Demetrius Poliorket. Triumph and defeat of the living god

96
Demetrius Poliorket. Triumph and defeat of the living god

В previous article we talked about the origin and youth of Demetrius, the son of Antigonus One-Eyed, the beginning of his career as a commander, the first victories and defeats. Today we will continue this story.

living god


Until 307 B.C. e. Demetrius fought on the territory of Asia, but now he has transferred the fighting to the territory of Europe. At the head fleet out of 250 ships, he attacked Athens, where the garrison of Cassander, the son of Antipater, the ruler of Macedonia and an ally of the satrap of Egypt, Ptolemy, was located. Cassander hated Alexander the Great and his family, it was on his orders that the mother of the great conqueror Olympias, his wife Roxana and the only legitimate son Alexander were killed. He founded the city of Thessaloniki and ordered the rebuilding of Thebes.



The expedition of Demetrius was crowned with complete success, he managed to occupy Athens and the Piraeus harbors. Since Cassander was not popular with the Athenians, the inhabitants of the city welcomed Demetrius with joy, proclaiming him Soter (savior). Moreover, having settled him in the Parthenon, they began to worship him as the patron god of the city, calling him the son of Poseidon and Aphrodite. A certain Hermocles wrote a hymn in which there were such lines:

"Oh, hello, offspring of the powerful Poseidon,
Hello, son of Cyprida!
Other gods are far away
And their prayers are in vain,
And they are not here, not one listens,
And You stand before us
Not stone, not wooden, but alive!
We pray to you:
O most merciful one, give us peace as soon as possible,
Almighty are you now!”

Demosthenes' nephew Democharos states:

“When Demetrius returned from Leukas and Kerkyra to Athens, he was received not only with incense, wreaths and libations of wine, but also choral and phallic processions with songs and dances went towards him; and then they became a crowd, dancing and singing that he is the only true god ...
Some of these things bothered Demetrius himself, however, everything else was extremely shameful and humiliating: the sanctuaries of Aphrodite Lamia and Leena, altars, libations, veneration as heroes of his flatterers Burikh, Adimant and Oxytenides. Even paeans were sung in honor of each of them, so that Demetrius himself was amazed at what was happening and said that not a single Athenian, great and strong in spirit, remained with him.

New phyla (territorial units) appeared in the Athenian policy - Antigonis and Demetrias. Previously, 50 representatives of each phylum formed the "Council of Five Hundred", but now it has become the "Council of Six Hundred". To the two previously existing "sacred" triremes of the Athenian fleet, two more were added, named after Antigonus and Demetrius.

Polemon in his work “On the Painted Portico in Sicyon” reports that the Thebans also built temples to his mistresses - Aphrodite Lamia and Aphrodite Leena.

You will probably not be surprised to learn that after the defeat of Demetrius, his veneration by the Athenians completely ceased.

In Athens, Demetrius married a second time, marrying Eurydice, who was descended from Miltiades. However, it was only a status marriage, Demetrius paid much more attention to the above-mentioned hetaera Lamia, which he took as a trophy after the victory at Salamis in Cyprus. Alluding to the nickname of Demetrius - "Besieger of the cities", Lamia was called the "Destroyer of cities."

On the way to royal title


After the capture of Athens, Demetrius received an order from his father to attack the island of Cyprus, which belonged to the ruler of Egypt, Ptolemy. On this island, the first of Demetrius' huge siege engines, Elepolis, was built. It was a 9-story tower, at different levels of which catapults and oxybels were placed.

In the spring of 306 BC. e. Demetrius at the city of Salamis (at that time the largest city in Cyprus, founded by people from this island) defeated the troops of Ptolemy's brother Menelaus, and then defeated the fleet of Ptolemy himself in a naval battle.


Battle between Ptolemy and Demetrius at Salamis, XNUMXth century engraving

During this battle, three bodyguards of Demetrius, who were next to him, were injured, one of them later died. Salamis capitulated, the island of Cyprus came under the rule of Demetrius. Among the prisoners were the already mentioned hetaera Lamia and the son of Ptolemy Leontisk (some argue that his mother was the famous hetaera Thais of Athens), whom Demetrius released without ransom.

After this victory, Antigonus and Demetrius proclaimed themselves kings. Other diadochi soon followed suit. It is believed that it was Demetrius who was the first in the ancient world to place his portraits on coins - until then, images of gods or dead heroes were applied to them. On the obverse of this drachma we see the image of Demetrius Poliorketes with bull horns, and on the reverse - Poseidon:


Poliorket


In the next 305, Demetrius decided to punish the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, who refused to support his campaign against Cyprus. It was then that powerful siege machines that terrified everyone were built, and Demetrius received the nickname "Besieger of the City" - Poliorket. The length of one of the rams reached 55 meters, they say that it took at least a thousand people to control it. The imagination of contemporaries was also struck by the wheeled siege tower "Gelepolis" ("Conqueror of Cities"), the height of which, according to various sources, was from 30 to 40 meters, width - 18 meters, base - about 20 meters.

This is how the siege of Rhodes by the army of Demetrius looks like on one of the engravings:


And this is a model of the Helepolis siege tower, the image of which you saw in the previous illustration (Thessaloniki Technology Museum):


In 304 BC. e. an agreement was concluded according to which Rhodes, while maintaining autonomy, became an ally of Antigonus and Demetrius and gave them hostages. Huge siege engines Demetrius left on the island, their bronze parts were used to build the Colossus of Rhodes.

"City Destroyer"


In the same 304 BC. e. Demetrius returned to Greece, having driven back Cassander's troops besieging the city from Athens. In the spring of 303 BC. e. he sent his troops to the Peloponnese, capturing Argos, Corinth, Orchomenus and Sicyon, which was briefly renamed Demetrias.

At the initiative of Demetrius in 302 BC. e. The Corinthian Union was re-established. But in Athens, dissatisfaction with the behavior of Demetrius was growing. The Athenians now had a special dislike for the hetera Lamia.


F. Kavcic, "Demetrius, Lamia and her friend Dema"

Plutarch writes about this woman:

“At that time, her beauty had already faded, and the difference in years between her and Demetrius was very great, and yet, with her charms and charm, Lamia caught and braided him so tightly that she alone could call Demetrius her lover - he only allowed himself to be loved.

He:

“Among the many abuses and lawlessness that were then going on, the most painful, as they say, the Athenians were hurt by the order to immediately get two hundred and fifty talents, for, seeing that the money was collected - and they were collected with inexorable severity, - Demetrius ordered to transfer everything to Lamia and other hetaera on cleansers, blush and ointments. More than the loss of the citizens weighed shame, and the rumor was worse than the deed itself. Some, however, say that Demetrius played this joke not with the Athenians, but with the Thessalians.

Let's continue to quote Plutarch:

“Once an embassy arrived from Demetrius to Lysimachus, and he, at his leisure, showed the guests deep scars on his thighs and arms, and said that these were traces of lion claws and that they remained after a fight with a beast, alone with which he locked him when is Tsar Alexander. Here the ambassadors noticed with a laugh that their king also wears bite marks on his neck from the bites of a wild and terrible beast - Lamia.


Bust of Lysimakh, Museum of Seljuk Culture, Kayseri, Turkey

From Demetrius, Lamia gave birth to a daughter, Phila. But from 302 BC. e. the name of this hetaera disappears from historical documents, she may have died during childbirth.

Some also speak of the interest that Demetrius showed in handsome young men, one of whom, Democles the Handsome, died after jumping into a cauldron of boiling water in a bath to escape his harassment. For some time, Democles was revered by the Athenians as a symbol of the honor and love of freedom of this policy.

Disaster at Ipsus



The possessions of the Diadochi before the battle of Ipsus (about 303 BC).

The rise of Antigonus and Demetrius caused serious concern to the other Diadochi. Soon a new war began, in which Seleucus, Lysimachus and Cassander became their opponents. The decisive battle took place in the summer of 301 BC. e. in Phrygia near Ipsus.

The forces of the parties were approximately equal, but the opponents of Antigonus had an advantage in the number of elephants: 480 versus 75. During the battle, Demetrius' cavalry units overturned the riders of Seleucus' son Antiochus, but were too carried away by their pursuit. Demetrius returned to the battlefield too late: his father was defeated and died in battle.

With ten thousand soldiers, he retreated to Ephesus, and the victors divided the lands of Antigonus among themselves. Now on the territory of the former empire of Alexander the Great there were four kingdoms: Ptolemy with the center in Egypt, Lysimachus in Greece and Asia Minor, the huge Asian power Seleucus and Macedonia, where Cassander ruled.

The Athenians refused to obey Demetrius, but returned the ships placed in the harbor, the treasury and allowed his third wife Deidamia (sister Pyrrha) to leave the city. Many other policies followed the example of Athens. Demetrius retained his power in Cyprus, the Aegean Islands, Corinth, Megara and several cities on the western coast of Asia Minor and in the area of ​​the Black Sea straits. However, the alliance of his opponents fell apart: now Ptolemy and Lysimachus united against Seleucus.

Demetri continued to fight. In 300 (according to other sources - in 299) BC. e. he struck at the possessions of Lysimachus in Thrace. He concluded a truce with Seleucus, who married the daughter of Demetrius Stratonikos, but was later forced to give in to her son, who was in love with this woman. But Demetrius also captured Cilicia, which led to an aggravation of relations with Seleucus, who claimed these lands.

In 294 BC. e. Demetrius again subjugated Athens, but ceded Cyprus to Ptolemy. And then he was called for help by the son of the deceased in 297 BC. e. Cassandra Alexander, who could not divide Macedonia with his brother Antipater. Demetrius was late: the king of Epirus Pyrrhus and Lysimachus had already managed to help the brothers come to a peace agreement.

Demetrius, who appeared, was invited by Alexander to a “consolation” feast, at which this diadoch stabbed the owner. Pyrrhus, whose sister Deidamia was married to Demetrius (his third wife), advised the Macedonians not to worry about trifles: Demetrius is a Macedonian from a respected family, an experienced politician and a good commander, what else do you need? Live and be happy. Alexander's brother Antipater chose not to mess with Demetrius and fled the country, the Macedonians proclaimed Poliorket king, and he ruled here for 7 years.

Now the power of Demetrius included Macedonia, part of Greece and Asia Minor, and some islands. But Boeotia rebelled. The rebellion was suppressed, but during the siege of Thebes, Demetrius was wounded by an arrow in the neck.

In 288 BC. e. Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Pyrrhus started a war against Demetrius. He still managed to defeat Lysimachus at Amphiopolis, but this was the last success. Upon learning of her husband's defeat, his first wife Phila, daughter of Antipater and mother of the heir to the throne, committed suicide. Demetrius retreated first to Greece, then to Asia Minor. Here, in Miletus, the 50-year-old Demetrius married for the fifth time - to Ptolemaida, the daughter of Ptolemy, with whom he became engaged 13 years ago. He held on for some time, until the son of Lysimachus Agathocles pushed him to the east, cutting him off from the last possessions.

Pursued by Agathocles, Demetrius crossed the Taurus Mountains, ending up in the state of Seleucus. After a few months, he was forced to surrender to him. As we remember from previous article, the son of Demetrius Antigonus offered for his freedom all the property and himself in addition. However, Seleucus did not risk releasing such a serious and dangerous enemy. Demetrius, the father of the former wife of Seleucus, who became the wife of his heir Antiochus, ended his life as an honorary prisoner in the city of Apomea.

It is reported that at first he hunted a lot and did military exercises, but then, finally realizing that he would never return his freedom, he fell into depression and apathy. He died in 283 BC. e., the cause of his death Plutarch calls gluttony and drunkenness.

The ashes of Demetrius in a golden urn were sent to Greece and handed over to his son and heir Antigonus II Gonat (that is, from the city of Gonna). He buried the remains of his father in the city of Demetrias he founded - near Iolk. After 7 years, in 276 BC. e., Antigonus II, having hired about 9 thousand Celts and agreed on an alliance with Aetolia, conquered Macedonia. His descendants remained on the Macedonian throne until 168 BC. e., when the last king of the Antigonid dynasty, Perseus, was defeated in the war against Rome.
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

96 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +8
    March 17 2023
    Demetrius left on the island, their bronze parts were used to build the Colossus of Rhodes.
    Rhodes, for the Colossus! BAM-pioneer trains! smile
    1. +9
      March 17 2023
      Literally "BAM pioneer rails"
  2. +8
    March 17 2023
    Thank you, Valery!

    Woe to the vanquished. The Divine cannot last long.

    And the classic of our time:

    The taverns and women will bring you to the zugunder.
    1. +11
      March 17 2023
      The taverns and women will bring you to the zugunder.


      An ageless truth. laughing

      Campaspe, mistress and love of the great Alexander.

      1. +10
        March 17 2023
        What antique Playboy magazine is this "picture" from? smile
        1. +7
          March 17 2023
          What antique Playboy magazine is this "picture" from?


          You need to know the places. laughing
        2. +10
          March 17 2023
          Campaspa is. Photographed by John William Godward.
          1. +7
            March 17 2023
            Photographed by John William Godward.


            I understand that you were joking about "photographed", but since you did not quote this word, I will make a small clarification - John William Godward is an artist, I mean that he is a painter. smile


            John William Godward - Athenais
            1908x101
            1. +3
              March 17 2023
              But this one I like. Probably the model had long legs
              1. +3
                March 17 2023
                "long legs" I agree, she has beautiful legs, but I especially like her facial expression.
                She seemed to think about something sad
            2. +8
              March 17 2023

              The work of an artist with nudes is difficult. Assistants are running into darkness, do not push through. And he drives them away with a mast-belt so as not to interfere.
              Apelles paints Campaspe (Apelles writes to Compaste)
              Joos van Winghe (1544–1603)
      2. +5
        March 17 2023
        Konstantin, I don’t know about you, but for me: her main advantage is that she is naked, and so: her face is average and the figure is not the most perfect
        1. +10
          March 17 2023
          You are mistaken, Katya, her main advantage is her "daddy" - a certain Alexander Filippovich Makedonsky laughing
          1. +3
            March 17 2023
            "her" dad, in that case, she's Aphrodite.
          2. +4
            March 17 2023
            Hello Dima!
            The rest is up to you!
            +++++++++++++++++++++++++
      3. +4
        March 17 2023
        Uncle Kostya, good evening. You, as always, with illustrations. Often women on them
      4. +4
        March 17 2023
        Kostya, is the photo yours or a friend's?
        I hope it's not a selfie
    2. +10
      March 17 2023
      Good morning, Sergey!
      I don't quite agree.
      Read it:
      It is reported that at first he hunted a lot and did military exercises, but then, finally realizing that he would never return his freedom, he fell into depression and apathy.

      This. And drunkenness and gluttony, which led to the destruction of the body, are only consequences.
      The reason is always in the head. And the cause is born by irresistible circumstances.
      1. +7
        March 17 2023
        Good morning, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!

        Of course, the reason is in the person himself.
        Therefore, it is not constructive to shift the blame on the circumstances.
        1. +10
          March 17 2023
          That's how you understood me...
          You can adapt to circumstances and not lose your whole personality, sacrificing only a part of it. The circumstances in which Demetrius fell required to sacrifice everything. He donated. And then there was a major and a rapist ...
          It seems to me that the fall of Demetrius, and then the collapse of his fate, began with the episode of the death of Democles, driven by Demetrius into a cauldron of boiling water.
          Even the super-liberated Athenians did not understand this. Democles was from a noble family, which made the policy indignant and look at Demetrius with different eyes. The halo of a worthy ruler faded, the fire went out, did not flare up again.
          1. +5
            March 17 2023
            Don't know. When events at a distance turn into legend, try to discern a turning point in the depths of centuries.
          2. +4
            March 17 2023
            "they demanded to donate * I will develop your idea: Demetrius" broke down "and began to drink and eat bezmery.
            1. +4
              March 17 2023
              Quote from lisikat2
              I will develop your thought: Demetrius "broke down" and began to drink and eat bezmery.

              Better not, huh? Develop. bully
              1. +3
                March 17 2023
                Better not, huh? Develop.

                I'm curious, what is the taste of these same "immeasures" that Demetrius suddenly began to eat? Somebody has probably tried it and it seems to be delicious. I'm sorry I didn't get to.
              2. 0
                March 18 2023
                Good afternoon, I didn’t know that you were in Topkor
                Alas, my phone only allows you to read incoming messages, and I can only answer via email.
                Probably the Chinese are not finishing something.
                If both topvar and Topkor do not want to be "friends" with my phone
  3. VLR
    +11
    March 17 2023
    Further, by the way, we have a very interesting character: the king of Pontus Mithridates VI Eupator - “like Hannibal in hatred of the Romans”
    1. +7
      March 17 2023
      King of Pontus Mithridates VI Eupator - "like Hannibal in hatred of the Romans"

      WOW! smile
      And so on and so forth
    2. +7
      March 17 2023
      Valery, good morning! smile
      Everything is very nice and interesting, but why repeat word-for-word about Lamia from your most recent article "Socialites of Hellas" dated March 8 of this year, somehow you did not notice this before. It's even embarrassing. request
      1. VLR
        +7
        March 17 2023
        I didn't want to "rule Plutarch". And don't talk about Lamia too
        it would be wrong. Moreover, not everyone, probably, read the article about the "socialites of Hellas."
        1. +6
          March 17 2023
          not everyone, probably, read the article about the "social lionesses of Hellas."


          In my opinion, not only everything, but even more than everything, review the comments, there are some illustrations that are worth it! wink drinks
        2. +5
          March 17 2023
          The topic of Mithridates is generally immense! So much has been written about him in detail that it is not difficult for the reader to get lost in this heap of facts, conjectures and legends!
  4. +5
    March 17 2023
    Plutarch calls the cause of his death gluttony and drunkenness.
    Fell into nothingness..
  5. +6
    March 17 2023
    Demetrius himself was amazed at what was happening and said that not a single Athenian, great and strong in spirit, remained with him

    A familiar picture: insignificant sycophants first grovel before the lord, and then they say that they did it "at gunpoint" and take revenge on dead idols - like Khrushchev to Stalin.
  6. +7
    March 17 2023
    Cassander hated Alexander the Great and his family, it was on his orders that the mother of the great conqueror Olympias, his wife Roxana and the only legitimate son Alexander were killed.

    It's not just about hate.
    Antipater gave the regency to Polyperchon, which forced Cassander to seek support outside of Macedon. He made an alliance with Ptolemy Lagos and Antigonus and declared war on the regent. Most of the Greek cities, including Athens, joined them. He also won over to his side Eurydice, the wife of the Macedonian king Philip III Arrhidaeus.
    And she, and her uncle, and brother Cassandra Nicanor were soon destroyed by order of Olympias. Cassander opposed her and, eventually forcing her to surrender, put the queen to death in 316 BC. e. In 310 - 309 years. BC e. he also executed Roxana and the nominal Tsar Alexander IV - the wife and son of Alexander the Great; the latter's illegitimate son, Hercules, had previously been poisoned by Polyperchon at the instigation of Cassander.
    Cassander intermarried with the royal family, marrying Thessalonica, the half-sister of Alexander the Great, and, having entered into an alliance with Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus against Antigonus and eliminating the latter in 301 BC. e., became the ruler of Macedonia. Died of dropsy in 297 BC. e.
    1. VLR
      +8
      March 17 2023
      Cassander became related to the royal family by marrying Thessalonica, the half-sister of Alexander the Great.

      And Thessalonica was killed on the orders of her own son. Such a family custom is to destroy the relatives of Alexander the Great.
  7. +6
    March 17 2023
    The imagination of contemporaries was also struck by the wheeled siege tower "Gelepolis" ("Conqueror of Cities"), the height of which, according to various sources, was from 30 to 40 meters, width - 18 meters, base - about 20 meters.
    I strongly doubt the possibility of using such a structure in the area of ​​​​the Rhodes fortress, there is very rugged terrain.
    1. +8
      March 17 2023
      And the second strongest fortress of Rhodes, Lindos, generally stands on a rock above the sea.

      But the city of Rhodes itself is available for attack along the coast, especially from the medieval Italian bastion. At one time I went around all the fortifications there and did not notice any special problems with accessibility.
  8. +9
    March 17 2023
    When Demetrius returned from Leukas and Kerkyra to Athens, he was received not only with incense, wreaths and libations of wine, but also choral and phallic processions went towards him.

    rice.Phallic processions. Drawing from an ancient amphora.

    These are special festive processions in honor of Dionysus, and the phallus served as a symbol of this deity. Men and women walked the streets proudly holding giant phalluses over their heads as a tribute to the god. These noisy and numerous processions were accompanied by special phallic songs and rude jokes. According to Aristotle, comedy was subsequently born from the initiators of phallic processions.
    1. +6
      March 17 2023
      Demosthenes' nephew Democharos wrote:
      “When Demetrius returned from Leukas and Kerkyra to Athens, he was received not only with incense, wreaths and libations of wine, but also choral and phallic processions with songs and dances went towards him; and then they became a crowd, dancing and singing that he is the one true god. Some of these things bothered Demetrius himself, and he was extremely shameful and humiliating. Demetrius himself was amazed at what was happening and said that not a single Athenian, great and strong in spirit, remained with him.

      it is clear that Demetrius did not feel comme il faut at the same time - when the electorate honored him with wooden painted pussies. smile But since you are a living god, be patient. As they say, "called yourself a loader - climb into the body (c)"
      1. +5
        March 17 2023
        "phalic processions" I would like to see how ANY current leader would react if they were met by a similar procession
    2. +7
      March 17 2023
      Hello Dima. hi
      Just for the sake of laughter, I typed in the search engine ".Phallic processions." ... M-yeah ... Posting a single photo is not possible, it's not even about morality, but about the insanity of such current processions. wassat
      Let's go back to good old Rome. wink

      1. +5
        March 17 2023
        Kostya, hello. hi
        Here is one of two things:
        or "They won't catch up with us" (c)
        or "Am I running too fast?" (c) laughing
        1. +4
          March 17 2023
          "Am I running too fast?" (c)


          "I won't catch up, I'll keep warm" (c)

          1. +6
            March 17 2023
            "I won't catch up, I'll keep warm" (c)

            some kind of picture, God forgive me, "tolerant", or do you already have hens harassing roosters in Moscow? smile In our country, in the outback, everything is still the opposite in the old fashioned way - "decency, nobility" (c)
            Greetings, Konstantin hi drinks
            1. +8
              March 17 2023
              Do you already have hens harassing roosters in Moscow?


              And figs knows what they have in Moscow and how things are with chickens there. I’m sitting in a Ryazan village and I’ve been in the capital for six years already, and it doesn’t pull, my city has long been gone.
              By the way, in our village they stopped keeping chickens, from the word at all, I'm not talking about large cattle.
  9. +3
    March 17 2023
    Where did my comment disappear to? AU moderators
  10. +3
    March 17 2023
    I wonder how quickly they will ban me?
  11. +6
    March 17 2023
    It is believed that it was Demetrius who was the first in the ancient world to place his portraits on coins - until then, images of gods or dead heroes were applied to them.

    Earlier: at least coins with the image of Alexander the Great were minted. hi
    1. VLR
      +7
      March 17 2023
      We are talking about the first coins with the image of "myself beloved".
  12. +7
    March 17 2023
    Democles the Handsome, died after jumping into a cauldron of boiling water in a bath to escape his harassment.

    In "Konka-Gorbunka" everything turned out more successfully. laughing
    1. +6
      March 17 2023
      In "Konka-Gorbunka" everything turned out more successfully.


      So after all, the old truth - "Du crayfish is lucky." laughing
    2. +8
      March 17 2023
      Sergey, my respect hi
      In "Konka-Gorbunka" everything turned out more successfully. laughing

      Is not a fact. Jumping out of a boiling cauldron in front of Demetrius, who is bleeding from lust, is younger and more beautiful - not the best option. Yes smile
      1. +7
        March 17 2023
        Quote: Richard
        Is not a fact. Jumping out of a boiling cauldron in front of Demetrius, who is bleeding from lust, is younger and more beautiful - not the best option.

        But why? As far as I remember the content of The Little Humpbacked Horse, the old fool-king throws himself into the cauldron and cooks there. laughing
        1. VLR
          +6
          March 17 2023
          The main thing is that the alternatively gifted Ivan in Yershov's tale jumped out of boiling water not in front of Demetrius, but in front of the Tsar Maiden.
          1. +4
            March 17 2023
            Greetings, Valery hi
            In this particular case, the main thing is who is alternatively gifted here, and who the king-maiden would be decided only by Demetrius laughing
            1. +5
              March 17 2023
              In this particular case, who is alternatively gifted here, and who is the king-maiden, only Demetrius would decide

              Thanks, I laughed good drinks )))
  13. +5
    March 17 2023
    In 288 BC. e. Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Pyrrhus started a war against Demetrius.

    Pyrrhus of Epirus

    Unique general. Most of him is known for the "Pyrrhic victory", but few people know that Pyrrhus fought all his life without a single defeat on the battlefield. Contemporaries of Pyrrhus believed that Alexander the Great himself was reborn in his person.
    a photoPyrrhus of Epirus, statue in the Capitoline Museums

    Pyrrhus was the son of Aeacides, king of Epirus, and Phthia, a Thessalian. He was considered a descendant of Achilles. Pyrrhus was a second cousin and cousin of Alexander the Great (Pyrrhus's father, Aeacides is the cousin and nephew of Olympias, Alexander's mother).
    Plutarch on Pyrrhus:
    "among all the kings, only in Pyrrhus one can see the image of Alexander's courage, the rest - and first of all, Demetrius - as if on stage in front of the audience, are trying to imitate only the greatness and arrogance of the deceased sovereign", or "his appearance, and the speed of his movements (Pyrrhus ) resembles Alexander, and seeing his strength and onslaught in battle, everyone thought that in front of them was the shadow of Alexander or his likeness, and if the rest of the kings proved their resemblance to Alexander only with purple vestments, retinue, head tilt (Alexander the Great had such a unique habit, which the Diadochi sought to imitate) and in an arrogant tone, then Pyrrhus proved it with a weapon in his hands.He was also not angry, which distinguished him from the arrogant and arrogant Demetrius.

    when Antigonus was asked about the best commander, and he answered this way:
    - I consider Pyrrhus the best general, - and then added, - if, of course, he lives to old age.

    Hannibal Barca also claimed that Pyrrhus was one of the greatest generals.
    Fig.The war elephants of Pyrrhus fight the Romans.
    1. +4
      March 17 2023
      Richard, I remember from history: "Pmrova victory" is an analogue of defeat. Victory is too expensive.
      1. +4
        March 17 2023
        According to legend, after the battle, Pyrrhus exclaimed - "one more such victory and I will be left without an army"
        Read about it - you will be interested. He died not trivially - during the assault on Sparta, an old woman threw tiles at him from the roof
        1. +12
          March 17 2023
          It was the glorious city of Argos guarded by the gods of Olympus.
          1. +6
            March 17 2023
            Exactly. Thanks for the correction, dear Abigor. Memory failed
            Pyrrhus then laid siege to Sparta. But a detachment sent by Antigonus Gonatus came to the aid of the Spartans. And Pyrrhus, without finishing the siege, made a fatal decision for himself - to go to Argos
    2. +6
      March 17 2023
      the rest - and first of all, Demetrius - as if on a stage in front of the audience, are trying to imitate only the greatness and arrogance of the deceased sovereign", or "with their appearance

      Psychologists were, however, "witnesses of Demetrius")))
      And after all, what is remarkable is that in the first article Demetrius is a handsome and clever man. In the second, a vicious inside comes out.
      Viciousness, by the way, is not an ingredient that can be combined with beauty and intelligence and get a good result.
      A fly in the ointment, and barrels of honey are gone.
  14. +4
    March 17 2023
    All good health. "with bull horns". How changeable fashion is: then decorating yourself with horns is an honor, but now NONE of the men, for some reason, does not want such an honor?
    1. VLR
      +4
      March 17 2023
      And this is a hint of divine origin and even the title of god. Since the time of Sumer, Babylon and Assyria. And Alexander the Great was portrayed with horns. - hence his nickname - Two-horned.
      1. +4
        March 17 2023
        Did he even have a helmet with horns? Iskander-two-horned.
        Only here on the modern copy of the horns are somehow not visible.

        1. +6
          March 17 2023
          According to legend, the golden helmet was given to Alexander the Great by the god of sunlight, the patron of the arts, Apollo. It was such a valuable treasure that the Macedonian coast did not take it with him on military campaigns, and even more so did not use it for its intended purpose - he left at home in the care of his mother - Olympias I Aeacida of Epirus (Not to be confused with Olympias II of Epirus - wife Alexander II, mother of Pyrrhus II and Ptolemy of Epirus). A strong guard remained near the vault. During the absence of Alexander in the country, the helmet served as a talisman for the state and its inhabitants. Shortly before his death, during the Indian campaign, the commander faced fierce resistance from the Indian nobles and their troops. He sent messengers to Macedonia to bring the helmet, in the hope of its miraculous power. However, the helmet could not even protect itself: on the way to the army, the ambassadors of Alexander the Great were robbed by robbers. It happened in an area called Pyatigorye, located on the Mineralnye Vody sloping plain in the northern part of the Caucasian Mineral Waters region. The robbers were caught up and subjected to terrible torture. Even at the edge of life, they preferred to remain silent and did not give out where they hid the helmet. It is believed that he was hidden in one of the suitable crevices. The helmet was never found. It is still unknown where the helmet of Alexander the Great is kept, and historians continue to look for it.
          So the plot of the film "Gentlemen of Fortune" did not arise from scratch.
          The cinematic "helmet" is kept in the exposition of the Mosfilm Museum and is made from an ordinary fire helmet of the past centuries.
          1. +5
            March 17 2023
            It happened in a place called Pyatigorye, located on the Mineralovodskaya sloping plain in the northern part of the Caucasian Mineral Waters region.
            What an original route to India!)))
            1. +5
              March 17 2023
              What an original route to India!)))

              According to Plutarch, we owe this original route to Olympias, which inspired Alexander from childhood that that descendant of Dionysus
              Alexander the Great not only marched with an army along the ancient path of Dionysus - from Egypt through the Caucasus to India - but, like his beloved god, he founded new cities, which he called Alexandria, in his honor. The situation with these cities is no better than with the Dionysian Nisa, because the location of many of them, especially Alexandria of the Caucasus, still remains unclear ...
              Information about the stay of Alexander the Great in the North Caucasus is indeed preserved in many sources - historical and legendary. Written in the XNUMXst century AD. Quintius Curtius Rufus "History of Alexander the Great" contains references to how the army led by the Macedonian king, after a long war in Persia, crossed the Caucasus Mountains in just fourteen days, met with the Amazon tribe and participated in the battles on the Tanais River (the ancient Greek name for the Don). In addition, there are ancient reports about the battles of the Macedonian army on the northern side of the Caspian Sea, on the territory of present-day Dagestan. Where the ancient Caucasian city of Derbent stands, there was once a narrow passage in the mountains called the “Caspian Gate”. Through it, the warlike Scythians penetrated to the sea and made devastating raids on the local peoples. At their request, Alexander drove the nomads back into the mountains and closed the ill-fated gorge with "iron gates". He ordered to fill it with piles of ore and a combustible mixture, which the Macedonians set on fire, fanning the flames with huge bellows. The ore melted, firmly sealing the Scythians' already limited access to defenseless agricultural tribes. Since then, that place has been called Derbent, which means "Iron Gate".
              This amazing story, retold hundreds of times in various historical documents, is even reflected in the Koran (18:83-101), which says that the iron barrier erected by Alexander will crumble into powder before the very end of the world.
              1. +3
                March 17 2023
                Information about the stay of Alexander the Great in the North Caucasus is indeed preserved in many sources - historical and legendary...


                Alexander didn't have to go to the Caucasus.
                There is still a so-called appropriating economy.
                1. +3
                  March 17 2023
                  Alexander didn't have to go to the Caucasus.
                  There is still a so-called appropriating economy.

                  Lyudmila Yakovlevna, are you serious? belay
                  I’m afraid to disappoint you greatly, but we haven’t been running in skins with stone axes for a long time smile
                  Yes, and Comrade Macedonian has nothing to do with this economy Yes
                  The appropriating economy arose at the initial stages of the formation of mankind. The appropriating economy is a type of economic activity where the main role was assigned to hunting, fishing and gathering. The appropriating form of economic life was the main one for primitive people.

                  1. +4
                    March 17 2023
                    I'm afraid to disappoint you

                    Dima, you will not disappoint me. Contemporary economists are often referred to as an appropriating subsidized economy. Can you guess which parts of our country are subsidized? That is, those who live entirely on the labor of others and, by the way, live better than those whose labor they appropriate. Giving practically nothing in return, or producing extremely negligibly.
                    In the modern world, there are entire countries that scour the world in search of countries with a PRODUCING economy for the role of their owner, who would feed them, in return giving the owner, say, the opportunity to set up their military bases, etc. the same. Something that is not an investment in a producing economy. For there is none.
                    I read not only VO.
                    1. +3
                      March 17 2023
                      Contemporary economists are often referred to as an appropriating subsidized economy.

                      In science, there is a clear definition of what an appropriating economy is, and what they call modern, if not remembered by the night, "highly effective economists" from the HSE speak only about their professional literacy.
                      1. +2
                        March 17 2023
                        Economists" from HSE


                        Dima, that's what economists say, just the same as opposing the liberals. Time passes, history and economics are forced to interbreed, filling old concepts with new content.
                        This is what happens in an era of historical turning points. But ... even many words often used in everyday life once had a meaning different from the present.
                        However, okay)))
                        Walking through the biography of Demetrius, I learned that he could not be the son of One-Eyed, but his nephew. You see, even in such things there are disagreements)))
                        Here is a reason for you to show the reason for this version.
                2. +1
                  March 17 2023
                  Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I live in Krasnodar, and you are somewhere in the suburbs. It is unlikely that you have socialism, which means "appropriation" to a greater or lesser extent, but it is present EVERYWHERE
                  1. +1
                    March 17 2023
                    Quote: Astra wild2
                    somewhere in the suburbs.

                    My minus. For * suburbs *! It was, is and will be-Moscow region !!! am
                    With a capital letter!
                    1. +2
                      March 17 2023
                      With a capital letter!

                      Greetings, Sergey Vladimirovich! )))
                      Thank you - stood up for the honor of the capital letter "P" wassat )))
                      1. +1
                        March 17 2023
                        Thank you - stood up for the honor of the capital letter "P" wassat


                        Hello Seryozha hi drinks
                3. +2
                  March 18 2023
                  Quote: depressant
                  There is still a so-called appropriating economy.

                  I have had some experience with the economy in the Caucasus. She is quite selfish. They showed me the workshop, the equipment of which was designed by the lady there alone. The designer of beverage filling machines couldn't understand how local specialists could fill drinks from juices and mineral water to wine and vodka at such a low wholesale price. The only problem is the lack of loans. In Kabardino-Balkaria, they were going to build a yeast factory 3 times cheaper than the Chinese are building and 8 times cheaper than the French are building for D. Medvedev. But I think after the start of the NWO, Putin is forced to start lending to the industry of the North Caucasus.
          2. +6
            March 17 2023
            It happened in an area called Pyatigorye, located on the Mineralnye Vody sloping plain in the northern part of the Caucasian Mineral Waters region.


            Already then abreks were naughty? However...laughing

            1. +4
              March 17 2023
              By the way, according to Plutarch, after the death of Alexander, the Diadochi accused of organizing the theft of his helmet .... - Ptolemy, who led this investigation
        2. +4
          March 17 2023
          Sea Cat (Constantine): Did he seem to have a helmet with horns?

          Many historians strongly doubt this. There is not a single coin of that time with Alexander in a two-horned helmet.
          The fact is that when he appeared with the troops in Egypt, the local people, suffering from the Persian yoke, immediately called Alexander the liberator. Egyptian priests went much further than ordinary people. They announced that the Macedonian king - no less - the son of the god Amun, the head of the Egyptian pantheon. As you know, the totemic animal of the god Amon was a ram. Therefore, the horns of this particular animal were decorated with a golden diadem presented to him. And it wasn't just curled ornaments. The horns emphasized the divine origin of the Macedonian ruler, his military success, power and valor. According to Plutarch, Alexander never put on the Egyptian "gift", saying that he was not the ruler of Egypt, but of the entire Ocumene.
          1. Fat
            +5
            March 17 2023
            Greetings, Dmitry.
            Quote: Richard
            Egyptian priests went much further than ordinary people. They announced that the Macedonian king - no less - the son of the god Amun, the head of the Egyptian pantheon. As you know, the totemic animal of the god Amon was a ram. Therefore, the horns of this particular animal were decorated with a golden diadem presented to him. And it wasn't just curled ornaments. The horns emphasized the divine origin of the Macedonian ruler, his military success, power and valor.
            - Where does it come from.
            Plutarch describes Alexander's visit to the oracle of Amun. But there is no talk of any "horns", especially the sacred animals of Amon.
            Alexander was dedicated in Egypt to Apis, maybe "horns grow" from there, although this is doubtful. request
            1. +4
              March 17 2023
              Greetings Andrew
              The sacred animals of the Egyptian Amon were the ram with twisted horns and the goose. Amun was depicted as a man with a ram or goose head.
              Fig. Egyptian god Amun in the form of a man with ram's horns and in the form of a ram.

              and here is a photo from the British Museum Amon in the form of a ram, guarding the pharaoh Taharka.

              Alexander from childhood was "obsessed" with Dionysus. According to the historian Leontes, when Dionysus ruled Egypt, Amun arrived from Africa and brought him cattle, for which Dionysus gave him land against Egyptian Thebes. Therefore, the sculptors depict Amon with a horned head. According to Herodotus, Dionysus in India (that is, Ethiopia) was looking for water and did not find it, a ram came out of the sand and showed water. Then Dionysus asked Zeus to include the ram among the constellations. Where water was found, Dionysus built a temple to Zeus-Amon. Plutarch describes Alexander's visit to the oracle of Amun in this temple - the oracle called Alexander the son of "Zeus-Ammon", which gave him confidence in his own divinity.
              Alexander was dedicated in Egypt to Apis, maybe "horns grow" from there

              Maybe from there, today, alas. can only speculate
              1. Fat
                +1
                March 17 2023
                In general, all the pharaohs of the middle and new kingdoms of Egypt since the 18th dynasty are sheep offspring. wassat
  15. +6
    March 17 2023
    What is wrong with us?
    What in ancient Greece, what we have - it is similar.
    But there is a difference. The slaves disappeared, there were more citizens. Much. Citizens are like money. When goods are scarce and money is plentiful, inflation occurs and money becomes cheaper. You need to take a bag of money with you to the store.
    We have inflation of citizens.
    1. +7
      March 17 2023
      The slaves are gone
      They have not disappeared, they have become corporate staff.
      1. +4
        March 17 2023
        they have become corporate staff.




        Hello Anton. drinks
        1. +4
          March 17 2023
          Hi Uncle Kostya!
          There is no stability, Oleg Divov well described how and what happens there in "Objects in the Rear View Mirror".
          1. +5
            March 17 2023
            With Divov sign from your submission, but I have not read this thing. I'll take note.

            Just "King and Jester" smile

      2. +3
        March 17 2023
        they have become corporate staff.

        Anton, do you mean writing endless reports?
        Sad topic.
        Well, releases.
        1. +5
          March 17 2023
          No, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I mean: "corporate ethics", team building and general informing.
          And endless reports, that's right, a free load.
          1. 0
            March 26 2023
            Help your "neighbor" fall and you will take his place - a classic office plankton.
  16. +2
    March 17 2023
    "Reverence has completely ceased" - alas, the "sectration of Gloria Munde" - this is how earthly glory passes.
    As the Romans said
    1. +4
      March 17 2023
      As the Romans said

      Not much wrong. This is a phrase from the book of the XNUMXth century German mystic philosopher Thomas of Kempis "On the Imitation of Christ"
      “Oh, how soon worldly glory passes” (lat. O quam cito transit gloria mundi)

      By the way, - these words sound like a traditional exclamation during the ceremony of inauguration of the new pope, in front of which a piece of cloth is burned three times - as a sign that everything earthly, including the power and glory he receives, is illusory, changeable and perishable. .
      1. +3
        March 17 2023
        It's bad without a bell, right?
        Read my answer to you about the modern understanding of the appropriating economy.
        1. +3
          March 17 2023
          It's bad without a bell, right?

          oh bad Yes
          "Ding-ding-ding, ding-ding-ding!" -
          The bell chimed...
          This sound, this sign
          He spoke about the answers.
          almost (s)smile

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"