Military Review

The history of one regiment

75
In one small Moscow square there is a monument. Among the faded flowers, looking through the windows of new high-rise buildings, two bronze figures, two pilots, one of whom is Russian and the other is French, are walking. This monument is dedicated to the pilots of the famous Normandie-Niemen Air Regiment. Not far from the square is located Vvedenskoye cemetery. The French pilot Bruno de Faltan and the Soviet aircraft mechanic Sergey Astakhov were buried there in the year of 1944. Here is the ashes of an unknown French pilot, whose remains were found only in 1964, near Orlov. The memorial was opened in 2007 in the presence of the presidents of both countries, Vladimir Putin and Nicolas Sarkozy.


The history of one regiment
A group of pilots of the Normandie-Neman air regiment at the Yak-3 fighter in East Prussia. A distinctive feature of the regiment visible in this photo is the Yak-3 fighter jet, painted in the colors of the French flag (red-white-blue)


The Normandie-Neman air regiment was the only military unit of another country that fought on the territory of the USSR during the years of the Great Patriotic War. The British and Americans sent only equipment, food, fuel to the Soviet Union. Occupied France could not give any of this. In 1942, General Charles de Gaulle offered assistance to the Soviet leadership in the form of a squadron of French pilots. Stalin accepted the offer. For Joseph Vissarionovich, this was of very significant political importance, since the head of our state hoped that the arrival of the allies would accelerate the opening of a second front. De Gaulle, in turn, wanted to enlist the help of the French Communists participating in the Resistance. In addition, his recognition by the Soviet Union as the leader of the French liberation movement was necessary for the general as a counterweight to Churchill's pressure. By that time, the British had already made a number of important decisions about the French colonies, without even notifying the famous statesman.

On November 29, 1942, fifteen French pilots, thirty-nine aircraft technicians, and four staff officers arrived at the airfield in the city of Ivanovo. December 4 of them have already formed aviation squadron. The pilots named it "Normandy" in honor of one of the French provinces. Thus, they showed their difference from Vichy aviation regiments, which had only numbered names.

From the memoirs of Georges Mazurel, a veteran of the Normandy-Neman air regiment: “I remember well how after months in the desert we moved to Ivanovo. The military and civilians greeted us cordially, giving such a warm welcome that we soon all became friends, despite the language barrier. ”


Most French pilots were barely twenty by that time. Of the fifteen pilots who arrived, only seven had experience of air battles, participating in single battles over North Africa. Since free French pilots were trained by experts from England, Churchill was opposed to releasing aces from the Western Front. Only three of the French flew more than three hundred hours, which were necessary to obtain a flight certificate. For others, this figure ranged around 150. To find themselves on the Eastern Front, the pilots cheated, attributing to themselves the missing hours.

The commander of the Cherbourg squadron of the Normandie-Neman regiment Marcel Lefevre and his Soviet comrades (lieutenant technician Tarasov and senior sergeant Kolupayev) at the Yak-9 fighter No.14. Marcel Lefevre in 105 successful combat missions, participated in 30 air battles, in which he personally shot down 11 German aircraft. 28.05.1944. Lefebvre's fighter was shot down, and he himself was wounded. Seven days later, a French pilot died of his wounds in a Soviet hospital. 4 June 1945, Lt. Marcel Lefevre, was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously

From the memoirs of the Normandie-Niemen pilot-pilot, Roland de la Puap: “We wanted to fight together with the Russians. They were not afraid of death, military pilots are always ready for death. We wanted hard fights, difficulties, trials. And all this got off in full. ”


After arriving in the Soviet Union, the French were invited to choose their own aircraft model for battle. Among the options were the English "Hurricanes", American "Airbraders", Soviet La-5 and Yak-1. Pilots opted for the Yak-1. Soon, all the French fighter pilots successfully passed the exam and set off from the training base at the disposal of the regiment of bombers at the airfield of the Polotnyany plant. Their mission was accompanied by slow Pe-2.

After the first battles, the pilots opened the score to the downed fascists. However, there were losses and considerable. Only for 13 on April the squadron lost three men. Found serious problems. The French could not navigate the snowy steppes of Russia. It cost the life of Jean Ray, who, together with Louis Astier, during August 1943's assignment, turned out to be over the enemy's territory and was shot at. In addition, the high skill of the French pilots had one unpleasant feature. Friends on earth, at the height they were every man for himself. Pilots were originally trained for single combat. However, such tactics on the most terrible front led only to the fact that they turned into cannon fodder for the Germans.

The French did not intend to sit back in the rear, but the Soviet command could not allow them to continue to take part in the battles either. The country needed a lively and efficient squadron, not just a few dead heroes. Therefore, the "Normandy" was attached to the 303 th division of the fourth squadron in the eighteenth air regiment. Guardsmen from 18-th took to "put on the wing" of foreigners, by personal example, having trained them in combat interaction. 17 April 1943, the first joint sortie of the Soviet and French pilots took place.

From the memoirs of a Soviet ace: “The French showed us their tactics of solitary combat. And we then criticized them for a long time. Sitting at the dugout, painted on the ground with his hands. They explained how we protect each other in the air. ”


The Soviet pilots spent a lot of time to train the French not to get lost in unfamiliar terrain. Major-General Zakharov personally explained to foreigners the tactics of conducting a group battle with mutual support using the example of a broom. He broke one twig and immediately showed that if all the twigs are together, then the broom will not break.

A lot of inconvenience to the allies brought the language barrier and the usual domestic difficulties. For example, the French refused to eat buckwheat weat that was widespread in our country, calling it “bird food”.

Junior Lieutenant Roger Saugage (Roger Sauvage) from the regiment "Normandie-Neman" in the cockpit of the Yak-3 fighter. In total, on the Soviet-German front (from January 1944 until the end of hostilities), Roger Sovazhe shot down fourteen German aircraft. Two more German bomber he shot down at 1940g. over france


From the memoirs of de la Puap: “Every spring we collected dandelions, which led the Russians to bewilderment. Only in Russia can one see such a miracle as huge yellow dandelion fields. And I love to collect mushrooms. They called me “fighter mushroom picker”.


Another problem was the harsh climate of our country. The pilots had hard times during the Russian cold. And the mechanics were even more difficult. In their mittens, they could not twist a single screw, and without mittens they could not work at all in the cold. In the end, by mutual consent, the French mechanics were replaced by ours.

Soon a friendly relationship developed between the Russians and the French, which grew into a real male friendship. When Vasily Stalin wanted to take the famous “Normans” to him, the French categorically opposed this transfer. The commander of the 303 th aviation division, George Zakharov, they didn’t adore. They called him "elder brother" and "father." And by order of the chief of the eighteenth air regiment, Anatoly Golubov, they could unquestioningly go to hell and to the ends of the earth.

In 1944, the fascists shot down an airplane in which French pilot Maurice de Seyne and Soviet mechanic Vladimir Belozub were stationed. The pilot was ordered to jump, but he knew that the mechanic did not have a parachute. De Seyne did not leave a friend, until the last moment trying to level the car. They died together. Another less sad example of the friendship of the allies was the love stories of French pilots with local girls. One of them - Alexander Laurent - even got married.

In July 1943, the squadron was reformed into a fighter regiment. The first commander was appointed Major Pierre Puyad. Soon the Yak-1 aircraft were replaced by the Yak-9. And in August, the 1944-th regiment received the Yak-3.

From the words of the former pilot, collector Maxi Gainz: “The pilots of the Messerschmitt had the order not to get involved in a single battle with the Yak-3, since it had no equal in maneuverability. In a fair fight, he did not give the Germans any chance of winning. ”
From the memoirs of the French pilot: “On the Yak-3, two could successfully fight against four, and four against sixteen. On such machines, we felt full masters in the air. ”


The commander of the 303 th Fighter Division, Major General George Nefedovich Zakharov, Lieutenant Joseph Risso of the Normandie-Neman air regiment and Soviet officers at the Yak-3 fighter. The fighter in the photo with the image of St. George on the fuselage - Yak-3 with the engine VK-105ПФ2 - personal car GF. Zakharova


Fighter regiment "Normandy" participated in the Battle of Kursk, in the Belarusian and East Prussian operations. Pilots helped liberate Oryol, Bryansk, Smolensk, Koenigsberg, Gumbinnen (now Gusev), Pilau, Instenburg and other cities. In the summer of 1944, Joseph Vissarionovich assigned the honorary title Normandie-Neman to the air regiment for its invaluable assistance in forcing the Neman River and liberating Lithuania.

But the main result of the actions of the fighter regiment is over five thousand sorties, around 900 air battles, 273 recorded victories (not counting eighty wounded airplanes) from March 1943 to April 1945. However, fate did not spoil the French. During the fighting, of the ninety-six pilots, forty-two died (thirty-five of them in aerial combat). Of the fifteen people of the first team, only three survived: Rolan de la Puap, Marcel Albert and Joseph Risso. Eighty-three pilots of the Normandy-Neman regiment were awarded by the Soviet leadership, and the regiment was awarded the Order of the Red Banner and Alexander Nevsky. Four Frenchmen were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. It was received by: Lieutenant Marcel Albert, Lieutenant Roland de la Puap, Commander of the Third Squadron Marcel Lefevre (posthumously) and Lieutenant Jacques Andre. The Government of France awarded the Normandy-Neman with the Military Cross, the Order of the Legion of Honor, the Military Medal and the Order of Liberation.

Rolan de la Puap was among the first pilots to go to our country. The Normandy-Neman air regiment flew more than one hundred and twenty sorties, scoring eighteen victories! In one day he was able to destroy two Nazi aircraft. By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for military valor and courage, Rolan was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Much later in 2008, the retired colonel, Count de la Puap, won one of the main awards of France - the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor. After the end of the war, Roland served in the French Air Force until 1947, then became a businessman. Earned fortune spent on the creation of the marine zoo Marineland on the Cote d'Azur in France. The famous Normandy ace died of natural causes 23 on October 2012 in Saint-Tropez on the ninety-third year of his life.


After the end of hostilities, the pilots and families of the dead pilots received a monetary reward from the USSR. The total amount was about 250 thousand dollars. Our country also donated airplanes in which the French fought the German invaders (forty-one Yak-3). For comparison, the British Ministry of Military Affairs agreed not to surrender, but to sell only bombers on which pilots from France fought. 20 June 1945-th the French returned home.

The French pilot of the Normandy-Neman regiment and Soviet technicians are preparing the Yak-3 fighter for departure. The pilot in the photo - Lieutenant Roger Stamps. At the end of the war, 13 shot down German aircraft. On the wing is also an aircraft mechanic, senior sergeant Leonid Ivanovich Sanin


At home, the Normandie-Niemen has become an elite part. The regiment participated in the war in Indochina, in the bombing of Yugoslavia as part of NATO forces.
“Everyone entering our service is being tested for knowledge of regimental stories. We are very proud of the past, it is part of our prestige, ”- from the speech of the former commander of the Normandy-Neman, François Tricot.


In 1995, in Russia, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the regiment, the honorary title Normandie-Neman was assigned to the 18th Guards Aviation Regiment, which had fought in the past along with the French. The regiment was based at the airfield of the village Galenki, located in the Primorsky Territory. Unfortunately, due to the regular reform of the Armed Forces of our country in 2009, a number of regiments ceased to exist. Among them was the eighteenth Guards. His successor was assigned to an air base in the Far East under the number 6988. In the same year, due to the reduction in the number of the French army, the activities of the French fighter group of the same name, located in the city of Colmar, were suspended. Part of the pilots and aircraft along with the regimental flag was attached to the military base in Reims. This happened just on the eve of the Franco-Russian friendship noted in 2010 of the year.

“After the dissolution of the squadrons“ Lorraine ”in 2005 and“ Alsace ”in 2009 is the third part created by de Gaulle, which disappeared,” French newspapers wrote indignantly. And here's what the war veteran J. Mazurel says about this: “We tried everything to save Normandy. This decision cannot leave any of the pilots indifferent either in France or in Russia. ”


By the end of 2012, the authorities pledged to rebuild the regiment on the basis of Mont de Marsan. He will adopt the Rafale fighter jets.

The French pilot of the Normandy-Neman regiment, Lieutenant Roger Marki, is at the cockpit of his Yak-3 fighter. At the end of the war, Mark had 13 downed German aircraft


2012 marks seventy years of renowned aviation regiment. What does this mean for today? Who cherishes the memory of the Normandy-Neman in the heart? In 2010, the air regiment museum in the hometown of M. Lefebvre Les Andelye closed due to lack of financial support. The museum worked with the money of the city administration, as well as the sale of books and meetings. Employees of the institution said that the proceeds were barely enough to pay. As a result, the authorities decided to move the exhibition in Le Bourget to the Museum of Aviation and Cosmonautics. Today the only copy of the genuine "Yak-3" regiment of the "Normandy-Neman" is kept there. The exhibition will open to the public in 2013 year. At the same time in Russia today there are about twenty museums of famous "Normans" based on schools. There are five of them in the capital. Here are the meetings of children with veterans, round tables and exhibitions. The Association of Veterans of the Regiment, headed by Anatoly Fetisov, is engaged in the patriotic education of children. And engaged in without state assistance. Only six months ago, the Association appeared a small private premises in the territory of the plant to them. V. Ilyich.

It should be noted that in France, very little is known to the general public about the history of the legendary Normandie-Neman. School textbooks on history generally do not mention the regiment. Journalists and guests often come to French veterans, but by and large they are all from the countries of the former Soviet Union. This attitude can be explained by the fact that France as a whole is very poorly tied to the memory of that terrible war. Yes, and how to compare what this state has experienced with the unimaginable suffering of the Soviet people. For the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Second World War, with twenty seven million dead, means much more than for France, which has lost about fifty thousand people.

I would like to hope that in the future our descendants around the world will remember the true heroes of that terrible war, and not think that a dozen Americans with machine guns won World War II.

Soviet soldiers and French pilots of the third squadron of the regiment "Normandie-Neman" at the fighter Yak-3


French pilots from the squadron "Normandie-Neman", who fought with the Germans on our front: Junior Pilot Joseph Risso, Lieutenant Derviov and Lieutenant Noel Castelen. In the background, the Yak-1B fighter


French pilots from the squadron "Normandie-Neman", who fought with the Germans on our front: Junior Pilot Joseph Risso, Lieutenant Derviov and Lieutenant Noel Castelen. In the background, the Yak-1B fighter


The Yak-3 fighter of the Normandie-Neman regiment at Stuttgart airfield is being serviced by Soviet technicians before moving to France. After the end of the war, the 41 combat fighter Yak-3, on which the French pilots of the Normandy-Neman regiment fought, was donated to France. 20 June 1945, the French pilots on these aircraft returned to their homeland. These fighters were in service with France until 1956.



The Yak-3 fighter of the Normandie-Neman regiment is already in France (Soviet identification marks are painted over on the plane)


The Yak-3 fighter of the Normandy-Neman regiment before flying to France. American technician inspects the cockpit. Airfield in the suburb of Stuttgart, June 1945 g




Captain Joseph Risso of his Yak-3 No. 1 from the Normandie-Neman Regiment. An interesting detail: the lack of a white stripe on the steering wheel. Usually, the rudder of the French aircraft was painted in the colors of the national flag (red, white, blue), and there is no white line for some unknown reason. In 1940, Joseph Risso and his friend Nikloss tried to escape from Vichy France on the hijacked Codron Samun. Having lost their way, the fugitives landed in Spain, where they were taken into custody. After Risso, he still managed to get to England, where from the first group of French pilots - volunteers went to the USSR to form the GC 3 group "Normandie". The first official personal victory was won by 14 of September 1943 of the year, only 11 won official victories (5 of them is in the group) and 4 unconfirmed
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  1. MilaPhone
    MilaPhone 24 November 2012 09: 59
    +7
    Nice to read such articles!
  2. omsbon
    omsbon 24 November 2012 09: 59
    +7
    It is unfortunate that with the passing away of the life of war veterans, the memory of the great sacrifices and sufferings of people in that war also leaves.
    Unfortunately, not only in France, but also in our country, they began to forget and belittle the greatness of the feat of the people.
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 24 November 2012 21: 36
      +2
      living example
      in Samara there is V. Fadeeva street. on this street the wife works at the school. it was no coincidence that a conversation went in honor of whom she was named. result is 0. and this is grade 7. Fadeev took one fight with 12 messengers and 2 shot down, but he died.
      1. vikontas56
        vikontas56 25 November 2012 03: 16
        +4
        Fadeev flew in the same regiment with Pokryshkin, who wrote about him in his book "The Sky of War." Once, returning from a mission, he found a Romanian cavalry unit and attacked it! Romanians scattered! The ammunition left after the mission quickly ran out and then on shaving Fadeev began to overtake the riders and chop with a screw! I got to the airfield with an empty tank! He was a close friend of Pokryshkin, who scolded him for striving for solo flights, which later became the reason for his death!
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 25 November 2012 03: 20
          +2
          This bike, excuse me with all due respect, can drive, not chop? And he was led by Gleb Golubev, a book paired with a honeycomb.
          1. vikontas56
            vikontas56 26 November 2012 02: 28
            0
            I quoted the book by A. Pokryshkin "The Sky of War." And Andrei Trud was Fadeev's slave on the day of his death! Golubev was Pokryshkin's slave, whose call sign was SOTY!
            1. Alex 241
              Alex 241 26 November 2012 02: 31
              +2
              And screw damage? Can I leave after the rider?
  3. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 24 November 2012 10: 04
    +4
    And, in fact, why the only part? And the Poles, the Czechs? Why forget them?
    And the story with the French is simply indicative - a true military friendship, in all its manifestations ...
    1. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 24 November 2012 11: 41
      0
      That's right. By the way, the Czech battalion under the command of the Freedom squadron was indeed the first foreign unit to fully engage in battle with the Nazis as part of the Red Army. The British pilots who fought over Murmansk in October-December 41, all the same, it is difficult to attribute to such because it was more likely an expeditionary group.
    2. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 24 November 2012 17: 13
      0
      Quote: Brother Sarich
      And, in fact, why the only part? And the Poles, the Czechs? Why forget them?


      You are absolutely right. The Polish and Czechoslovak units fought worthy side by side with our troops and generously poured blood on the ground and they are also worthy of universal memory and gratitude.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 24 November 2012 17: 36
        +4
        Most people interested in the history of air wars know about Soviet pilots - internationalists fighting in the sky of republican Spain in 1936 - 1939. However, only a few know that during the Great Patriotic War shoulder to shoulder with Soviet people on the fronts and in partisan detachments bravely fought against the Nazi invaders more than 600 Spanish emigrants who found their second homeland in our country. In the fall of 1941, during the difficult days of the defense of Moscow, a special battalion of Spanish volunteers was created. According to the capital’s defense plan, he was supposed to defend a section of Red Square.

        At that time, many experienced commanders of the Spanish Republican Aviation lived in the Soviet Union - Leopoldo Marquillas (photo bottom right), Manuel Zarausa, Antonio Arias, Ladislao Duarte, Marciano Diaz, Francisco Merogno, Joaquin Diaz and many others.

        All of them gave their combat experience acquired in almost three years of air battles to the training of young pilots - fighters of the Great Patriotic War.


        They say: debt is red by payment. And driven by the same feeling that led to the exploits of the Soviet falcons in the flaming skies of Spain, young Spanish pilots paid their international duty to our homeland, bravely fighting against a common enemy in various sectors of the vast front.

        So, in the battles near Stalingrad, Anselmo Sepulveda assaulting German tanks on his IL-2, being knocked out, without taking the car out of a dive, brought it down on an enemy convoy. There, over the Volga, on Mamaev Kurgan, the remains of the brave pilot of the 788th fighter regiment Jose Pascual Santamaria, who had 14 air victories in his account and was awarded the posthumous Order of Lenin, rest.


        A fighter Isidoro Najera was killed in an air battle near Mozdok, and a monument to another courageous defender of the Caucasus, fighter commander Manuel Zarause (photo left), who died in an airplane accident, is raised in a cemetery in Baku.

        In February 1942, a fighter Alfredo Villalon was shot down in an air battle over Ukrainian land. He was captured by the Nazis and shot in Zhytomyr. In the sky of Ukraine died in December 1943 and Antonio Uribe.

        Pilot of the 153rd Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment José Crespillo fell in an air battle over Polish territory. When attacking enemy tanks in Hungary, near Lake Balaton, Seferino Munoz was killed. In 1944, in the battles over the land of Estonia, the death of the hero Ignacio Aguirre Bekito
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 24 November 2012 17: 38
          0
          .................................................. ..............................
          ........................................
          1. Evgan
            Evgan 25 November 2012 11: 40
            0
            So the unloved limes here also fought from the territory of the USSR - they had squadrons in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, which were engaged in reconnaissance and cover of sea convoys.
    3. Dikremnij
      Dikremnij 27 November 2012 05: 35
      0
      At first, soldiers and officers from western Belarus and Ukraine were called to many Polish and Czech units, so that they were called Czech and Polish conditionally, rather for propaganda. Truly Czech and Polish, they became a bit later.
      Note, at the same time, I do not deny the contribution of our allies to the victory over Nazi Germany, I will simply dot the "i" s.
  4. Ringo
    Ringo 24 November 2012 10: 40
    -5
    French, such French. They fought both for Hitler and against him. I read the book of the French guy who served in the Wehrmacht Guy Saer “The Last Soldier of the Third Reich” and about his attitude to Russians as a subhuman.
    1. Set
      Set 24 November 2012 13: 25
      +1
      Ringo you read the article.
  5. predator.3
    predator.3 24 November 2012 12: 48
    0
    I don’t understand how the barrel of the ShVAK automatic gun passes through the internal cavity of the ratchet?
  6. Yuri11076
    Yuri11076 24 November 2012 12: 50
    +1
    Thanks for the article, you need to remember your story ...
  7. predator.3
    predator.3 24 November 2012 12: 56
    +2
    I don’t understand how the barrel of the ShVAK automatic gun passes through the internal cavity of the ratchet?
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 24 November 2012 14: 20
      +1
      Ratchet mechanism (ratchet) is a gear mechanism of intermittent movement designed to convert the reciprocating motion into intermittent rotational motion in one direction. Simply put, ratchet allows the axis to rotate in one direction and does not allow it to rotate in the other. Ratchets are used quite widely - for example, in turnstiles, wrenches, clockwork, jacks, winches, etc.

      Ratchet usually has the shape of a gear with asymmetrical teeth that have a stop on one side. The movement of the wheel in the opposite direction is limited to the dog, which is pressed against the wheel by a spring or under its own weight.

      Or did you mean the gearbox?
      As far as I remember, the barrel passed through a gearbox, not a ratchet ...
      1. Insurgent
        Insurgent 24 November 2012 19: 38
        0
        It’s even more difficult, through the synchronizer, through the propeller of the plane, the Fritz came up with the first
    2. Alex 241
      Alex 241 24 November 2012 17: 43
      +1
      Here check out .....................
  8. Navuxonastupil
    Navuxonastupil 24 November 2012 13: 36
    +1
    Quote: predator.3
    I don’t understand how the barrel of the ShVAK automatic gun passes through the internal cavity of the ratchet?

    what I think there is a special hole provided for this ..
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 24 November 2012 17: 53
      0
      Well, the hole is understandable, but how does the crankshaft spin?
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 24 November 2012 18: 28
        +1
        Arming single-rotor fighters with air-cooled engines can be a problem. It is not so easy to find a place for guns and machine guns and maintain good aerodynamics. It’s best to put a weapon in the bow. But if it is possible not to go beyond the dimensions of the motor, the problem is not solved. On the path of the shells are rotating rotor blades. This forced aircraft designers to place weapons on their wings. While flight speeds and weapon caliber were small, the growths on the consoles only slightly increased air resistance. But the number of machine guns on the wings grew steadily and reached twelve before the Second World War. The transition of quantity to quality was brewing - replacing machine guns with guns.

        The patent for a gun firing through the hollow shaft of the gearbox was taken by Daimler back in 1913, and for the machine gun synchronized with the motor, then the German company LVG. However, for the first time, a machine-gun synchronizer appeared on French fighters of the First World War, and its inventor Garro stunned the Germans, easily knocking down unarmed "fokkers".

        The first synchronized cannon was installed on the Soviet I-16 fighter by the designer Hero of Socialist Labor B. Shpitalny. At a rotational speed of a three-blade propeller of 1500 rpm, the gun’s rate of fire should be 1500 X 3 = 4500 rounds per minute. The gunsmiths created a synchronizer, allowing one shot per revolution of the screw. They proved that the synchronous cannon is safe for a fighter and a projectile accidentally breaking a blade will not destroy the plane. LA-5 carried two ShVAK guns. And soon, the car bristled with rockets and bombs on the external load ...
      2. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 24 November 2012 18: 35
        +2
        E, where is the crankshaft, and where is the gun!
        The crankshaft is inside the engine, and the gun is outside, in the collapse of the cylinder block ...
        1. cherkas.oe
          cherkas.oe 24 November 2012 18: 55
          +2
          Quote: Brother Sarich

          Brother Sarych

          Right. So it is written by Yakovlev in the book "Notes of the Designer", which he read in the 68th year: "the gun was placed in the collapse of the cylinder block, and the barrel passed through the gearbox shaft."
  9. I-16M
    I-16M 24 November 2012 16: 24
    +4
    As one character in the film Crazy said, "... in Russia, foreigners are loved" Heroes, regiments, divisions, air armies are forgotten. Not everyone who is 25 or less knows who Pokryshkin is. And the French are held in high esteem. We remember and honor the legendary and valiant French squadron! Necessarily mentioned in the documentary, will not pass by in the feature film. As it goes without saying, the Normandie-Niemen squadron became a milestone in the Great Patriotic War ...
    Well done French pilots, did not sit behind the strait, smashed the Nazis and died. They fought with the enemy, as befits a soldier.
    But!
    This is just a drop in the sea of ​​the air war, in which thousands of our pilots survived and won an unconditional victory! How many squadrons were there in the Red Army? ... But Normandy is known. Because politics. Because foreigners, and they are "loved" here more than Russians, albeit three times heroes.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 24 November 2012 17: 03
      +5
      I-16M
      dear, now the juveniles know much more about the "Red Tails" than about the same Normandy-Niemen.

      Thanks to the author drinks .
      pictured: Yak-3 fighter Regiment Normandy-Niemen in flight.
      1. I-16M
        I-16M 24 November 2012 17: 14
        0
        By the way, who are the "red tails"? smile
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 24 November 2012 17: 35
          +1
          So it is necessary to watch a movie! There are also some spreading cranberries about the war in the air, and just about the war ...
        2. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 29
          +2
          I-16M
          scared to say:
          - blacks in the air fellow , and not basketball players at all laughing
          But seriously, then - 332-I flight group from Taskigi.
          on the picture:
          Black pilots of the 332-th fighter squadron of the US Air Force on pre-flight briefing at the Italian airport Ramitelli (Ramitelli).

          about them Hollywood filmed two films:
          - "Pilots from Tuskegee" - not very bad;
          - "Red Tails" - guano, for my personal taste.
          1. Alex 241
            Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 38
            +1
            Good night, dear, I’m glad to see you in, it’s a pity that there are so few responses to such articles, the topic is interesting! Here is a cut from the Pilots ......... we went under the name BLACK TOP GAN.
            1. Alex 241
              Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 41
              0
              .......................................
              1. Alex 241
                Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 45
                0
                Red tails trailer, I will not argue about the artistic merits, but you need to watch both films.
            2. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 48
              +1
              kind hi
              this "pilots from Tuskegee" is
              http://www.rutor.org/torrent/139496/piloty-iz-taskigi_the-tuskegee-airmen-1995-d
              vdrip-ot-generalfilm
              1. Alex 241
                Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 51
                +1
                I still have a cassette BLACK TOP GAN, apparently gave the pirates to earn extra money, but this does not detract from the film good
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 56
                  +1
                  Alex 241
                  I see you are sick with aviation, then here is the only film about Normandy-Niemen, as for a connoisseur:
                  http://www.rutor.org/torrent/68478/normandija-neman-1960-dvdrip
                  1. Alex 241
                    Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 59
                    +1
                    This is my life, thanks literally two days ago I reviewed it, posted the link to the movie above, rephrasing: people of a certain warehouse think soldier good
          2. Pimply
            Pimply 25 November 2012 21: 59
            0
            I agree on the films. In general, a very combat-ready unit turned out.
            1. Alex 241
              Alex 241 25 November 2012 22: 00
              0
              Hi Zhen, people consciously went for it.
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 26 November 2012 00: 09
                -1
                Hi Sash.
                Yes, and the majority - with universes and others, in fact - the elite, the African-American elite. By the way, as I read, in contrast to the way it is shown in the films, the guys received support from the direct command.
  10. Hairy Siberian
    Hairy Siberian 24 November 2012 16: 46
    +3
    The article begins with the words: "There is a monument in one small Moscow park." Here is the monument:

    And here is a monument to Maurice de Seine and Vladimir Belozub in the south of France in Orange at NATO airbase.

    By the way: "Normandy-Neman" was formed not from ordinary pilots, but from representatives of the nobility who went to the front voluntarily.
  11. Alex 241
    Alex 241 24 November 2012 17: 00
    +1
    http://kinofilms.tv/film/normandiya-neman/22239/ ссылка на фильм.рекомендую посмотреть.
  12. barbell
    barbell 24 November 2012 17: 14
    +3
    Of course they are real men, but they need to eat buckwheat porridge, it is healthier and more nutritious than amphibians and grape slugs.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 24 November 2012 17: 36
      +2
      By the way, buckwheat is also found in France, and it seems in Normandy ...
  13. Egoza
    Egoza 24 November 2012 17: 33
    0
    Quote: halter
    but you need to eat buckwheat porridge

    So they have it in the subconscious .... Back in the 18 century, France fed buckwheat pigs so that they were not fat. Hence the attitude to this product!
    As for the foreigners .... The Poles and Czechs, who then formed their units, were mainly already on the territory of the USSR (we will not specify where, how and for what reasons). And the French broke into the USSR to fight \ with the Nazis. because that’s how they are distinguished.
  14. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 24 November 2012 18: 12
    +2
    I read that the Normandie-Niemen air regiment was restored in France.
    And here, Serdyukov destroyed almost the entire name guard.
    1. valokordin
      valokordin 24 November 2012 21: 56
      +1
      And with whose permission?
  15. igordok
    igordok 24 November 2012 18: 43
    0
    I was interested in the identification marks of the regiment NN.
    From some photographs, I realized: there is a big star on the fuselage, a Lorraine cross on the keel, and the coke is painted with the colors of the flag. In two photographs under the cockpit there is the French Air Force emblem. Where can I find complete information?

    And the French celebrated the victory with the emblem of the state they shot down. Ours are marked with an asterisk, without indicating whom. Someone is more correct, because someone from the French in Africa beat the British, as it were, our allies. The Germans of victory drew on the keel, sometimes drawing the emblem of the country.
  16. Alex 241
    Alex 241 24 November 2012 18: 47
    +1
    Here is the link
    ..................... http: //nor-neman.ru/
  17. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 24 November 2012 19: 19
    0
    after the Second World War A. Pokryshkin said that he felt most confident in the "aircobra" and even improved fire control, the fire from all the guns was torn off by pressing only one trigger. I wonder how you assess the effectiveness and reliability of Soviet and allied fighters ( you may not agree with Pokryshkin's opinion :)).
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 24 November 2012 19: 26
      0
      When pulling the handle, the cobra easily entered into a tailspin from which it was difficult to deduce, the dignity of a good radio station, powerful weapons, and the engine behind the pilot, as a defense.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 24 November 2012 19: 32
        +2
        .....................
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 24 November 2012 19: 34
          0
          .........................
    2. Insurgent
      Insurgent 24 November 2012 19: 40
      0
      King cobra was more successful
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 24 November 2012 19: 48
        +1
        It is closer to me
  18. Yazov
    Yazov 24 November 2012 19: 21
    +2
    ,, The French could not navigate the snowy steppes of Russia. It cost the life of Jean Ray, who, along with Louis Astier during a mission in August 1943, was over enemy territory and was shot at. ,,
    What snow in August?
  19. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 24 November 2012 19: 32
    +1
    But the French aircraft in our conditions could not work, had to be replaced by Russian IAS specialists.
    The technical staff has a hard work, what can you say, and nowadays it is necessary to work in the wind in the cold, in the wind with your bare hands, so sometimes your fingers simply stop moving.
  20. barbell
    barbell 24 November 2012 19: 38
    +1
    I heard that buckwheat is absorbed by the body in a significant amount, and was recommended to long-distance pilots for this very reason. (I don’t want to poop.) I ask physiologists to confirm or deny.
  21. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 24 November 2012 23: 17
    +1
    in the movie Ozerov there is an episode about Normandy. Look who did not see. Breaks!
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 24 November 2012 23: 18
      0
      Is there a link?
  22. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 25 November 2012 00: 03
    +1
    I have a disk. I need to google. in a series about forcing the Dnieper.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 25 November 2012 00: 14
      0
      Lesh Liberation? Chamomile .................?
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 43
        +1
        Catch
        http://www.rutor.org/torrent/15944/osvobozhdenie-poslednij-shturm-1971-dvdrip-ot
        -rusfilm
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 54
          +1
          Nevertheless, thanks, there are caring people.
      2. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 25 November 2012 21: 42
        +1
        Chamomile is a Restless Farm ...
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 25 November 2012 23: 23
          +2
          And this is our first film in which we are talking about French pilots and about military friendship with the French!
  23. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 25 November 2012 01: 20
    +1
    release part 2
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 23
      0
      I found Lesh, thanks!
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 50
        +1
        et, late ... repeat
    2. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 46
      +1
      like the last part belay
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 25 November 2012 01: 49
        0
        I will clarify EXTREME good
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 25 November 2012 01: 59
          +1
          I agree with the definition lol
  24. Alex 241
    Alex 241 25 November 2012 02: 02
    0
    Last in line at the hairdresser laughing
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 25 November 2012 02: 39
      +1
      a slip came out.h3, ane part 2
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 25 November 2012 02: 41
        0
        I found Lesh, thanks. I remember this epic as a rhyme.
  25. xan
    xan 25 November 2012 02: 24
    +3
    I read that in France, after the war, staged a show of air battles between Spitfire and Yak-3. in all cases, Norman Neman defeated in the Yak-3.
    if there is a French "Normandie-Niemen", then there will be serious people in France who know who actually drove Hitler to suicide
  26. Alex 241
    Alex 241 25 November 2012 02: 37
    +3
    Here is a small cut, off-topic, but nonetheless, as it were!
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 25 November 2012 21: 41
      +2

      well, my five cents drinks .
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 25 November 2012 21: 44
        0
        What are these five cents? Draws on a gold dime good drinks
  27. Alex 241
    Alex 241 25 November 2012 21: 47
    +1
    this is for you drinks ...................