Military Review

DRLO helicopter - Ka-31

33
The Ka-31 helicopter (product 503, according to NATO NATO codification Helix-B) is a radar patrol helicopter designed for the needs of the Soviet Navy. The long-range radar detection helicopter was developed on the basis of the existing Ka-29 naval transport and combat helicopter. A helicopter can be based both on ships of various classes and on land. All Ka-31 and Ka-27 helicopters can be based on the Ka-29 helicopter. The helicopter can be used in the land version for solving the tasks of the air defense of the ground forces. To date, this helicopter has no world analogues.


The helicopter is in service with the Russian Navy, according to information for 2012 in service fleet There are 2 such helicopters. Also, the Ka-31 was exported and is in service with the sea aviation India and China. India has 9 helicopters of this class, while in 2009 a contract was signed for the supply of another 5 such helicopters (the cost of the helicopter is about $ 20 million per unit). The Chinese naval aviation for 2012 also had 9 Ka-31 helicopters.

The DRLO Ka-31 helicopter is intended for radar control of air and sea space, early detection of low-flying targets like cruise missiles, helicopters, aircraft, as well as surface ships and their identification at long-range targets. The helicopter is able to determine the parameters of the trajectory and the coordinates of the targets, transmit information about the observed and airborne radar situation to the ships and command posts of the ground forces.
DRLO helicopter - Ka-31

The Ka-31 helicopter is made according to a coaxial helical scheme. The carrier system and the power plant of the machine were borrowed from the Ka-29 transport and combat helicopter. Changes to its design were dictated by the need to install a radar antenna under the helicopter's bottom, which during flight can turn on a special hinge device and occupies a working vertical position. The swing of the radar antenna mirror mounted on the Ka-31 is 6 meters. In the stowed position, this antenna is pressed to the bottom of the helicopter body and fixed.

To ensure the exit and entry of the crew, a door was installed on the right side of the helicopter's transport cabin. On the sides of the cockpit, instead of the usual sliding doors, emergency hatches were installed with sliding glazed doors with an emergency discharge system. The helicopter had a four-bearing landing gear, while the front supports were removed in special fairings, which were located outside the sides of the helicopter fuselage. The main landing gear rose up, freeing up space for rotation of the radar antenna in flight. Main rotor blades were made of polymer composite materials and equipped with anti-icing and electrothermal systems.

History creations and features

The need for early warning assets at sea was clearly demonstrated during the Anglo-Argentine conflict over the disputed Falkland Islands. Due to the absence of helicopters or DRLO planes in the composition of the British expeditionary forces, they could not promptly search for, detect, and subsequently intercept low-flying Argentine planes. The use of destroyers in this capacity ended unsuccessfully for the British - the loss of 2's of such ships (Coventry and Sheffield).

Taking into account this military conflict, in 1985, the OKB Design Bureau. NI Kamova was assigned to create an AEW helicopter. When creating the Ka-31, it was based on a glider, a power plant and a carrier system of the Ka-29 transport and combat helicopter already produced. The main difficulty in its development was to pair the powerful radar with the rest of the helicopter flight-navigation equipment, as well as to ensure the stability of the helicopter in the air during the rotation of the radar antenna. The prototype of the new helicopter made its first flight in 1987 year. After a series of fairly lengthy tests, the car in 1995 was adopted by the naval aviation of the Russian Navy. Serial production of the helicopter was carried out at the plant, located in the city of Kumertau.

The Ka-31 helicopter was designed to detect air targets as well as surface ships and their tracking. The ship-based helicopter is designed to provide air defense for fleet combat units operating outside the range of DRLO aircraft and coastal radar. This helicopter has no analogues in the global helicopter industry. The basis of its on-board complex is a sufficiently powerful radar on solid-state elements, which, for operation in the circular mode, has a flat-phased antenna array (PAR) that is produced in flight. In the stowed position, the antenna is simply located under the bottom of the fuselage.

The on-board radio-electronic system installed on the helicopter allows the Ka-31 to conduct automated flight along a pre-programmed route in any climatic and weather conditions. The radar allows the DRLO helicopter to simultaneously detect and automatically track to 20 targets.



Information on all detected targets is automatically transmitted over the telecode channel to various control points. The Ka-31 is equipped with the Oko Long-Range Radar Detection System (E-801), created at the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Engineering Research Institute. During normal flight, it fits snugly to the underside of the fuselage of the car, creating minimal aerodynamic drag. When translating the antenna into the working position, it deviates downward by 90 degrees, while the helicopter landing gear stands slightly up, so that the chassis does not interfere with the operation of the radar in the rotation mode. Radar with phased array weighs 200 kg, the antenna area is 6 square. meters, and its length is 5,75 meters. The antenna is able to provide detection and subsequent tracking to 20 targets. Fighter-class targets are detected at a distance of 100-150 km, and ship-class surface targets are detected at a distance of 250-285 km.

The Ka-31 helicopter is equipped with a flight-navigation complex (PNK), developed in the Instrument Design Bureau of the city of Saratov. While the radar antenna is in the released, working position, the NCP of the helicopter provides stabilization of the angular positions, as well as the true or barometric altitude; flight in the patrol zone along typical paths; automated withdrawal of the car on the airfield or ship; output to the landing point using landing radar signals. The long-range radio navigation system available on the helicopter allows for the continuous reading of the geographical coordinates of the Ka-31 (latitude and longitude), as well as automated helicopter navigation along a pre-programmed route and then returning to its basing point.

To transmit the received information about the tactical situation through the open and closed channels of the telecode communication, a special communication complex was installed on the DRLO Ka-31 helicopter. With a flight altitude of 1500-3000 meters, transmission of telecode information from the aircraft is possible for a distance of at least 150 km. In this case, the automatic registration of flight parameters is carried out with the help of special magnetic recording equipment "Tester-3K".
Ka-31 Indian Navy

In the case of the use of a helicopter in the interests of the ground forces, the Ka-31 can be deployed on small unprepared sites located near mobile anti-aircraft missile systems, providing them with target designation. It is worth noting that due to the liquidation of the 1143 project ships in the Russian fleet, the customer’s interest in this vehicle dropped significantly and the helicopter did not go into mass production for the needs of the Russian Navy. The only 2 vehicles available in the fleet are based on the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR. At the same time, there is reason to believe that the number of helicopters of this class in the Russian fleet will increase with the commissioning of the Mistral-designed docking helicopters.

Tatkyko-technical characteristics of the Ka-31

Dimensions: main screw diameter - 15,9 m., Length - 11,6 m., Height - 5,5 m, width - 3,8 m.
Weight, maximum take-off - 12 500 kg.
Engine type - 2 GTE TV3-117ВК, power 2х1660 kW.
Cruising speed - 220 km / h.
The maximum speed is 255 km / h.
Practical range - 680 km.
Flight duration - 2 hours 30 minutes.
Practical ceiling - 5 000 m.
Crew - 3 people.

Information sources
-http: //www.opoccuu.com/251111.htm
-http: //www.vertolet-media.ru/helicopters/kamov/ka-31/
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/sh/ka31.html
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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33 comments
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  1. PLO
    PLO 27 November 2012 08: 39
    +1
    I wonder how many of them in our Navy

    and in general, is it advisable, for example, to combine the functions of PLO and AWACS on the same helicopter due to outboard equipment?
    for example, on the principle of the same Ka-226
    IMHO, this will increase the efficiency of the autonomous use of new ships
    1. lesnik.
      lesnik. 27 November 2012 08: 49
      +3
      Quote: olp
      I wonder how many of them in our Navy

      The article reads "... according to information for 2012, the fleet is armed with 2 such helicopters."
      1. PLO
        PLO 27 November 2012 08: 53
        0
        Thanks, I read inattentively
        1. Civil
          Civil 27 November 2012 09: 02
          +3
          The only 2 vehicles available in the fleet are based on the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR


          Aircraft DRLO needed on Kuzyu
          1. patsantre
            patsantre 27 November 2012 13: 29
            +2
            Need of course. But he will not fly there.
          2. air wolf
            air wolf 26 October 2013 08: 50
            0
            and a helicopter - A drull is enough for Kuzya
    2. VAF
      VAF 27 November 2012 14: 41
      +2
      Quote: olp
      and in general, is it advisable, for example, to combine the functions of PLO and AWACS on the same helicopter due to outboard equipment?


      Oleg, welcome! The appearance of this helicopter as an AWACS .. it is .. as if to put it mildly ... well, from hopelessness or something ..... everything on it .. does not hold up "to what is needed ... a small range and flight duration. very poor detection performance, etc ...

      well, in the article in general .. "pearl" - transmission of information by telecode, but at the same time all flight parameters are recorded on the tester ????

      Where else did this go to ensure the operation of coastal missile systems, but even then not all ..... and not always! request
      1. PLO
        PLO 27 November 2012 15: 50
        +1
        Oleg, welcome! The appearance of this helicopter as an AWACS .. it is .. as if to put it mildly ... well, from hopelessness or something ..... everything on it .. does not reach "to what is needed

        no, I understand that for Kuznetsov this DRLO complex is too weak, but for other ships (Peter the Great and the 1164th cruisers) with powerful missile weapons, it could be a good solution for targeting long-range missiles when they operate in the open ocean

        another thing is that you can’t refuse PLO helicopters either, and the number of places in hangars is extremely limited
        1. VAF
          VAF 27 November 2012 15: 57
          0
          Quote: olp
          but for other ships (Peter the Great and the 1164th cruisers) with powerful missile weapons, he could become a good p


          Well, if only ... theoretically suppose ... then yes +! wink
          1. Basarev
            Basarev 10 June 2014 17: 12
            0
            Even for modern battleships, AWACS helicopters would be very suitable - to provide reliable target designation over the entire range of shooting with the main caliber.
  2. Edya
    Edya 27 November 2012 08: 55
    +1
    A good car and increasing their scratch would benefit ...
  3. mga04
    mga04 27 November 2012 10: 33
    +7
    Flight duration - 2 hours 30 minutes.
    Given the time to climb and return to the ship, the real patrol time will be no more than 1,5 hours. To ensure round-the-clock duty in the air, the ship should have at least three helicopters, and preferably with a spare crew. Are everyone sure that this is effective?
    If we already make a helicopter-based AWACS system, then it should be a drone with a flight duration of 5-6 hours. At the same time, the antenna can also be fixedly mounted, and the whole helicopter can be rotated - it is good to save on antenna stabilization systems.
    1. Tourist Breakfast
      Tourist Breakfast 27 November 2012 13: 23
      +1
      Today, with the spread of PAR radars, you no longer need to rotate either a helicopter or an antenna.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 27 November 2012 16: 41
        +3
        Yes, there is such a thing as a ring AFAR. But in terms of detection range, it is significantly inferior to flat gratings.
        And than. why a helicopter? I raised such an antenna on a tethered balloon and use it to your health. Moreover, you can raise much more solid antennas with different ranges. Moreover, all the resources of the ship's BIUS, including human resources, are at your service. And there will be no problems with the noise immunity and secrecy of the R / L data transmission channel. all information can be driven by cable. And in terms of restrictions on weather conditions, even a helicopter cannot be lifted into the air in any weather. By the way, such projects (radar on balloons) were considered quite seriously in the 70s and 80s. But either the hands did not reach implementation, or the Customer wanted, as always, "everything in one bottle", but things did not go beyond the projects. And technology at that time did not allow creating compact radars for such purposes.
  4. predator.3
    predator.3 27 November 2012 11: 43
    +5
    .... The antenna is able to provide detection and subsequent tracking of up to 20 targets. Objectives of the class "fighter" are detected at a distance of 100-150 km, and surface targets of the class "ship" are found at a distance of 250-285 km ...

    But is not such a detection distance too small?
    1. Sober
      Sober 27 November 2012 12: 11
      +2
      small .. the fighter he will see the ship, but after launch, when he will go back))) so that the helicopter apparently has some specific tasks .. or it flies where others cannot .. the latter is most likely to be based he can do anything (especially special requirements are not needed) and that means that he can go anywhere where the other does not swim, for example, in the Arctic, which means we will have an advantage ... well, in short, like that .. there are a lot of situations. Well, by the time the primer floats there is something lonely and there is no airfield on it, but for the vertical there is not much space x conditions for take-off ... but a drone would be better done, we certainly have them, but I mean not just created, but would have accepted it on a massive scale and started to do all the same! well, at least 10, at least, although there would be drums, a couple of scouts .. otherwise we have some crumbs and some experimental ones still or of local significance! we are in the last place by the number of drones, although we have ours and are not bad at all .. tin, for which we are doing such unique and expensive helicopters
  5. Andy
    Andy 27 November 2012 12: 12
    +2
    not a fountain. the detection range of the fighter is 100-150 km, and the missile launch distance is the same 100-120 and ... where does this "dlro" go? generally fishing with live bait.
  6. Tourist Breakfast
    Tourist Breakfast 27 November 2012 13: 30
    +2
    The British got even funnier radar:
    1. postman
      postman 28 November 2012 00: 28
      +2
      Quote: Tourist's Breakfast
      The British got even funnier radar

      Flies






      At the Falklands, they only had the Fairey Gannet AEW Mk3 with the AN / APS20A radar (which cost the UK too expensive)


  7. patsantre
    patsantre 27 November 2012 13: 31
    +1
    A modern fighter will have a better detection range ...
  8. Alekseev
    Alekseev 27 November 2012 13: 42
    +1
    What kind of fool gentlemen will describe the real range of target detection in open source? This is folly and betrayal at the same time.
    A good idea. AWACS can be organized both from the destroyer and from the land island.
    1. Andy
      Andy 27 November 2012 14: 09
      +1
      and then buyers from India and China are not aware of the range fellow
  9. gregor6549
    gregor6549 27 November 2012 14: 29
    +7
    My opinion. A flying radar is needed by the Russian Navy like air. normal aircraft AWACS and U similar to the American "Hawkeye" so far it does not have and we will not begin to base them. What was developed by Yakovlev's firm for the Ulyanovsk aircraft carrier remained on paper like Ulyanovsk itself. It is difficult to say how much the described helicopter can fill this "hole". Most likely only partially, because it does not have control functions, and this helicopter essentially performs only the role of a remote radar. In addition, even in terms of solving purely radar problems, the capabilities of the helicopter are very limited, for a number of reasons. including due to the short time of patrolling the helicopter in the air and the absence of radar processing operators on board the helicopter, and the experience of developing such "flying radars" has shown that it is very difficult to achieve high efficiency of the radar without the presence of a human operator in the radar image pickup and processing loop. Here either the data transmission channel will be clogged with information about false targets, or serious misses of true targets will be observed. I don’t tire you with details unnecessarily.
    Besides. such a helicopter will be a darling target for enemy AUG fighters if it decides to retire outside the zones of its ships covered by air defense systems, as well as for missiles located by radar radiation. Those. whatever one may say, you cannot do without full-fledged AWACS and U-based aircraft carriers, as well as aircraft carriers themselves, if you have the task of creating a serious ocean surface fleet of Russia. And it is there, and no half measures like the helicopter or drones discussed here can be dispensed with.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. The comment was deleted.
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 27 November 2012 16: 54
      +1
      Dear!
      The radar detector will not provide reliable information about the range at which the target where it is installed will be detected.
      It depends (and very thoroughly fellow ) also from the performance characteristics of the radar itself. From, roughly speaking, her sensitivity. One station will detect the same object with its sensor at a distance of 50 km, and another 100.
      And on the issue of export ... The S-200 air defense missile missile shot down a Tu-154, in a known case, over the Black Sea at a distance of 240 km, while in the advertisements there was a max. range 200. Yes, at first it was. But then the range increased to almost 400. Everything flows, everything changes ...
      1. Lissyara
        Lissyara 1 December 2012 15: 33
        +1
        Do not forget that the complexes tend to be modified. S-200D "Dubna" (extreme modification of the missile), fired at a distance of up to 300 km.
    2. Alekseev
      Alekseev 27 November 2012 18: 01
      +1
      Quote: rudolff
      as has been rightly pointed out here, we drive these turntables for export!
      good
      So someone needs these turntables! And the detection range suits them!
      And this is karasho!
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. crambol
    crambol 27 November 2012 23: 02
    +1
    Quote: rudolff
    Here are just two of them! It's a shame.


    This is not a shame, this is a shame! And not the last reason for this - women on a stool.
  14. not good
    not good 28 November 2012 21: 15
    +1
    Yes, two helicopters for the whole fleet are overkill! How long will they last during combat work, and when will the crews have a rest? 44 times more than a helicopter, and electronics are stronger, and can take off from a springboard. Although, at least something is better than nothing.
    1. Lissyara
      Lissyara 1 December 2012 15: 40
      +1
      The Yak-44 was brought to mind.
      But it will be hard for him to take off from Kuznetsov. It was made for the project 11437 TAAKR "Ulyanovsk" (which was successfully cut into metal).
      And he had to carry the following weapons:
      36 Su-33 fighters
      8 Aircraft AWACS Yak-144 (until 1988, Yak-44E)
      15 Ka-27 anti-submarine helicopters
      2 search and rescue helicopters Ka-27PS
      12x1 PU SM-233A PKRK 3K45 Granit - 12 PKR P-50 (3M45)
      24X1 PU ZS-95 SAM "Dagger" (192 SAM ZNUMXM9) - 330 SU K-4-12 with radar 1R-3
      8 modules ZRAK 3M87 "Dagger" - 2x (8 launchers 9M311 SAM, 2x6 30 mm) - 256 SAM, 48000 rounds
      RKPTZ-1 “Udav-1M” (2x10 RBU-12000) - 60 RSL
  15. Mr.Fox
    Mr.Fox 29 November 2012 04: 29
    0
    Quote: Alekseev
    The S-200 shot down the Tu-154 in a known case over the Black Sea at a distance of 240 km, while in the advertisements there was a max. range 200.


    As far as I remember, the point is not in advertising, but in the modification of the S-200D with an official firing range of 250 km.
  16. gregor6549
    gregor6549 29 November 2012 15: 57
    +1
    In Soviet times, all military equipment and weapons were made with a certain (up to 30%) margin of "strength" in terms of the main performance characteristics. And this is understandable, since such a margin gave confidence to the manufacturer of the equipment that it was guaranteed to pass all the required tests. The same is the case with TU154. The range of detection and tracking of such a "fat" target as Carcass in the standard C200 radar was more than enough, as was the flight range of the C200 missile defense system to this target. Moreover, the TU154 flies with a constantly switched on and working answering machine of the secondary radar system of the ATC of Civil Aviation, which is a good beacon for ground-based radar and missile defense systems. In general, what does this have to do with the topic under discussion?
  17. Zomanus
    Zomanus 7 December 2012 13: 57
    +1
    Aircraft AWACS and electronic warfare we need as air. Without them, the scribe to our air defense and other shooters.
  18. Pate
    Pate 9 February 2017 20: 06
    0
    Judging by Youtube, such a pinwheel appeared in Syria, only it is not ship-based, but airdrome-based.