggle against Russian power was born. Russian immigrants and US citizens created joint organizations. They were actively working under the auspices of the Japanese authorities on the political treatment of Russian prisoners of war in Japan during the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905.
By the beginning of the XX century. In Russian society, the idea began to take shape that the use of American qualities - businesslike, assertiveness, enterprise, the desire to maximize profits - this is the path to success, both for the whole country and for an individual. In A. Tolstoy's story “The Rastegin's Adventures” (1913), a young landowner in the Volga region of the outback defined his credo in this way: “... I found an American fold in myself ... this is my principle: I must earn at least one penny every minute fourteen rubles forty kopeks a day. ” It did not take into account at all that the USA and Russia are countries with a completely different history, different mentality, society, traditions and institutions. Nevertheless, the idea of using someone else's experience continued to exist. And, as we are convinced, still exists.
The attitude of the Soviet government to the United States in the 1920-1930-ies. was ambiguous. Of course, the United States was treated as an imperialist state, but at the same time JV Stalin declared: “We would like people of science and technology in America to be our teachers in technology, and we are their students ...”
This position was dictated by the needs of the socialist reconstruction of the country. In 1920-1930-ies. The slogan "Catch Up America" is widespread. A stable positive image of the United States was formed in the public consciousness, including, paradoxically, through the state ideology. The interests of the USA and the USSR did not overlap then, and both countries did not pose a danger to each other.
World War II, Lend-Lease, the second front, the joint struggle against Nazi aggression added new touches to the image of "rich and benign America."
With the onset of Khrushchev's “thaw”, a new round in the development of Russian Americanism begins. What, as before, contributed a lot to the official Soviet propaganda, which adopted the old slogan "Catch Up and Overtake the USA". At the same time, the "sixties". It was based, like a hundred years ago, on a negative attitude towards domestic reality. Poet Joseph Brodsky wrote about his childhood: “Once upon a time there was a boy. He lived in the most unjust country in the world. It was ruled by creatures that, by all human standards, should have been called geeks. ” And just like a hundred years ago, a network of informers collected and sent information about the actions of the Soviet government to the West, intending, thus, to form public opinion against Russia there.
The dissidents of the second half of the 20th century, like their predecessors (and today's followers), also turned to the West for help. But now this cooperation went on at the state level. The United States supported dissidents, coordinated their activities, financed their struggle against the Soviet government. It was American intelligence that exported A. Solzhenitsyn’s archive from the USSR after he was expelled from the country in 1974. The thirty-year period after Stalin’s death was a truly new discovery of America for the Russian consciousness, which experienced the pressure of official propaganda. Americanism survived and developed largely due to the fact that the forbidden fruit was very, very sweet.
The next stage consisted in the realization of Americanism of the “new Russians” at the state level. Various political forces relied on the USA. M. Gorbachev and B. Yeltsin coordinated their policies with America.
The victory in the putsch in August of 1991 by Mr B. Yeltsin was helped by American intelligence.
The Americans were directly involved in the restoration of capitalism in Russia. An adviser to the Russian government, a professor at Harvard University, D. Sachs liked to represent himself as “the architect of Russian reforms.”
From 1989, the American Krayble Institute operated on the territory of the USSR, which organized, coordinated and financed the election campaign of the Democrats, and after the elections, the US Congress financed the Interregional Deputy Group of the USSR Supreme Soviet. Similar activities continued in the future. In general, the policy of the “reformers” was based on hopes of receiving Western aid in the amount of 250 billion dollars. By the fall of 1994, the first results of the Americanization of Russia came to light. The decline in production exceeded 50%. There is a destruction of the social sphere, a decline in morality, an increase in crime.
President B. Yeltsin stated then that Russia no longer harbors illusions about assistance from the West. Nevertheless, even today, these illusions did not disappear completely, so firmly entered Americanism in Russian public consciousness.
To adapt America for Russia?
Today, after several years of "resetting," aimed at improving our relations, the United States declares that, in terms of a nuclear threat to America, Russia is in second place after China, and first as an enemy in a potential cyberwar. And with those who consider you their first enemy, no friendship with us will not work. Cooperation on an equal footing - yes, it is in this way in the foreseeable future that we must tune.
The newspaper Kommersant (18.10.2012) is far from accidental about the results of one of the September polls (and cannot be refused in Americanism) published under the heading “Russians have fallen out of love with America.”
It turned out, in particular, that, compared with the fall of 2011 of the year, the number of citizens of the Russian Federation, who generally speak positively about the United States, decreased from 67% to 46%. Accordingly, from 27% to 38%, the proportion of those who are negative towards the USA has increased.
It is significant that 67% of respondents agreed with the statement: the United States "hypocritically trying to force other countries to comply with the laws of international law, although they themselves do not always follow them." According to the majority - 68%, the United States is more often trying to exert pressure on the Russian Federation, rather than acting with respect - 17%.
And although the general trend cannot but inspire hopes for the subsequent purification of people's consciousness from the defilement of Americanism, the current figures, however, are also alarming: what a great number of Russians still live with an eye to the West to this day!
Under the conditions of American domination, our choice, at first glance, is not large: either we can enter into a tough confrontation with America - which we have already passed and lost, or to surrender to the “winner” (capitulatory soil in the form of 46% willing to America) , - and, therefore, to lose statehood, becoming a colony of the United States, at best, a vassal state. But there is a third scenario, dictated by the entire previous history of Russian-American relations. Today, apparently, the Cold War is not over, it is simply being waged by other methods and methods and it does not take a long time to continue. At least, as long as the United States will exist in their current state and the dollar will remain as the main world currency (a hundred years more). Thus, it is necessary to work with regard to precisely such a long-term perspective, which presupposes, above all, a stake on young people.
Without a strong spiritual core uniting the entire Russian nation, even today, with reliance on the spiritual legacy still preserved from the USSR, it is difficult to withstand, and in the future, even with practically inexhaustible natural resources, it’s hardly possible to maintain a balance in globalized contradictions. will be possible. The Russian authorities, it seems, have begun to act with regard to precisely such prospects. Recently, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree on improving state policy in the field of patriotic education. According to the same decree, a department on public projects was established in the structure of the presidential administration. The functions of the new administration also include the preparation of proposals for the implementation of programs in the field of patriotic education of young people, the collection and compilation of information on the position of central and regional media in relation to state policy in the field of patriotic education.
In the meantime, we can say that a sharp expansion of the sphere of influence is characteristic of Russian Americanism.
In the course of its development, from a narrow circle of intellectuals, Russian Americanism spread to the widest strata of society, from social thought it turned into an instrument of political and economic life.
Moreover, now he resolutely claims the same role that Christianity, Western thought and Marxism played in Russian history - from an instrument seeks to become the basis of a world view.
However, there is no need to talk about eradicating Americanism from our consciousness: the process is long, complicated and obviously ungrateful. Let us be realistic and ask ourselves a very simple question: is it necessary to do this? Isn't it easier and more profitable to adapt this very America to Russia?
- Valery Panov