Military Review

Aircraft - flying laboratory Tu-144LL

12
In the period after the creation of the Tu-144 ANTK (Aviation scientific and technical complex) named after Tupolev and other leading industry research centers, such as LII, VIAM, TsIAM, TsAGI, did not stop working on second-generation supersonic passenger aircraft. These works consist of aircraft design, development of aircraft components, as well as experimental and research work on the creation of new coatings, materials, and technological processes. The experience of creating the Tu-144 was widely used during the development of the Tu-244; two Tu-144Ds in 1993 were converted into flying laboratories as part of work on second-generation supersonic passenger aircraft. Due to lack of funding, work on the Tu-244 did not advance beyond the research stage, and the Tu-144 flying laboratory participated in a joint US-Russian flight research program in the interest of developing technologies for the creation of new-generation supersonic passenger aircraft (HSCT).

Aircraft - flying laboratory Tu-144LL


An intergovernmental agreement signed in June by 1993 provided for the use of a refurbished Tu-144D as a flying laboratory to study issues of aeroelasticity and aeroacoustics, create a database on the heat state of the power plant at high speeds, develop controllability and sustainability issues, assess the effect of the ground surface on takeoff and landing modes . The choice in favor of the Tu-144 aircraft (and not the "Concord") was made due to the greater maximum flight speed, the presence of retractable front horizontal tail, and, possibly, the lower rental cost.

The ANTK Tupolev for the six-month flight test program provided a flying laboratory - Tu-144D (onboard No.77114, released in 1981, 82 flight hour 40 minutes), which is equipped with an aircraft escape system capable of accepting a seat free from the seat, significant volume of instrumentation. This aircraft was selected from four Tu-144, preserved in a condition suitable for flight. The power plant was subjected to a radical alteration. On Tu-144LL engines РД-36-51А developed by Kolesov P.A. were replaced by forced turbojet bypass engines NK-32-1, used on a strategic bomber Tu-160. The use of these engines made it possible to increase the speed from M = 2,15 to M = 2,3. To register the parameters and experimental data to confirm the airworthiness on the plane, a new Damien data recording system was installed. The Tu-144LL was literally crammed with thermal sensors and sensors for friction of the skin, pressure, equipment for measuring the parameters of the aerodynamic boundary layer.

The program was funded by Boeing Corporation with the assistance of McDonnell Douglas (which recently merged with Boeing), General Electric, Pratt & Whitney and Rockwell, as well as NASA. Although the program cost has increased from 9 to 14 million, the Tu-144LL program is only a small part of the National Aerospace Agency’s XDUMX million contract with McDonnell Douglas and Boeing for High-Speed ​​Research (HSR).

17 March 1996 in Zhukovsky on the flight test base of the ASTC Tupolev took place the solemn rolling out of the flying laboratory of the Tu-144LL. During the rally organized in honor of this event, Anatoly Bratukhin, Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Defense Industry, Thomas Pickering, US Ambassador to Russia, Valentin Klimov, General Director of the ASTC, made a speech. Tupolev, Alexander Pukhov - Chief Designer, Leslie Lackman - Vice President Rockwell - North American, Louis J. Williams - Director of NASA and other guests of honor.



Before the flight tests were conducted ground tests on spec. stands, which allowed to get a large amount of information about the work of the engines, which are necessary for the development of the power plant of the future.

By the fall of 1997, they performed a series of eight flights in a significant range of altitudes and speeds (h> 17 thousand m, M> 2). Then ten more flights followed. In total, it was planned to carry out 32 flights. The flying laboratory was piloted by test pilots of the LII them. Gromov and ANTK them. Tupolev. On the Tu-144LL in September 1998, two NASA research pilots performed three assessment flights at LII.

The American company Boeing and the ANTK named after Tupolev in June 1999 successfully completed a joint research program on the Tu-144LL to create a promising passenger supersonic aircraft.

Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification - Tu-144LL;
Wingspan - 28,8 m;
Length - 65,7 m;
Height - 12,85 m;
Wing area - 507 m2;
Empty weight - 85000 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 200000kg;
Engine type - 4 DTRDF NK-32-1;
Single engine unforced - 25500 kgf;
Maximum speed - 2500 km / h;
Practical range - 4000 km;
Practical ceiling - 18897 m
Crew - 3 person.
12 comments
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  1. Forget
    Forget 28 November 2012 09: 16
    +4
    I think it makes sense to restore the program of the Tu 144 aircraft, now there are new composites, heat-resistant materials so that it can become cost-effective and reliable.
  2. MilaPhone
    MilaPhone 28 November 2012 09: 34
    -9
    In the field of civilian supersonic, the British and French sprang both the USA and the USSR.
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 28 November 2012 14: 29
      +1
      This is what you judge by Concord ???? feel
      1. MilaPhone
        MilaPhone 28 November 2012 15: 08
        0
        Yes, according to the Concorde. It was a good plane.
        1. timurpl
          timurpl 1 December 2012 17: 01
          0
          there was a good plane!
          1. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 7 December 2012 13: 17
            0
            From an exhibition in Germany
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 7 December 2012 13: 11
      0
      Quote: Milafon
      In the field of civilian supersonic, the British and French sprang both the USA and the USSR.

      Can you give numbers to confirm your statement?
      I think it is no secret to anyone that the Concorde flights were subsidized by two states. In other words, despite the low cost of tickets, they were unprofitable.
      And on TTX, try to compare these aircraft yourself. Only planes to take not the first series, but which have already become normal on the wing.
  3. Lucky
    Lucky 28 November 2012 12: 18
    +1
    We must catch up then, restore, upgrade and overtake !!! for super sound future!
  4. Eugene
    Eugene 28 November 2012 16: 12
    +1
    Empty weight - 85 kg;
    Maximum take-off weight - 20 000 kg;

    Maximum speed - 2500 kgf;

    Strongly modified turned out)

    A case of inf on engines (from TU-160) did not merge then?
    1. Civil
      Civil 28 November 2012 18: 11
      0
      Eugene,

      they got the engines just at that time from Ukraine ... because research turned
  5. imguskov
    imguskov 28 November 2012 21: 27
    0
    The speed of the Tu-144 = 2,3 M, dropping the bells and whistles - temperature, density, atmospheric pressure, the real speed of the aircraft is 2,3x1200 km / h = 2760 km / h - this is more than this for Concord. A payload of 20000 kg is also more than that of the Concord. It is necessary to fly around the plane and refine the design features, well done tips, designed such toys - this is pride for the homeland.
  6. happyeeed
    happyeeed 29 November 2012 00: 38
    -2
    Will the world end, do you believe the media, what do you think :? We read further: http://www.mykhailenko.com/blog/2009-10-14/starejshiny-plemeni-majya-oprovergli-
    konec-sveta-v-2012-godu.html