Prairie Indian Shields

127
Prairie Indian Shields
Frame from the movie "Sons of the Big Dipper" (1966). Tokei Ito with an eagle shield


They were led by a tall, slender man,
who brandished a Spanish spear
and covered his chest with a large shield,
adorned with eagle feathers.
Several arrows pierced his shield.
I took aim, pulled the string with all my might, and fired.
The arrow went deep into his neck.
He dropped his spear and shield
and grasped the shaft of an arrow with both hands,
trying to get her out.

Bernard Schulz "Son of the Navajos"

Indians with and without tomahawks. The shield is the oldest type of protection of one person from an attack by another. At first it was a parrying stick with a through handle, which was used to beat off a flying spear, but then people thought of attaching some kind of flat surface to it that could stop the enemy weapon.



A variety of materials were used to make shields, most often associated with local conditions. The shields were woven from rods, in the manner of the bottom of a basket, only larger, and the rods were intertwined in several rows. A very popular means of protection were shields made of wood, metal, leather. The latter were widely distributed throughout the world, for example, they were found in England, and in other places.

So the American Indians also used leather shields - quite light and durable. In addition, they always had the material for their manufacture at hand. That is, with the Indians everything was exactly the same as with other nomadic peoples - horse archers. All of them simply needed a shield, and it had to have a round shape so that it would be convenient to carry it behind the back, and not interfere with the horse archer using the bow!


Shield of the Sioux Indians with the image of a pointed cross symbol of the four cardinal points. Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

It was easiest to make such a shield out of leather, and for this, the Prairie Indians also had everything at hand. In particular, the processed skin of a bison was an ideal material for the manufacture of such a shield. Moreover, it was with the shield that the Indians had a lot of rituals, beliefs and customs, since the shield was their main means of protection. An Indian youth could not become a warrior until he had a shield. But the Indian could not make shields in unlimited quantities either. No more than four in a lifetime - that was the rule, so the loss of a shield was seen as the greatest misfortune.


Osage Shield, 50 cm in diameter. Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

First of all, in order to make a shield, the young Indian had to kill an old male buffalo, since he had the most durable skin.

He had to make the shield himself, but he could also ask the shaman to make his magical power more reliable. The manufacturing technology was simple, but it required skill. First, a hole was dug in the ground, stones were placed in it and a strong fire was kindled on them so that they would be properly heated. Over the hot stones they stretched the buffalo skin with its thickest part, which was located in the area of ​​​​the withers, and poured water on these stones. Hot steam thickened the skin, and it became even stronger.


Shield of the Siksiks ("Blackfoot"). Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

After that, the wool was removed from it and a circle of the future shield was cut out. Usually it was about 50 cm in diameter or a little more. All folds were smoothed out with flat stones on the skin and, if necessary, one layer of skin was glued with hoof glue on the second.

The thickness of many shields that have survived to this day is about 5 cm, that is, they were usually glued together, because even the so-called “plantar skin” does not have such a thickness. However, Indian shields were also thick because they had a close-fitting of thinner antelope or deer skin, and bison hair or eagle feathers were stuffed into the resulting space, which, according to the Indians, increased the protective qualities of the shield.


Sioux shield with thunderbird and moon, late XNUMXth century, decorated with feathers, horsehair, porcupine quills and metal knobs. Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Now the shield had to be finished, and here was the most work. To do this, they invited the most famous warriors who, before starting work, smoked Sacred pipes and sang songs, that is, they worked in good conscience!


Shield of the Cheyenne. National Museum of the American Indians, Washington

The images on the shield were almost as important as the main body of the shield. Sacred symbols should have been depicted: the Sun, the Moon, the Thunder Bird, as well as all kinds of animals with power. In addition to drawings, the shield could be decorated with feathers of a military eagle, swallows, stuffed small animals, claws of a grizzly bear or a “mountain lion” (puma), stripes of colored cloth, bags of “medicines” (magic amulets) - the Indians’ imagination here was simply limitless.


Dakota shield, late XNUMXth century. Rawhide, feathers, red wool. Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Images of animals and birds were highly ritualized. For example, the Thunder Bird was supposed to have a white belly and a black back. And in order to draw her, it was necessary to bring her a gift of tobacco, that is, to smoke the Sacred Pipe in her honor. In addition to the shield, he should have sewn a tire and also decorated it accordingly. During the day, the shield was taken out of it and hung on a tripod near the tipi, facing the sun, and by night they put on the tire again and took it to the dwelling to “sleep”. The shield was not supposed to touch the ground. It was believed that if this happened, then all the magical power would leave him.


Shield of the Siksiks, late XNUMXth century. Rawhide over a wooden disc! Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

By the way, it was magic that underlay the so-called "spider shields". Most of all, these shields resembled the well-known "dream catcher" - the same hoop, inside of which there is a complex weaving of thin leather straps, and ... that's it! It was believed that such a shield would not miss a bullet or an arrow. What this naive belief was based on is not entirely clear. In any case, the Indians had few such shields. For example, there are only four for the entire Dakota tribe!


Battle shield of the Sik-siks ("Blackfoot") 1875. Diameter 54 cm. National Museum of the American Indians, Washington

It is interesting that the Indians were not limited to combat shields. Shields were also made by women, and these were the so-called dance shields, with which various dances were performed. They were decorated even more richly than combat ones, but at the same time they were much lighter. Usually it was a wicker hoop, which was covered with deer skin. There were different shields for different dances. For example, in order to cause rain, it was necessary to arrange a dance in honor of the same Thunder Bird, which means that its image had to decorate the shields of the dancers. "Buffalo dance" demanded shields with the image of bison...


Shield of the Gros Ventre, diameter 54 cm. 1860 National Museum of the American Indians, Washington

However, this was not all.

The Indians also had special “healing” or “healing shields”. They were made in order to cure the patient, protecting him with a shield from the bad influence of evil spirits. The contour of such a shield marked the border that protected its owner from everything that he considered undesirable for himself. But the images inside spoke of what he himself was.

Therefore, another person often made it, so that selfishness would not interfere with reflecting the truth on him. Lying about one's own abilities was a serious sin and could lead to expulsion from the tribe. Shields, carrying false information, were usually burned.

In the same way, medical shields were made for themselves by women. They also had to reflect their abilities in them, so that the “healing shield” was a kind of Indian passport.


Shield depicting the military exploits of Chief Gorb (Etokea, c. 1848–1908). Dakota. National Museum of the American Indians, Washington

But what the colors symbolized in which the shield was painted. Blue is the cedar that grows in the sacred mountains. Green is the innocence of the heart. Red - symbolized fire and strength of mind. Yellow is the eagle of the East, so that a person can see, like an eagle, far away. Black otter fur and white mink were signs of wisdom and healing power.

And also that adults, like children, should frolic in the water, since it also has healing powers. The image of crescents with horns to each other is a symbol of the person himself and the duality of his nature. The dark crescent - fear and joy, the light one symbolized the actual person of the owner of the shield when the sun illuminates it. Such, for example, was the meaning of flowers in the Sioux Dakota tribe. In other tribes, it could differ, and quite strongly.


Kiowa dance shield. National Museum of the American Indians, Washington

Thus, the shield in the Indian family was far from alone, and it did not always belong to a man. However, in any case, the significance of the shield in Indian culture (precisely because the shields belonged to both men and women) is exceptionally great. Only the Sacred Headdress, the Sacred Pipe and the Scalp Shirt were of equal importance.
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

127 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +7
    March 18 2023
    Thanks Vyacheslav!
    How not to remember the "motto" of Sparta -
    "With the shield or on it!"
    1. +3
      March 18 2023
      Everything is much more prosaic and mercantile.
      A few kilograms of non-ferrous metal is not a bad investment. That's why they ran with shields, either towards the enemy or from the enemy.)))
      1. +6
        March 18 2023
        He is wooden. Where are the kilograms of non-ferrous metal from? And they ran against the enemy with shields not because they are expensive
        1. +4
          March 18 2023
          He is wooden.
          "Are they really gold?" (WITH)
          )))
        2. +2
          March 18 2023
          And yes, everything was fine there with a non-ferrous metal, a couple of kilograms were definitely gained for one aspis.
          1. +4
            March 18 2023
            Well, if everything is fine with the non-ferrous metal, then why not throw a shield while fleeing?
            1. +3
              March 18 2023
              Therefore, do not quit, that everything is fine with the non-ferrous metal.
              1. +3
                March 18 2023
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Therefore, do not quit, that everything is fine with the non-ferrous metal

                L-logic?
                1. +3
                  March 18 2023
                  Banal. He threw a couple of kilograms of bronze on the battlefield, which they collected with the whole family, and then how to look into the eyes of relatives?
                  1. +6
                    March 18 2023
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Threw a couple of kilograms of bronze on the battlefield,

                    Shields from the Olympia Museum:
                  2. +7
                    March 18 2023
                    Is it normal with a non-ferrous metal or with the whole family? You won't understand
        3. +4
          March 18 2023
          Quote: Tlauicol
          He is wooden. Where are the kilograms of non-ferrous metal from? And they ran against the enemy with shields not because they are expensive

          If I'm not mistaken, the wooden appis was reinforced with copper plate from the 6th century BC. With rare exceptions, the shields of the hoplites were covered with boiled leather over the top of the plate.
          The practice of "sparkling with copper" was introduced by the Macedonians. It is difficult to answer whether they were completely all-metal or just a copper plate attached to the milestones of a wooden frame. I just don't remember. I know that the Macedonian shield was smaller and flatter than the Apis.
          1. +4
            March 18 2023
            As far as I remember, only one or two plates were found that completely covered the outer side of the shield. At the same time, there are thousands of spears, leggings, helmets, swords, daggers! All stores are full of them.
          2. Fat
            +6
            March 18 2023
            Greetings, Vladislav.
            “The weapons of the phalanx are shields and spears. The Macedonian copper shield is the best. It should not be too prominent, and should be eight palms in diameter. The pike should not be shorter than eight cubits, and the longest pike should not exceed such a length that allows a person to handle it with ease. (c) Eliane. Tactics.
            The diameter and "depth" of the Macedonian phalangite shield has been reduced in such a way that it is possible to hold the sarissa with two hands
  2. +5
    March 18 2023
    Thank you!

    4 shields for life - great.
    I think, with what can be compared in our lives?

    With the number of cars - does not go.
    With the number of wives Muslims have?
    1. +8
      March 18 2023
      Quote from Korsar4
      Thank you!

      4 shields for life - great.
      I think, with what can be compared in our lives?

      With the number of cars - does not go.
      With the number of wives Muslims have?

      How many paws do cats have? wink
      1. +4
        March 18 2023
        This is a given. Almost immediately it came to mind:

        Four corners in the room.
        Four legs on the table.
        And four legs
        The mouse and the cat.
        1. +5
          March 18 2023
          Question: Why four?
          Response: Because when drawing drawings on the shield, it was customary to sing an Indian folk song to the whole tribe:
          "Four little black grimy Cherokees
          They drew a line in black ink. "(c)
          laughing
        2. +6
          March 18 2023
          The cat has four legs
          She has a long tail behind her.
          But you can’t touch her, for her small stature, small stature.
          But you can’t touch her, for her small stature, small stature.

          1. +3
            March 18 2023
            And you do not hit, do not hit the cat in the belly,
            Cat on the belly, cat on the belly.
            And you do not hit, do not hit, do not hit the cat in the belly,
            And you can't with a wet towel.
            1. +5
              March 18 2023
              For now, on the contrary,
              Only the black cat is unlucky.
              request sad
              1. +5
                March 18 2023
                Six kittens are hungry.
                Give them cereal with milk.
                Let them lick their tongue
                Because cats
                Do not eat from a spoon.

                1. +6
                  March 18 2023
                  Because cats
                  Do not eat from a spoon.

                  We can bet... smile
                  1. +3
                    March 18 2023
                    But
                    During the journey
                    Dog
                    Could grow up!
                    1. +6
                      March 18 2023
                      The priest had a dog,
                      He loved her...


                      The text is said to be short. Well, I do not know... request
    2. +3
      March 18 2023
      4 shields for life - great.
      "It's just some kind of holiday!" (WITH)
      Whether it's the Normans, the "linden of war" - and that's the point!
      1. +5
        March 18 2023
        That is a linden, and that is a bison. Feel the difference.
        Offer you now to make a shield out of linden - you can do it, if you wish. What about bison?
        1. +4
          March 18 2023
          What about bison?
          "Coffins can't, I'm pounding a lot." (WITH)
        2. +3
          March 18 2023
          Quote from Korsar4
          That is a linden, and that is a bison. Feel the difference.
          Offer you now to make a shield out of linden - you can do it, if you wish. What about bison?

          If you manage to fight off the neighbors who will come to the "pleasant" smell of fish glue! laughing
          1. +3
            March 18 2023
            We'll have to build a separate "shield" building. And then grateful tribesmen will be drawn there for orders.
          2. +4
            March 18 2023
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            If you manage to fight off the neighbors who will come to the "pleasant" smell of fish glue!


            You need to add a suitable food preservative to the glue and make an exhaust hood connected to the ventilation duct of the building for storage and operation (vent fittings, tin, tin shears and a fan are easily accessible). A bunch of old cabinets and furniture, glass - it's easy to find a home fume hood to make.
  3. +5
    March 18 2023
    These shields are an excellent target for shooting at them from any shooting weapon ... clear shapes and borders, outlines, bright colors, sizes.
    In addition, the position of a fighter in the hierarchy of warriors can be identified by the shield ... he is a simple warrior or the commander of a group of warriors.

    All this allows you to accurately hit him with arrows, spears, darts, slings, bullets and just stones.
    In general, two in one and protection and hemorrhoids ... when the enemy from all sides shoots at the shield and its owner.
    1. +2
      March 18 2023
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      All this allows you to accurately hit him with arrows, spears, darts, slings, bullets and just stones.


      It only helps to fulfill its main function - to protect its owner. It was on the psychology of shooters and throwers that the really working "magic" of the shield was based - a well-decorated shield greatly improved the statistics of hits to itself and worsened to its bearer. The Indians noticed this and ritualized it as a successful magical practice.
      1. +1
        March 19 2023
        I heard an explanation of the reason for nailing the shield to the gate. Kirill Nazarenko leads the cycle about Rus' on "digital history". So he said that this was done in order to show the rest that this city is mine and taxes will now be paid to me. If I really want to, I can look for this statement of his. Well, and of course, before that, he tells the backstory. In short, again money and nothing personal. :)
  4. +3
    March 18 2023
    That is, with the Indians everything was exactly the same as with other nomadic peoples - horse archers.
    The Japanese are really surprised right now!
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. +3
      March 18 2023
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      The Japanese are really surprised right now!

      There have always been exceptions, and besides, the Japanese are not nomads, they led a sedentary lifestyle from the very appearance in Japan.
      1. +3
        March 18 2023
        The size of the territory apparently did not allow the Japanese to roam. Wherever you spit, Japan is all around. Next is the sea.
      2. +3
        March 18 2023
        If the conversation turned to Indian shields - a question for the Author. From various sources we know about the practice of nailing our shields to enemy gates - Prince. Oleg to Constantinople, the future red commander of the 2nd Cavalry Mironov, being in the WWI on the Romanian front, the commander of the reconnaissance hundred of the 30th Don Regiment of the 3rd Don Division - to the gates of Marasheshtami. True, here it is necessary to clarify a little - Mironov did not have a shield, so Philip Kuzmich, without hesitation, nailed the saddle. wassat For which he was awarded the St. George's weapon.
        And did the Indians, Vyacheslav Olegovich, practice such cases?
        1. 0
          March 18 2023
          Quote: Richard
          And did the Indians, Vyacheslav Olegovich, practice such cases?

          What an interesting question! It's a pity that I can't answer it.
        2. +2
          March 18 2023
          In the absence of a gate, apparently, they did not nail it down.
          1. +4
            March 18 2023
            And the "Golden Gate" has not yet been built.
            1. +6
              March 18 2023
              Do not pin them to the "Golden", they must be confiscated and dragged to "Torgsin", as the famous Kot did with his chain. wink
              1. +2
                March 18 2023
                How greedy people are for the good of others.
        3. +2
          March 18 2023
          Quote: Richard
          If the conversation turned to Indian shields - a question for the Author. From various sources we know about the practice of nailing our shields to enemy gates - Prince. Oleg to Constantinople, the future red commander of the 2nd Cavalry Mironov, being in the WWI on the Romanian front, the commander of the reconnaissance hundred of the 30th Don Regiment of the 3rd Don Division - to the gates of Marasheshtami. True, here it is necessary to clarify a little - Mironov did not have a shield, so Philip Kuzmich, without hesitation, nailed the saddle. wassat For which he was awarded the St. George's weapon.
          And did the Indians, Vyacheslav Olegovich, practice such cases?
          The Indians themselves lived in wigwam, white houses were simply burned - where to nail the shield?
          If the conversation is about "exploits" - then the Indians have a meaning feat was very different - from the well-known scalps (The hero who has more scalps) before applying "Ku" (The hero who has more Ku)
          By the way ...
          Koo - ritual touch to the enemy. There was a special wand for Ku - a stick with decorations, which was touched to a dead or still living enemy.
          Touching Ku to the dead is the simplest, but less honorable, touching Ku to a still living enemy (in battle) is the most difficult, but the most honorable, some Heroes went into battle with a knife and a "wand for Ku".
          To facilitate calculations and not to produce "heroes", making Ku on the dead was limited to the rule "Four Ku" (Arapaho 4 Ku or Cheyenne 3 Ku) - touching a dead enemy, the warrior shouted "I am the first", the next "I am the second", then "I am the third" ... after the fourth (or third for the Cheyenne) touch Ku - the rest did not count .
          Wand for Ku.
          After the battle, at the general council, the number of Ku was counted and marks were made on the "stick" for clarity - the wound was taken into account in the "minus" and the pen was painted red.
          Ku could also be counted on dangerous animals, such as a bear.
          hi
  5. +5
    March 18 2023
    the shield could be decorated with feathers of a military eagle

    military eagle - who is this?
    1. +5
      March 18 2023
      The national bird is known to be the bald eagle. He, like the golden eagle, had a sacred meaning among the Indians.

      Where such a translation could come from - I have no idea.
      1. +4
        March 18 2023
        Good day, Sergey hi
        sacred headdress

        Why sacred? The Indians never called it that. With the translation, the author is definitely not at odds
        1. +4
          March 18 2023
          Good afternoon, Dmitry!

          As far as I understand, we are talking about “Warbonnet”.
          1. +3
            March 18 2023
            As far as I understand, we are talking about “Warbonnet”.

            Of course about them, Sergey! It is not clear why Vyacheslav is engaged in gag inventing some fantastic names when there are already existing ones?
            1. +5
              March 18 2023
              The author will come and tell. If he wants. We can only guess. More or less certain.
              1. +4
                March 18 2023
                The author will come and tell. After. If he wants laughing

                1. +4
                  March 18 2023
                  You see - instead of Donna Rosa there was Kotenko.
            2. +3
              March 18 2023
              Quote: Richard
              inventing some fantastic names when there are already existing ones?

              Didn't invent anything. Taken from Kotenko's book...
            3. +3
              March 18 2023
              Association all day in my head:

              Boneta is the longest-legged of the Italian saints, for which she was chosen by the Italian stewardesses as her patroness.
              1. +2
                March 18 2023
                "She's not a saint, she's just crazy!" (C)
                1. +3
                  March 18 2023
                  What if genius is a kind of insanity?
              2. +5
                March 18 2023
                Boneta is the longest-legged of the Italian saints, for which she was chosen by the Italian stewardesses as her patroness.

                No. not because of the length of the legs.
                Bona of Pisa during her lifetime (c. 1156-1207) was a member of the Third Order of Augustinian nuns who helped travelers make pilgrimages, which is why she is considered the patroness of travelers, namely couriers, guides, pilgrims, stewardesses and the city of Pisa
                1. +5
                  March 18 2023
                  But the movie is quite interesting. And time reflects well.
                  1. +2
                    March 18 2023
                    If the film reflects long, slender legs well, then it is clearly good. Yes
                    1. +2
                      March 18 2023
                      There Shirvindt is good. and Efremov. And music.
    2. +2
      March 18 2023
      What VUS is registered in a military man, such an eagle. I, it was the case, was listed as a special forces soldier for 10 years at the VUS.)))
      1. +7
        March 18 2023
        "Because of his terrible myopia, Venya had a special mark on his military ID - he was only fit for close combat" (c) smile
        1. +3
          March 18 2023
          Exactly! At the time of the call, I had a vision of -5,5, and after demobilization, I was affixed to the military service of the "Special Forces of the Airborne Forces and the Air Force." Here is such a perdumonocle!)))
          1. +5
            March 18 2023
            The army... By the time I was drafted, I had -3 in my right eye, in the army it turned out that I had one hundred percent vision in both eyes, well, I didn’t arise. So he served all three years, and, by the way, he shot better than many "sighted" ones. wink
            1. Fat
              +4
              March 18 2023
              A kind and caring attitude towards weapons is never non-reciprocal, when it is sincere towards it, it helps you smile
              hi Greetings, Konstantin.
              1. +5
                March 18 2023
                Good evening, Andrew. smile
                Not only weapons, I myself noticed long ago that the way you treat things is the way they serve you. Yes
            2. 0
              March 19 2023
              Excuse me, I recalled cases with mobilization, when there were complaints that they took either a patient or some other one. And modet and indeed they are cured there? Maybe not everything is so scary? Or is it related to vision (in your case), but it does not apply to others. In short, I thought about something.
    3. +4
      March 18 2023
      military eagle - who is this?

      Apparently, the author made a mistake in translating the text "adorned their war shields feathers of eagle" (decorated their battle shields with eagle feathers). Such decorations are characteristic of Sioux shields.
      1. +5
        March 18 2023
        Agree. Came to about the same conclusions.
    4. +3
      March 19 2023
      Quote: Richard
      the shield could be decorated with feathers of a military eagle

      military eagle - who is this?
      The "martial eagle" (military...) with the feathers of this bird was decorated with headdresses (military hat) in which they went into battle, they ceased over time, but the name remained.
      Originally Plains Indians (not woodlanders) 1 eagle feather cup gave for 1 killed enemy, for the enemy killed with bare hands 2 cup
      The eagle, of course, still had to be caught with bare hands ...
      At night they dug a hole, hid in it, covered the hole from above with branches and put bait on top of them ... in the morning or afternoon the eagle flew in - and it remained to catch it with your bare hands.
      Each feather in the headdress meant a certain achievement.
      hi
  6. +9
    March 18 2023
    scalp shirt

    Prairie Indian military attire had to meet several requirements. Firstly, he testified to belonging to a particular society, to the position in the tribe; secondly, it served as a powerful talisman, providing powerful protection in battle; finally, thirdly, he was a sign of the exploits of the owner, told everyone about the achievements of this warrior.
    All three functions were satisfied by a military or "scalp" shirt. Initially, it was worn exclusively as a sign of service, position. Such were the leaders of the Sioux, who were called the Shirt Bearers. Among them was, for example, the famous Oglala warrior Tashunka Vitko - the Crazy Horse. They wore shirts, painted and trimmed with scalp strands, which symbolized their responsibility to their people. Outstanding warriors wore shirts as insignia.
    Military shirts were painted with images of the exploits of the owner. The symbols were different in different tribes. The hand symbolized good luck in hand-to-hand combat; stripes - wounds or exploits-ku; tubes - leadership of military units; hoof marks - the number of stolen horses. Some of the images enhanced the magical power of the shirt. For example, black dots protected its wearer from bullets.
    Sioux military shirt trimmed with strands of human hair.
    1. +7
      March 18 2023
      Scalp shirts of Indians of different tribes






    2. +5
      March 18 2023
      Quote: Richard
      The hand symbolized good luck in hand-to-hand combat; stripes - wounds or exploits-ku

      Badges for wounds: interesting - it turns out to be an invention of the Indians! laughing
  7. +6
    March 18 2023
    Indian headwear “Warbonnet”
    A crown of feathers attached around the top edge of a leather headband or makeshift cap is the most important headdress in Native American history. It is believed that the Sioux Indian tribe was one of the first tribes to wear a headdress made of feathers.
    a photo

    To make such a headdress, one bird feather was added to a leather or fabric ribbon each time its owner performed a feat in the name of his tribe. The feathers themselves were usually held together with leather threads or tendons. After the headdress was ready, the bandage could be decorated with additional embroidery, beads, horns, natural leather or some kind of pigtails, and the feathers themselves could even be dyed.
    1. +6
      March 18 2023
      There are many types of different "Warbonnets" that serve different purposes for individual Indian tribes.
      For example, there are mohawk headdresses made of stubble, porcupine hair (or elk hair) called roaches and were commonly worn by tribes that lived east of the Rocky Mountains, such as the Ponca or Omaha tribes. Such hats could only be worn by young men who were preparing to become warriors and had already somehow shown themselves, but different tribes had different rules for obtaining such hats for various merits.

      Also, some tribes of the Indians had horned headdresses made of buffalo wool, which could also be worn only by male warriors, but who had already gained fame in battle. The spiritual and ceremonial significance of horned headdresses for the Plains Indians was the same as for tribes using feathered headdresses.

      There were Indian tribes who also wore otter hair turbans (terribly sorry for otters, but the Indians treated animals with great respect) or beavers, used only as ceremonial headdresses. They were worn by men of some tribes from the southern plains, such as the Potawatomi, Pawnee, and Osage.

      In addition to the listed Indian "hats", there were many other tribes, with their own decorations and headdresses, but they were all united by the fact that such a headdress had to be earned the right to wear, and not everyone could wear it. Headdresses were very important for the Indians, since only the most powerful and influential representatives of the tribe, mostly only men, could wear them. Although women were allowed to wear headdresses, but only in the form of beaded headbands or crowns with a small amount of feathers.
      In order for an Indian youth to be considered a man, he had to earn his first feather, for example, by performing a feat by selfless acts of courage and honor (for example, hunting), receiving a feather as a gift, for work performed, or in gratitude for serving his people. However, the most traditional deeds, which brought honor and the most honorable eagle feathers, were given for feats in battle, as well as political and diplomatic achievements or actions that helped the tribe survive and prosper. In general, headdresses were considered not so much an indicator of status as a traditional element of clothing for important ceremonies, marriages, holidays, funerals, etc. For example, the most massive headdresses were only ceremonial decorations, while the more mobile headdresses were worn only during combat.
      1. +3
        March 18 2023
        There will be a lot about this in the next article ...
        1. +3
          March 18 2023
          Thank you. It will be interesting
      2. +4
        March 18 2023
        There are many types of different "Warbonnets" that serve different purposes for individual Indian tribes.

        This is where you got excited. War bonnet is a specific eagle feather headdress of a Great Plains Indian chief.
        The rest of the headgear is just "headgear", with the appropriate names.
        By the way, in some photos there are not hats, but hairstyles.
  8. +3
    March 18 2023
    The thickness of many shields that have survived to this day is about 5 cm, that is, they were usually glued together, because even the so-called “plantar skin” does not have such a thickness.

    Well, it seems like blacks made shields from the withers of a rhinoceros. There was just 2 inches - they held a smoothbore bullet.
  9. +2
    March 18 2023
    So the American Indians also used leather shields - quite light and durable. In addition, they always had the material for their manufacture at hand. That is, with the Indians everything was exactly the same as with other nomadic peoples - horse archers. All of them simply needed a shield, and it had to have a round shape so that it would be convenient to carry it behind the back, and not interfere with the horse archer using the bow!

    Here, the author, as they say, rushed at a gallop, since until the XNUMXth century the Indians, if they were archers, were on foot, since they did not have horses. And the shields, judging by the description of the first contacts with the Indians of the Great Plains, were oval. Unfortunately, images could not be found, since these shields were practically not preserved. Starting from the XNUMXth century, the Indians began to "mount horses", which significantly changed the way of life, both peaceful and military. And the round shield is just the product of these changes.
    1. +5
      March 18 2023
      since until the XNUMXth century the Indians, if they were archers, then on foot, since they did not have horses

      Did Mustangs appear in America after the Soto expedition or the search for the Sivola Coronado? hi
      1. +3
        March 18 2023
        My respects, Nicholas hi
        Experts say that neither Soto Yu's expedition nor the search for "Sivola" Coronado were involved in the appearance of mustangs. Their appearance is due to the horses of the settlers.
        Before the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the indigenous population of two huge continents, which Columbus called "Indos" - Indians, did not know other domestic animals, except for the dog, llama and turkey. There were simply no horses in America. Although it is the American continent that is the birthplace of ancient horses, they all died out there back in the pre-glacial era, as evidenced by the numerous remains found - bones, skulls, etc. Some of the ancient American horses crossed from North America to Asia along the so-called Bering Bridge - the isthmus , which periodically appeared on the site of the Bering Strait during cooling periods, when the overall level of the World Ocean dropped, exposing the seabed off the coast. After the warming, the waves again flooded the land, and the horses, cut off from their homeland, moved forward, settling in all corners of the Old World. This is how tarpans, and wild horses of Asia, and zebras of Africa appeared. Horses returned to America already in a domesticated form on the ships of the Spanish conquistadors. Before the appearance of the horse, the Great Plains were practically inaccessible to the native tribes. The Indian on foot felt small, alone, and defenseless against the majesty of the vast open space. Hunting for powerful and fast bison at that time was very difficult and dangerous. It was considered a great success to drive a herd of bulls to a cliff or lie in wait at a watering place.
        Everything changed when horses appeared.
        From farms and ranches, from forts plundered by the Indians in the steppe, many horses ran away. They quickly grew wild and bred on free pastures. This is how the famous wild horses of North America - mustangs - appeared. The word "mustang" comes from the Spanish "place" - a free horse, a horse without a rider. By the middle of the XNUMXth century, mustangs that did not know the bridle incredibly multiplied, according to various sources, there were from one to three million heads.

        Source: http://www.goldmustang.ru/magazine/konevodstvo/585.html
        1. 0
          March 20 2023
          My respects, Nicholas

          Greetings, Dmitry! Magidovichi, it seems, nevertheless voiced one of these two Spanish expeditions - either Soto, or Coronado. It is unlikely that the mustangs had time to "give" before that the chronic loser Narvaez.
  10. +5
    March 18 2023
    The manufacturing technology was simple, but it required skill. First, a hole was dug in the ground, stones were placed in it and a strong fire was kindled on them so that they would be properly heated. Over the hot stones they stretched the buffalo skin with its thickest part, which was located in the area of ​​​​the withers, and poured water on these stones. Hot steam thickened the skin, and it became even stronger.
    ...
    The thickness of many shields that have survived to this day is about 5 cm, that is, they were usually glued together, because even the so-called “plantar skin” does not have such a thickness. However, Indian shields were also thick because they had a close-fitting of thinner antelope or deer skin, and bison hair or eagle feathers were stuffed into the resulting space, which, according to the Indians, increased the protective qualities of the shield.

    This is the most sophisticated technology. Only the Comanche made shields this way. And that is not always the case.
    In general, despite the apparent monotony, the shields of the Indians of the Great Plains had corresponding "intertribal" differences both in production technology and in decoration. In addition to bison skins, elk and horse skins were sometimes used.
    And one more interesting nuance - the Indians categorically refused the metal shields offered by the Europeans, believing that they did not have the necessary "sacred" properties and would not be able to fully protect the warrior.
    If anyone is interested in the issue more deeply and speaks English, there is an interesting book "Native North American Armor, shields, and fortifications" (Armor, shields and fortifications of the Indians of North America), by DE Jones. You can learn a lot of new things.
  11. +3
    March 18 2023
    All folds were smoothed out with flat stones on the skin and, if necessary, one layer of skin was glued with hoof glue on the second.


    From this we can assume that the first household irons were invented by Stone Age gunsmiths - after all, the available stones in a primitive dwelling usually lie in the fence of the hearth and are heated during its operation, and the skins are soaked during stretching, since dry skin can burst.
  12. +4
    March 18 2023
    the loss of the shield was regarded as the greatest misfortune.

    Do you remember the hour of the terrible battle,
    When I, quivering quirks,
    He fled, dishonestly throwing a shield.
    1. +7
      March 18 2023
      Mihaylov (Mihaylov): The loss of a shield in battle was regarded as the greatest misfortune.

      And not just in combat. The sun of Indian poetry A.S. writes about this. Chingachgook: laughing
      Do you remember the terrible hour of drinking,
      When I, quivering Huron,
      Changed his shield to moonshine
      And pickled cucumbers jar (c).

      Greetings, Sergey hi
      1. +4
        March 18 2023
        Greetings Dmitry,
        When I, quivering Huron,

        It is necessary to observe historical accuracy and correct:
        "Do you remember the hour of the terrible booze,
        When I, a drunken Mohican..."
        Further it did not work out, it is necessary to call on the poets. drinks
        1. +6
          March 18 2023
          "Do you remember the hour of the terrible booze,
          When I, a drunk Mohican...
          In the saloon of a Yankee bartender
          He laid his shield behind a glass (s) drinks
          1. +5
            March 18 2023
            Quote: Richard
            "Do you remember the hour of the terrible booze,
            When I, a drunk Mohican...
            In the saloon of a Yankee bartender
            He laid his shield behind a glass

            Now, in my opinion, it’s wonderful, and historical accuracy is observed! drinks
        2. +6
          March 18 2023
          I'm not a poet at all, but the topic is so yulizka, I'll try ...
          "Do you remember the hour of the terrible booze,
          When I, a drunk Mohican...
          Changed my trophy Winchester
          On whiskey a large glass"


          1. +5
            March 18 2023
            Quote: Sea Cat
            "Do you remember the hour of the terrible booze,
            When I, a drunk Mohican...
            Changed my trophy Winchester
            On whiskey a large glass"

            It’s also a great option, it’s time to hold a poetry contest!
            Greetings Konstantin! hi
            1. +6
              March 18 2023
              Good evening, Sergey! smile
              Yes, we are all poets here wink . I would like to gather at one table and skip a glass.
              In my youth, in some cafe, they wrote all sorts of stuff on paper napkins, I drew something and sent it to pretty girls at neighboring tables. In general, they had fun in every possible way, hmm, there was time. Yes drinks
              1. +3
                March 18 2023
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Yes, we are all poets here

                But I'm not a poet: I can neither draw nor rhyme.
                True, I sing wonderfully (as I think), but for some reason, every time I sing, I am subjected to the most severe domestic violence by my wife. There is no justice in life. wassat
                1. +4
                  March 18 2023
                  As for my singing - the second daughter interceded today. There is one song in which I hit the notes.
                2. +4
                  March 18 2023
                  It's the same story with singing, so I don't even try to do vocals when I'm alone. laughing
                  1. +4
                    March 18 2023
                    He sings in the morning in the closet. You can imagine what a cheerful, healthy person he is. The desire to sing arises in him reflexively.
                    1. +3
                      March 18 2023
                      He hides a smile in his mustache,
                      Darkness is like a shield to him.
                      All cats sing and cry -
                      This Black Cat is silent.

                      1. +2
                        March 18 2023
                        At the grandfather's stove
                        The company is sitting
                        And, singing songs,
                        His mustache moves.
                        Dined together
                        And lie down on the side
                        Four inseparable
                        Cockroach and cricket.
                      2. +2
                        March 18 2023
                        Grandfather found a grenade in the field,
                        Grandfather went with her to the village council,
                        He pulled the ring and threw it out the window -
                        Grandfather is old, he doesn’t care.

      2. +3
        March 18 2023
        The sun of Indian poetry A.S. writes about this. Chingachgook:
        In response, M. Yu. Vinetu also wrote:
        "The Huron ran faster than the doe,
        Faster than a hare from an eagle
        Fled shamefully from the battlefield,
        Where did the Indian blood flow?
  13. +3
    March 18 2023
    However, Indian shields were also thick because they had a close-fitting of thinner antelope or deer skin, and bison hair or eagle feathers were stuffed into the resulting space, which, according to the Indians, increased the protective qualities of the shield.

    Everything is clear: composite materials were used. laughing
  14. +3
    March 18 2023
    I really liked the shield in the penultimate photo.
    It seems modest, dim, but what a taste the master has!
    Good day to all and good mood on the occasion of the onset of spring)))
  15. +5
    March 18 2023
    magic also underlay the so-called "spider shields". Most of all, these shields resembled the well-known "dream catcher" - the same hoop, inside of which there is a complex weaving of thin leather straps, and ... that's it! It was believed that such a shield would not miss a bullet or an arrow. What this naive belief was based on is not entirely clear. In any case, the Indians had few such shields. For example, there are only four for the entire Dakota tribe!

    Here the author is slightly mistaken. Each Indian had these shields and they were individual. Depending on the totem animal of its owner, its symbol was on the shield. When a person had a dream and he told it to the interpreter of dreams, some symbols could be added to the shield or removed from it. The Indians carried this shield with them, for them it was the embodiment of the Spirit. They believed that he protected and protected them. These shields could also become shields of friendship. This happened when a shield of this form was given. Then, as a sign of fraternization, they hung them in their wigwams.
    a photo.North American "spider shields"







    In each tribe, in addition to individual similar shields, there were also tribal ones. That's just them and there could be several. The tribes exchanged them at the conclusion of peace. Czechoslovakian Americanist Miloslava Stingl writes in her book "Indians Without Tomahawks"
    "It is enough to look into the dwelling of the leader of the tribe in order to understand from the hanging "spider shields" which of the neighboring tribes is a friend and ally of his people.
    1. +4
      March 18 2023
      Miloslav Stingl (Czech. Miloslav Stingl; December 19, 1930, Bilina, Czechoslovakia - May 11, 2020, Prague) is a Czech ethnographer-Americanist, an internationally recognized specialist in the indigenous peoples of America, a journalist, writer, essayist and traveler. Doctor of Sciences, professor at Charles University in Prague. During his life he undertook forty trips around the world and wrote four dozen books about the native inhabitants of North and South America, Australia and Oceania - these books were translated into 31 languages, and their total circulation amounted to 16 million copies. Among other things, Stingl received a rare honor for a European - he became the honorary leader of the Kickapoo Indian tribe.

      His book "Indians Without Tomahawks" was published in the USSR in 1971 and went through two reprints: in 1978 and 1984. This is a voluminous work that very exhaustively describes the history of the Indians of America - from the moment they appeared on the continent until the second half of the twentieth century. Stingle is known not only as a research scientist, but also as a publicist and journalist, which allowed him to elegantly combine a huge amount of historical data, dates and names with the ease of narration.

      the book, with its deep scientific imagery, is not "abstruse" and generally reads like an adventure novel - therefore it is easy to assume that a significant part of its readers (and in the USSR only the third edition was released with a circulation of 100 copies) were Soviet teenagers fascinated by Indian romance.
      Free and without registration, the book can be downloaded from the link: https://royallib.com/book/stingl_miloslav/indeytsi_bez_tomagavkov.html
    2. +1
      March 18 2023
      Kitty is wrong.
      ...
      photo.North American "spider shields"

      Yes, the culture of the Indians of the Great Plains is clearly not your forte.
      In the first photo - a modern remake at the price of $ 112 with delivery. This is the ceremonial shield of the Navajo Indians, which, among other things, has a "dreamcatcher" - Dreamcatcher. All other photos are not shields, but just these very "dream catchers", in the Ojibwa language - asabikeshiinh - a spider. According to legend, this shield's protective enchantment comes from a spider woman known as Asibikaashi - the one who takes care of children and people on earth. It is a handmade willow hoop on which a net or cobweb is woven. It may also be adorned with sacred items such as certain feathers or beads. Traditionally, "dream catchers" are hung over a cradle or bed as protection.
      As for the shields of the Indians of the Great Plains, the author, I don’t know for what reason, gave very little information and not systematically. In fact, this is a whole cultural layer. Some ritual shields, in addition to medical ones, are of several varieties.
      1. +3
        March 18 2023
        Quote: sergej_84
        In fact, this is a whole cultural layer.

        That's exactly why. And what is written is a popular article for easy reading online, and of a strictly defined volume. You will not find monographs from me here.
    3. +2
      March 18 2023
      Quote: Richard
      The author is wrong here.

      These are not spider shields, but dream catchers. I have a similar one at home...
  16. +1
    March 18 2023
    Colleagues" Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I read your "* people and weapons", and even then, I had a question: how practical were such shields ?.
    After all, not everyone has chain mail?
    1. +2
      March 18 2023
      The Indians themselves boasted that such a shield at an angle withstood the hit of a round lead bullet from a smoothbore gun. Bone-tipped arrows certainly didn't pierce it. With metal ... when how and from what distance.
      1. +4
        March 18 2023
        Vyacheslav, good evening and thank you for the Indians! drinks
        The Indians themselves boasted that such a shield at an angle withstood the hit of a round lead bullet from a smoothbore gun.

        It depends from what distance, and even a shield is not needed. wink But in general, in principle, a dubious statement, which a brave warrior will not tell after taking a sip of "fire water". laughing
  17. +2
    March 18 2023
    Because wood and leather do not live long, and the Indians, after the appearance of the Yankees, too. These are shields that have reached museums, more of a ritual accessory of shamans than something of a military nature. There is no practicality, protection from an ax is so-so. The blow doesn't seem to hold up very well from the teddy bear either.
  18. +7
    March 18 2023
    On the Pacific coast, the North American Indians, at the suggestion of the leaders of their tribes, celebrated the so-called "potlatch". Not only relatives of the leaders were invited, but also representatives of other tribes. During the holiday, the property of the clan was given away to guests, occasionally - even its destruction (property - laughing ).
    The more they gave away or, at worst, destroyed, the higher the status of the leader's family, clan.
    Interestingly, shields were also given away? )))
    At the end of the 19th century, the authorities intervened and categorically banned the potlatch as a celebration of unproductive waste, contrary to the norms of civilized life. Well, then it might have been contradictory. I have come across the opinion that today's Americans throw almost 50% of the purchased food into the trash bag.
    1. +5
      March 18 2023
      Quote: depressant
      the so-called "potlatch".

      The most interesting tribal custom, by the way, is widely traced in world culture, including in Rus', let us recall princely feasts and giving away property.
    2. +4
      March 18 2023
      At the end of the 19th century, the authorities intervened and categorically banned the potlatch as a celebration of unproductive waste, contrary to the norms of civilized life. Well, then that might have been contradictory.

      It exactly contradicted, because in this struggle for influence and authority, the material resources of the tribes, already very limited, were lost.
      By the way, in 1934 in the USA, and in 1951 in Canada, the ban was lifted.
      1. +3
        March 18 2023
        . in this struggle for influence and authority, the material resources of the tribes, already very limited, were lost.

        Not quite clear.
        If property passed from one tribe to another, then it was physically preserved. Some have decreased, others have increased. The total amount of property remained the same.
        The ban on potlatch is understandable if the property was destroyed.
        Then the question is: what? After all, it could be that what had fallen into disrepair was destroyed. Or no?
        1. +2
          March 18 2023
          Quote: depressant
          After all, it could be that what had fallen into disrepair was destroyed. Or no?

          The normal was destroyed, but these are only extreme manifestations of this custom.
          1. +3
            March 18 2023
            Normal was destroyed

            Apparently, this is a special arrogance as a worthless manifestation of pride.
            Here, they say, we are special.
            Or maybe the one that was refused by those invited to the patchwork? Didn't take? Well, here you are, we will destroy ...
            It is difficult to understand people of a different mentality.
            One day, the neighbors, whose apartment, as I later found out, was literally crammed with furniture, so there was no crowding, were about to throw something away. I opened the door to the noise. They were going to throw away a computer desk with shelves. And give it to me! Gave away. Such is the potlatch wassat )))
            And potlatch at the garbage cans. Regular. But without dances and songs. We have everything modestly, ordinary, there is no arrogance.
        2. +3
          March 18 2023
          After all, it could be that what had fallen into disrepair was destroyed.

          Quite possible. After all, then they did not have homeless people, probably ... laughing
          1. +3
            March 18 2023
            Thanks, Kostya! )))
            As always, funny. We know how to laugh at ourselves. That's how we live. And the chilly spring, like the ghost of last autumn, does not warm. The Indians in their climate do well there.
            1. +2
              March 18 2023
              And the chilly spring, like the ghost of last autumn, does not warm.

              Forget about autumn, Lyudmila, spring has already come. The sun is warm, my cat lies on the windowsill and squints with pleasure. Everything is fine, we are alive and life goes on. smile
          2. 0
            March 19 2023
            I want to pour out my soul after this mention of trash cans. It was dark and late. We drove past a car and saw how a whole family with children were digging through garbage cans. There were small children. Their dad and mom. It had a great effect on me. And after that, somewhere I thought that these people themselves are to blame for their poverty. And I figured it wasn't. Not at all. And that they are not to blame.
        3. -1
          March 18 2023
          Not quite clear.

          So the Canadian officials, not understanding anything and measuring everything with their capitalist yardstick, took it - and banned it. There are a lot of subtleties, it is better to read a book for understanding, for example - An iron hand upon the people: the law against the potlatch on the Northwest coast / Douglas Cole & Ira Chaikin.
    3. +3
      March 18 2023
      Jack London first association. "Son of the Wolf"
  19. +3
    March 18 2023
    Quote: Richard
    military eagle - who is this?

    This is Aquila. Symbol of the Roman Legion. I, according to the history of wars, would prefer more
    keep a classic Roman scutum in the ranks.
  20. 0
    March 20 2023
    That is, with the Indians everything was exactly the same as with other nomadic peoples - horse archers. All of them simply needed a shield, and it had to have a round shape so that it would be convenient to carry it behind the back, and not interfere with the horse archer using the bow!

    what Before the advent of the horse in North America, what shape did the shield have of the Indians on foot at that time? Probably also round...
  21. 0
    March 20 2023
    Showed the article to the children. Everyone loves the feathers

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"