Weapons of the steppe Indians

97
Weapons of the steppe Indians
Another famous Indian of all times and peoples Vinnet (Pierre-Louis, Baron Le Bris) with his “silver double-barreled shotgun” ... By the way, the Indians loved double-barreled hunting rifles and willingly purchased them from white merchants!


"... Every warrior fears most of all that the ill-fated star does not lead him to death without being painted in a military way."
"At the American Indians", J. Katlin

Indians with and without tomahawks. We continue our cycle dedicated to the culture of the Indian tribes of North America. Last time we talked about the Crow Indians, who were fiercely at odds with the Sioux Dakota. But what did all these steppe Indians fight with, besides the guns and revolvers they got from the whites? This is what our story will be about today...




Stone mace of the non-Persian Indians. National historical non perce park

The image of an Indian, no matter what - steppe or forest, is associated in our minds with a bow and a tomahawk. Fenimore Cooper, and James Willard Schultz, and many others have tried to do this. And - yes, indeed, although the steppe Indians used a variety of weapons, targets at a distance were mainly hit with a bow. It is believed that the ancestors of the steppe Indians in ancient times also used a spear-throwing stick and a wind pipe, but since the steppe culture was formed much later, namely, when the prairie Indians had already met Europeans and learned to ride, archaic species weapons disappeared, as more unclaimed. But the bow and arrows continued to retain their significance.


Apache bow with arrow quiver

It is interesting that the Indians did not abandon these weapons, even when they got acquainted with the guns of the pale-faced. The reason is simple - guns were expensive, besides, the Indians could neither repair them nor produce gunpowder on their own. But any Indian could make a bow, among which, as in any business, there were true masters of this business. The bow was also beneficial in that during the mass hunting of buffalo, it was easy to determine from the marks on the arrows which bison belonged to whom. In addition, a bow shot is silent, which is important both in hunting and in war. And arrows could be launched from a canopy and hit enemies hiding behind cover. Rifles didn't have that. And lastly, the bow and arrows helped to use a technique that was very effectively and repeatedly shown to us in the movies: “fiery arrows”, with which the Indians throw the dwellings of their pale-faced enemies.


Crow's weapon - a club of buffalo horns

Unlike the "long English bow", the Indian bow was small. Its length was one meter or a little more. They were made from ash, elm, yew, cedar or hazel wood. Willard Schultz's story "With the Indians in the Rocky Mountains" describes how such a bow was strengthened with tendons laid over its shoulders, and this made it more elastic. The Indians also knew bows from a wooden base lined with horn overlays, and also reinforced with tendons. As overlays, strips split off from elk horns, straightened horns of a mountain sheep or strips of whalebone, which the steppe Indians exchanged with tribes from the Pacific coast, were used. The strongest and most powerful bows were made entirely of horn, but it was still necessary to look for suitable horns for this. The glue with which the Indians glued the parts of the bows, they boiled from buffalo or deer hooves. Bows were sometimes wrapped in rawhide or put on them like a stocking, the skin of a rattlesnake. Bow decorations were the most diverse: ermine fur, and porcupine quills, and red fabric ...


Applied baton. Weapons of the Iroquois tribes

The bowstring was made from tendons taken from the spine of a bison. The length of the arrow was usually equal to the length of the owner's arm - from the armpit to the tips of his fingers. The tips were made of stone, bone and sheet iron. Usually they were a simple triangular shape, but there were also diamond-shaped ones.


Tomahawk Sioux Dakota, 1860

Plumage - always from three clipped feathers, most often - feathers of an eagle. Arrow shafts, like plumage, were usually painted, and thanks to this, the owner of the arrow was easily identified. But there were also arrows that had a common, tribal coloring. For example, the Cheyennes had three wavy lines along the shaft from plumage to tip. A quiver with arrows was usually worn behind the back so that the arrows could be taken out from behind the right shoulder. At the same time, they were laid with the tips up.


Knife for scalping. Brooklyn Museum of Art

The power of the Indian bows used by the prairie tribes was very great. Yuri Kotenko, in his book The Indians of the Great Plains, for example, reports that the Cheyenne bow, with a length of 114 cm, had a tension of 51 cm, the range of a shot from it was 150 m, and the force needed for tension was 30,5 kg. The Apache bow, with a length of 104 cm, had a tension of 56 cm, a firing range of 110 m, and a pull force of 12,7 kg. However, all these data are approximate. But something else is known: eyewitnesses have repeatedly written that during the hunt for bison, an Indian could kill a huge bison with two or three arrows. There were Indians who managed to knock him down with one arrow... It is interesting that the Indians also had hybrid bows with a spear tip on one of the shoulders. Spear-bows were used in combat as well as in military dances.


Homemade Indian knife with an antler handle

But the straight long spear, although it was used, was gradually losing ground. Interestingly, the Indians often supplied them with European bayonets instead of tips, which, of course, were much cheaper than guns. The so-called "crooked spears", similar to a hook, were also used. With such weapons, it was possible, having caught up with the rider, to pull him by the neck from the back of the horse, but most often they were used as ritual attributes and therefore were very richly trimmed.

All kinds of clubs were extremely popular. The "signature" weapon of the Sioux, for example, was the so-called flexible club. It was a stone woven with vines or wrapped in leather and attached to a wooden handle so that it could hang freely. Naturally, it was very easy to make such a weapon, but a blow to them could crush the skull of a wolf, and it wouldn’t seem enough to a person.


Knife and scabbard of the Plains Cree, 1850

Often the handles of such weapons were richly trimmed, primarily with scalp strands of hair. Applied clubs were used (their idea was borrowed from Europeans), which had the shape of a gun with a butt. In the place where the gun was supposed to have a lock, the Indians inserted a metal point, or even three knives. The wooden part was covered with red cloth, upholstered with copper wallpaper nails - in a word, it was a very terrible, but also a beautiful weapon!


Knife of the Dakota Indians with a bison tubular bone handle

There has already been material here about hatchets-tomahawks, so it is hardly worth repeating in this case. The main thing is that the tomahawk entered not only the military life of the Indians, but also the spiritual one. Even their sacred pipes made of catlinite - a red stone from Minnesota, they very often made in the form of a tomahawk, and the tomahawks themselves quite often had a cup for tobacco on the butt.


Dakota knife with a simple wooden handle

An important part of the weapons of the Prairie Indians (and the Indians in general) were knives. Before meeting with Europeans, they had two types: flint, similar to the knives of many other peoples, and “yellow”, made from native copper. There was even a tribe of "Yellownaf" ("yellow knives"), whose representatives were engaged in their manufacture from deposits of high-quality native copper ore that was available in their territory.


Steppe Cree knife and scabbard, 1875 Horn handle

But barter with Europeans helped all Indians, young and old, to acquire metal knives. Moreover, blades were usually purchased from Europeans. The Indians attached the handles to them themselves, and there is nothing to say about the beautiful sheaths made of leather, embroidered with patterns from porcupine quills - these are real works of art. Interestingly, unlike the Europeans, the Indians sharpened their knives only on one side, and not on two. But this did not affect their sharpness in any way!

As for the white weapons, by 1830 almost all prairie tribes could get flintlock guns. The price was not too high, let's just say: a gun, 100 bullets, two spare flints and a bag of gunpowder cost only 20 beaver skins. Primer guns were more expensive: a gun, four boxes of primers, a bag of bullets and another one with gunpowder - 45 beaver skins! For guns, again, leather cases were sewn and richly embroidered, and also decorated with fringe.


Tlingit Indian knife. True, they do not belong to the steppe Indians, but their knives are very beautiful!

They did not disdain, but on the contrary, the Indians and revolvers were very actively used. Firstly, the revolver relied on the state of the Indian scout. Secondly, it is clear that, having become acquainted with these weapons through their brethren, other Indians - their fellow tribesmen - tried to keep up with them and also acquired these weapons, which they kept in a richly embroidered holster.


An Indian knife made entirely from the bone of a caribou deer.

It is interesting that some Indians even had European sabers (again in leather scabbards embroidered in their own way!) and ... Spanish chain mail. So the armament of some of them was very, very colorful!


The knife of the Crow Indians (it was not in the previous material, we fill this gap). Moreover, this knife is a typical Bowie, but it belonged to the Indians of this tribe!

PS We have a certain degree of misconception about the Indians, whether it concerns their weapons or life in general. It is believed that they are unhappy, oppressed people. But here, for example, the Shakopi Mdeyaganton tribe owns two casinos Mutis Lake Sagino Nottel and LittleSich. Both have annual revenues of over $1 billion. Thus, for each of the 500 members of the tribe, about 1,08 million dollars annually. Add to that the fact that they don't pay taxes (according to US law)! In addition to two casinos, this tribe also owns a golf course that hosts national championships, as well as a concert hall and a 600-room hotel. Today, the Shakopee Tribe is the largest employer in the Cĸot community in Minnesota. Many of the members of the tribe have a second home off the reservation. True, not all Indian tribes are so rich, so the Shakopees have made donations to other Indian tribes in the amount of $ 1996 million since 243!

PSS Photographs from the National Museum of Indians in Washington DC are used to illustrate the article.
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  1. +5
    March 13 2023
    Interesting article. Regarding hunting, as well as fishing, we are all human beings, no matter if you are pale-skinned, red-skinned, yellow or black.
    To brag about your dexterity, courage and luck, I'm sure all races love it. wink
    But something else is known: eyewitnesses have repeatedly written that during the hunt for bison, an Indian could kill a huge bison with two or three arrows. There were Indians who managed to knock him down with one arrow...


    V.G. Perov, being a hunter himself, illustrated this with humor in his work. Mixed all the ways of hunting.

    what Regarding the bow and arrows as the main weapon when hunting buffalo, it is somehow doubtful to kill with two or three arrows, to pierce wool, skin, under the left shoulder blade in the heart. In the "pre-horse" period, the hunters of the Clovis culture used two main methods of hunting bison and other large animals. Driven hunting, with pursuit to a certain place, where they were mortally wounded. This usually happened on the shore of a lake or at the edge of a canyon, where a large number of arrowheads and animal bones were found. Spears and darts with retouched tips were used as hunting tools.
    Ancient hunters used traps made of stones and boulders laid out fences along the path leading to the cliff, falling from which the animal died or was seriously injured (Head Smasht-in-Buffalo Jump - a cliff in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada). According to the analysis of the remains in the soil of the valley (the place of the fall), it was found that this trap was used for at least 5500 years.

    The use of "horsepower" made it possible to pursue without driving into traps, spears and darts were most likely also used. If in the Middle Ages of the Old World, special tips for wounding horses were already widely used, and bone and stone arrowheads somehow do not fit in with killing a bison "with one shot."
    1. +12
      March 13 2023
      Quote: Lynx2000
      humorously illustrated this in his work. Mixed all the ways of hunting

      This same Perov forgot to draw a bottle - and this is the most important attribute in hunting, probably more important than a gun and cartridges ... wink
      1. +2
        March 13 2023
        Shpakovsky found a successful site ... they pay for a line) (letter), for the facts of which there are plenty on the Internet ... handsome!
        1. +7
          March 13 2023
          Quote: Aerodrome
          for the facts of which are full on the Internet

          Envy further. You won't find anything like it!
          1. +7
            March 13 2023

            Tomahawk Sioux Dakota, 1860

            A typical "factory" tomahawk is a smoking pipe. Judging by the shape of the blade, it is a 19th century French sponton.
          2. +9
            March 13 2023
            Vyacheslav Olegovich hi
            A good article, good illustrations - and tomahawks, in the form of clubs and axes, and bows, and knives. Where are the spears? these would be interesting to look at.
            For all the tribes inhabiting the great plain, the spear was a significant weapon along with the bow. A spear in the hands of an Indian, no matter what tribe he is from, always brought death to the enemy. In our view, a spear is a fairly strong shaft made of hard wood with a characteristic steel tip, while Indian spears had flexible shafts. Tips - bone or from processed stone, fixed on the shaft with natural glue and strips of rawhide. The Indians did not know how to process metal. Therefore, a saber blade, which the warrior obtained in battle, was used as tips. It turned out quite an impressive tip up to 75 cm long and 3 cm wide. Different tribes had different spear lengths, from 1,5 meters to 3 meters. Most of the Indian tribes preferred short spears, because in their opinion a long spear was not befitting a brave warrior. A warrior who took a spear with him to war was considered a strong warrior. After all, the spear meant hand-to-hand combat.
            An Indian warrior with a spear did not wear a headdress, because the spear itself spoke of his status. The status was determined by the decoration of the spear. Decorated with feathers, animal fur, and later with beads.
            Despite the appearance of firearms, the Indians did not part with spears, having with them a bow, a gun and a spear at the same time.
            Artist Alfredo Rodriguez.
            1. +11
              March 13 2023
              a photo apache spear

              a photo pawnee spear

              sioux spear

              spear navajo
            2. +2
              March 13 2023
              Alas, Richard! I looked through a bunch of photos from museums in New York and Washington and did not find a single room on the site. Maybe I looked bad. But arrows and spears are completely faceless ... Is that where you found yours?
              1. +11
                March 13 2023
                Yes, there are plenty of them on the internet, there are even feature articles about Indian spears. By the way, here are three drawings by the famous reenactor Jonathan Smith:
                Armament of Kamanche warriors in 1830.

                Apache warrior armament 1830

                Armament of the Huron warriors 1830

                what struck - a shield and a loincloth.
                Your opinion?
                1. +8
                  March 13 2023
                  Quote: Richard
                  what struck - a shield and a loincloth.

                  The helmet with horns clearly confirms the version that the Vikings did reach America. wassat
                  1. +11
                    March 13 2023
                    The helmet with horns clearly confirms the version that the Vikings did reach America.

                    Let's say, but then a reasonable classic question to the Huron himself: laughing
                    Why did you shave off your mustache? (With)


                    Greetings, Sergey hi
                    1. +3
                      March 13 2023
                      Quote: Richard
                      Why did you shave off your mustache? (With)

                      Of course, in order to sunbathe better.
                      Wow, what a tanned face. laughing
                      And whoever says that this is a pale-faced one - let him be the first to throw a stone at him.
                      Greetings Dmitry! hi
                    2. +2
                      March 13 2023
                      Let's say, but then a reasonable classic question to the Huron himself

                      Dmitry, hello! To our yesterday's conversation (it has nothing to do with the topic of the article, I ask you to sincerely forgive all the participants!) - today is the anniversary of the assassination of Alexander II in a new style. You are completely right - at the time of his death he was dressed in the uniform of the LG Sapper Battalion, which saved him, the baby, during the Decembrist uprising. Mystic? Or fate? God knows! request
                    3. 0
                      March 15 2023
                      Let's say, but then a reasonable classic question to the Huron himself: laughing

                      Questions should be asked to his skao!!! laughing
                2. -1
                  March 13 2023
                  Quote: Richard
                  shield and loincloth.

                  Dear Richard! Completely on the Internet it is not always for me, although it always is for you. There are difficulties here. And how they looked ... Yes, they could look like anything ...
                  1. +1
                    March 13 2023
                    Lady, hello!
                    To your comment, as always, complete nonsense, as an answer.
                    It's good that VOSH stopped signing his opuses as a Ph.D. - and this is a pill!
          3. +4
            March 13 2023
            the Cheyenne bow with a length of 114 cm had a tension of 51 cm, the range of a shot from it was 150 m, and the force needed for tension was 30,5 kg

            By "tension 51 cm" obviously refers to the stretch, that is, the course of the bowstring when stretching the bow before shooting. A force of 30 kg is quite common for a sports bow of our time. The range of 150m is obviously mounted, also quite an average bow.
            . Bow Apache ... force to pull 12,7 kg.

            Probably a mistake, since 10 kg is a children's bow, barely throwing an arrow at 25m, and hardly surprising a crow.
            1. +1
              March 13 2023
              Quote: eule
              Probably a mistake, since 10 kg is a children's bow, barely throwing an arrow at 25m, and hardly surprising a crow.

              Not necessary. Much depends on the weight and length of the arrow.
            2. 0
              March 17 2023
              Quote: eule
              . A force of 30 kg is quite common for a sports bow of our time.

              Quite the usual draw force of a sports bow is 22 kg for men, and 15 for women.
              Quote: eule
              Probably a mistake, since 10 kg is a children's bow, barely throwing an arrow at 25m, and hardly surprising a crow.

              An arrow with a blunted tip (ogival shape) fired from a bow with a tension of 12 kg from 10 meters pierces a galvanized bucket, so the crow can only be surprised by the miss of the shooter)
        2. +1
          March 13 2023
          Quote: Aerodrome
          Shpakovsky found a successful site ... they pay for a line) (letter), for the facts of which there are plenty on the Internet ... handsome!

          Marvelous. But Shpakovsky is tilted left and right, up and down.
          And they ask, well, how is Shpakovsky, what other heresy will he write? Wow we have it!!!
          Everyone is happy.
          But, there is no nickname "Airfield" in the great flood. And why?.....
      2. +7
        March 13 2023
        I have always said - "Peculiarities of the National Hunt" is by no means a feature film, but a purely documentary film. This is exactly how it usually happens.
        1. +6
          March 13 2023
          This is exactly how it usually happens.


          You are right, he used to go hunting in his time. smile drinks

          "Well, for the hunt!" (C)

          1. +6
            March 13 2023
            used to go hunting himself. smile smile drinks
            "Well, for the hunt!" (C)

            "In short, even shorter! The toast on the hunt should be short, like a command, like a shot, otherwise there will be no time for rest." (With)
            Greetings, Konstantin hi
            1. +4
              March 13 2023
              Hello Dima! smile
              Hunting is not work, but recreation and pleasure.
              And everything should be comfortable.drinks

              "Come on, give me game by shot!" laughing
              1. +9
                March 13 2023
                Hunting is not a job

                Alcoholism is not a disease, but hard, exhausting work... wink laughing
                1. +9
                  March 13 2023
                  Alcoholism is not a disease, but hard, exhausting work.


                  Sometimes life threatening... wink

      3. +8
        March 13 2023
        Luminman, hunters have everything, Perov did not forget the drink. Take a closer look - the flask lies and the lid of the glass is nearby. Very hunting. Here you can see it better.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. +1
      March 13 2023
      It doesn't have to be straight to the heart. The important thing is to keep the blood flowing. People and with a slingshot hunt a bison, a bear, a wild boar. And then a whole bow or spear ..

      1. +4
        March 13 2023
        Quote: Tlauicol
        It doesn't have to be straight to the heart. The important thing is to keep the blood flowing. People and with a slingshot hunt a bison, a bear, a wild boar. And then a whole bow or spear ..

        Experimental archeology?
        I remember 15 years ago it was interesting to watch the Mythbusters series of programs, there was a plot dedicated to the weapons of the Indians and the study of lethal force ...
        Well, a horn (not a slingshot) is a heavy spear, incl. for hunting with a larger tip (wider and longer than a spear).
        With such a wound, as shown in the video from the arrow, it will take a long time to follow the bison.
        Py.Sy. A young bull was killed on the video, he still has to live and live to fatten up fat, muscle mass and a thick skin with wool.
        1. +4
          March 13 2023
          No, with a slingshot. They take a slingshot, an arrow, and - voila! Bison, deer, crocodile on the table.
          You needlessly underestimate the hunting primitive. Even on this channel alone, there are dozens of hours of hunting for various animals. On many other channels, the penetrating ability of a stone tip is shown - this is death.
          I can upload a video where a 7-year-old boy kills a deer with an atlatl
          1. +3
            March 13 2023
            Quote: Tlauicol
            No, with a slingshot. They take a slingshot, an arrow, and - voila! Bison, deer, crocodile on the table.
            You needlessly underestimate the hunting primitive. Even on this channel alone, there are dozens of hours of hunting for various animals. On many other channels, the penetrating ability of a stone tip is shown - this is death.
            I can upload a video where a 7-year-old boy kills a deer with an atlatl

            I saw it, but I didn’t take it seriously, I considered it a half-hearted ... Perhaps one of the red deer (Waper deer, maral) can be injured, but most likely not immediately fatally, you will have to get the beast.
            I think that an adult bison, elk, bear will be a serious test for such a hunter with a slingshot.
            Of course, it is easier to seriously injure a deer with an atlatl (spear thrower) with a dart than with an arrow.
            The penetrating ability of a stone tip probably depends on the force of impact, the shape of the tip and the place of impact: the abdominal, chest cavity, limbs, neck ... It will be harder for him to take an older, more mature animal.
            1. +4
              March 13 2023
              [media=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qiqmzZk0j0
              Of course, a lot depends on where it hits. But, when shooting point-blank, in the steppe, even a seasoned bison will not leave the rider
            2. +2
              March 13 2023
              The atlatl has a very steep throwing trajectory, from two dozen meters. And, a very heavy and well-planned dart with a drop-down tip.
              The tip itself is a fragment of a rough trapezoid fragment of a plate, screwed lightly to the first stick that comes across, which enters the hole in the front of the dart.
              So they can take off the deer.
              But the bison - no way. The tip will get stuck in the fat layer.
              1. +1
                March 13 2023
                Quote: AllBiBek
                The atlatl has a very steep throwing trajectory, from two dozen meters. And, a very heavy and well-planned dart with a drop-down tip.
                The tip itself is a fragment of a rough trapezoid fragment of a plate, screwed lightly to the first stick that comes across, which enters the hole in the front of the dart.
                So they can take off the deer.
                But the bison - no way. The tip will get stuck in the fat layer.

                Just watch the video about bison
    4. +3
      March 13 2023
      Regarding the bow and arrows as the main weapon when hunting buffalo, it is somehow doubtful to kill with two or three arrows, to pierce wool, skin, under the left shoulder blade in the heart.


      they (the Indians) use them (bows) with great dexterity and strength; I know a case where arrows pass through the body of an animal [buffalo] and pierce the ground from the opposite side

      Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America. Courier Corporation, 1996.
      1. +2
        March 14 2023
        Quote: sergej_84
        Regarding the bow and arrows as the main weapon when hunting buffalo, it is somehow doubtful to kill with two or three arrows, to pierce wool, skin, under the left shoulder blade in the heart.


        they (the Indians) use them (bows) with great dexterity and strength; I know a case where arrows pass through the body of an animal [buffalo] and pierce the ground from the opposite side

        Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America. Courier Corporation, 1996.

        Paul Kane, "The Assiniboine Buffalo Hunt":

        what I don't see arrows through the body.
    5. +1
      March 13 2023
      Clovis existed for less than 500 years.
      Where did you get the figure 11 times more - I'll never know.
      1. +1
        March 14 2023
        Quote: AllBiBek
        Clovis existed for less than 500 years.
        Where did you get the figure 11 times more - I'll never know.

        If you addressed the question to me (for some reason, the notification service for answers does not work), why did you decide that I wrote about the existence of the Clovis culture for 5500 years?
        The meaning of the comment was that natural conditions with minor modifications by man were used as traps in driven hunting for a long time.
        Clovis was mentioned only in the organization of hunting. Do you think that other younger generations could not use the same hunting methods and places of their older ancestors?
  2. +7
    March 13 2023
    But here, for example, the Shachopi Mdeyaganton tribe owns two casinos

    In some Indian reservations, it is still allowed to sell tobacco and alcohol duty-free, and Americans specially come there for cheap purchases. But, if you carry a trunk full of cigarettes and whiskey, then you can run into a police patrol, who will oblige you to pay the due fee ...
  3. +6
    March 13 2023
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    Both beautiful and interesting. One moment - hazel bows somehow do not appear. Of course, anything can happen. And hazel is able to grow not small. But it's not for teenagers. I would suggest that bows could be made from walnut - either black or gray.
    1. -2
      March 13 2023
      Quote from Korsar4
      I would suggest that bows could be made from walnut - either black or gray.

      How much is bought, and therefore sold.
      1. +6
        March 13 2023
        Looked. Yes, Kotenko has the same phrase. But it doesn't fit. It would be nice to find the source.

        In my head, the combination is persistently spinning like Hickory Luke.

        And, as far as I understand, the diameter of the tree for making onion blanks should not be small.
        1. +4
          March 13 2023
          Among the Indians of the SA, the role of wood for onions is mainly ash.
          1. +1
            March 13 2023
            This is just understandable. in many civilizations.
    2. +3
      March 13 2023
      Quote from Korsar4
      One moment - hazel bows somehow do not appear

      With 3 cm of hazel, you can already make an onion. The stretch is not very powerful, 10 - 15 kg. - of course, it won’t go for a bison, but small game and a bird are very good.
      1. +3
        March 13 2023
        Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
        With 3 cm of hazel, you can already make an onion. The stretch is not very powerful, 10 - 15 kg.

        Yes, it reminds me of my childhood. The hazel bow is primarily short-lived, cut off in the spring, broke in the summer, made a new one until the fall.
        1. +3
          March 13 2023
          Yes. Childhood is remembered. But the game is only a model of life.
        2. +3
          March 13 2023
          Quote: eule
          The hazel bow is primarily short-lived, cut off in the spring, broke in the summer, made a new one until the fall.

          Therefore, it is short-lived because it is cut off in the spring - the worst time for harvesting a tree is the very sap flow. Even in a shooting range, with very active use of different ages, correctly made hazel bows live for several years, until some inexperienced and strong uncle pulls the bow 2 meters.
          1. +3
            March 13 2023
            Hazel is flexible. Nice rods.
            Yes, and yew bow with intensive use had to be changed more often.

            But, unfortunately, to imagine what happened with the bow among the Indians - it comes out according to the principle of believe / do not believe.
      2. +6
        March 13 2023
        Nevertheless, I am inclined to believe that in this interpretation, “hazel” was called hickory (carib).

        Though the game is not the season -
        There is no reason to argue with the authorities:
        Okay, I think I'll get it
        Tea, capercaillie, not bison.
        1. +5
          March 13 2023
          In the field, zealous hunter!
          Chu! Horns blew:
          Tra-ta-ta-ta, tra-ta-ta.
          Playful cupid follows
          Sneak to hunt in your house!
          Trom, trom...

          1. +3
            March 13 2023
            The husband from the forest will return gloomy,
            Proud and bearded.
            I would decorate the walls with skin,
            Yes, he will sell it.

            And if he begins to scold again,
            If again - for your own,
            He will wait, it has been stored for a long time
            He has a drink in the pantry.
  4. +4
    March 13 2023
    The wooden part was covered with red cloth, upholstered with copper wallpaper nails.


    Cloth and nails are both high-tech European products of those years, analogues of modern consumer electronics and appliances. The first is produced in a huge factory with a water wheel or a steam engine, and the second requires at least a drawing machine and tool steels for dies.
    1. +3
      March 13 2023
      Quote: ycuce234-san
      and for the second, at least a drawing machine and tool steels for dies are needed.

      No need, everything can be done on the knee. Ask any blacksmith how nails were made at that time.
      1. +4
        March 13 2023
        Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
        Ask any blacksmith how nails were made at that time.

        You're right! There is a very interesting manuscript from 1430 depicting the work of a nail-maker. There is nothing ... abstruse!
    2. +3
      March 13 2023
      Quote: ycuce234-san
      The first is produced in a huge factory with a water wheel or a steam engine.

      Cloth, in fact, is thin felt, the oldest technology for felting wool did not require factories at the initial stage.
    3. +5
      March 13 2023
      Have you ever seen forged nails from tsarist times? It is drawn without any type, and by the way, in terms of quality, it is not like the factory ones. I remember when the floors at the Polytechnic University were opened - we could not break one such surgical chisel. They barely turned the beam with crowbars ..
    4. +6
      March 13 2023
      Cloth and nails are both high-tech European products of those years, analogues of modern consumer electronics and appliances. The first is produced in a huge factory with a water wheel or a steam engine, and the second requires at least a drawing machine and tool steels for dies.

      Cloth was produced in ancient Greece and Rome. Brabant became the European center of cloth production in the XNUMXth century.
      The wire modern nail appeared in the middle of the XNUMXth century. Before that, nails were forged. In Rus', blacksmiths who specialized in nails were called nailers.
      Forged nails were used in ancient Egypt. During the excavations of the Roman fortress of Inkhtutil in Scotland, which the Romans left in the XNUMXst century, seven tons of nails were found.
      1. +2
        March 13 2023
        Quote: sergej_84
        The wire modern nail appeared in the middle of the XNUMXth century. Before that, nails were forged.


        Those forged nails were not used anywhere - they were not produced that much, for which they were used only in critical applications like military shipbuilding, perhaps - the manufacture of gun carriages, replacing where they could with wooden nails; not for nothing that the expression "without a single nail" was preserved. But it makes sense to look for the original Indian carnations from flower beds in their archaeological jewelry and jewelry dated before the discovery of the New World: they did not build cities from wood and fleets either, therefore only wooden jewelry and cult objects made of wood and leather that could be fastened together remain. carnations.
    5. +3
      March 13 2023
      Yeah, and therefore, in the layers of the North American colonies of the Greenland Vikings, there is practically nothing but nails.
  5. +12
    March 13 2023
    Another famous Indian of all times and peoples Winnetou (Pierre-Louis, Baron Le Bris) with his “silver double-barreled shotgun” ...

    During the filming of the films (and eleven of them were shot about Winnetou), three different "Winnetou Silver Guns" were used.

    1. +4
      March 13 2023
      Quote: sergej_84
      Another famous Indian of all times and peoples Winnetou (Pierre-Louis, Baron Le Bris) with his “silver double-barreled shotgun” ...

      During the filming of the films (and eleven of them were shot about Winnetou), three different "Winnetou Silver Guns" were used.


      Very interesting photo! Thank you! Didn't know this.
  6. +7
    March 13 2023
    Tlingit Indian knife. True, they do not belong to the steppe Indians, but their knives are very beautiful!

    EMNIP, the Tlingit were the only North American Indians who used armor. The manager of "Russian America" ​​Baranov even asked to send old cuirasses from Russia - so to speak, to balance the protection ....
    1. +6
      March 13 2023
      EMNIP, the Tlingit were the only North American Indians who used armor.

      not only - and Cherokee, and Pawnee, and Chickasaw, and Iroquois
    2. +8
      March 13 2023
      EMNIP, the Tlingit were the only North American Indians who used armor




      Engraving from the beginning of the XNUMXth century. depicting a Huron warrior in armor.
      1. +8
        March 13 2023
        Engraving from the beginning of the XNUMXth century. depicting a Huron warrior in armor.

        Damn, but I thought that the only Russian industrialists were not lucky enough to encounter armor on the natives - that is, with the Chukchi and Tlingit. The Chukchi is by no means a pacifist hero of jokes. They were very serious warriors, respect! drinks
  7. +4
    March 13 2023
    And I don’t like the Indian industrial culture somehow. Well, we learned how to weave baubles, and then drive in purchased carnations .. In general, the level is extremely low
    1. +4
      March 13 2023
      Quote: Tlauicol
      And I don’t like the Indian industrial culture somehow. Well, we learned how to weave baubles, and then drive in purchased carnations .. In general, the level is extremely low

      And what did you want - steamboats and steam locomotives? For nomadic primitive tribes, both culture and production are very well developed.
    2. +6
      March 13 2023
      I agree, their level was so-so. But with the advent of the Europeans, it clearly rose. In the almost total extermination of bison, the Indians come first, and all thanks to the gunshot received from the whites, the rifle is not a bow, and they immediately understood this. They killed and cut out only the most delicious thing - the tongue, and threw the carcass to the vultures and no Buffalo Bills could keep up with them. request
      And they drew beautiful pictures about them, how - exotic.
      1. +4
        March 13 2023
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I agree, their level was so-so. But with the advent of the Europeans, it clearly rose. In the almost total extermination of bison, the Indians come first, and all thanks to the gunshot received from the whites, the rifle is not a bow, and they immediately understood this. They killed and cut out only the most delicious thing - the tongue, and threw the carcass to the vultures and no Buffalo Bills could keep up with them.

        If I am not mistaken, scientists have established that up to four subspecies of bison existed in North America before the arrival of Europeans (since the 16th century). By the time the first Europeans appeared, only one species of bison remained on the prairies.
        However, I do not think that the Indians killed bison just for the sake of the language, the so-called. "buffalo hump" is often referred to by whites as the tasty part of bison. The Indian tribes hunting bison have the whole so-called. The tribe's economy was based on the extraction and processing of bison (from meat to skins, tendons and bones).
        The traveler Tixier wrote in 1840, "that the best game in the steppes belongs to the best horse, and therefore the Indians say:" my horse killed many buffaloes. "The most dexterous hunters on the best horses could kill four or five bison in one hunt. Hunters on the worst horses they killed one or two bison, and on bad horses they killed only lagging behind animals, and sometimes not a single bison was killed.
        Butchering game killed by hunters was no less important branch of the productive activity of the Indians than hunting itself. It was, like hunting, a male occupation, but often successful hunters entrusted the cutting of their prey to horseless tribesmen, rewarding them with meat for this. The processing of skins, canning and cooking of meat were the work of women. The meat was prepared for the future in a dried form or in a powder called pemmican. The pemmican may have been preserved for several years; they used it mixed with fat, or made meat cakes from it. These hunting products have been found since the beginning of the 19th century. wide distribution among European colonists. Buyers of furs bought products of Indian hunting. The Indian hunters themselves sold from agricultural tribes for agricultural products - maize, tobacco, beans, pumpkins, etc.
        A very important branch of the processing "craft" in the Indian economy was the processing of leather, which served as material for housing, clothing, shoes, utensils and horse equipment, and then as a commodity.
        Indian women dressed several types of leather. The conical leather tent, "teepee", was a common type of dwelling of the steppe nomads. The coverings of the tents were sewn together from an average of 12-14 buffalo skins.
        1. +5
          March 13 2023
          "that the best game in the steppes belongs to the best horse, and therefore the Indians say:" my horse killed many bison.

          A horse plus a rifle, what else does an Indian need in this life! smile
          In short, thanks to the "come in large numbers" whites, without them there was no good hunting. laughing
      2. +2
        March 13 2023
        Quote: Sea Cat
        In the almost total extermination of bison, the Indians come first, and all thanks to the gunshot received from the whites, the rifle is not a bow, and they immediately understood this. They killed and cut out only the most delicious thing - the tongue, and threw the carcass to the vultures and no Buffalo Bills could keep up with them.

        All this is attributed just to the pale-faced - the bison were competitors to their cows. And the Indians did not need a mass genocide of bison from the word at all.
        1. +4
          March 13 2023
          All this is attributed just to the pale-faced - the bison were competitors to their cows.

          Buffalo Bill didn't have a cow laughing , he shot game to feed the construction workers of the Kansas and Pacific Railroad Companies when laying the railroad.
          True, he killed a lot of buffalo.
          the Indians did not need a mass genocide of bison from the word at all.

          Have they ever thought about it? winked
          1. +3
            March 13 2023
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Buffalo Bill did not have a cow, he shot game to feed the construction workers of the Kansas and Pacific railroad companies when laying the railroad.
            True, he killed a lot of buffalo.

            And he was by no means alone. The bison also interfered with the railway. Trains stopped for several hours, passing herds of bison. Therefore, the genocide of bison was beneficial to everyone except the Indians.
            Quote: Sea Cat
            All this is attributed just to the pale-faced - the bison were competitors to their cows.

            Buffalo Bill didn't have a cow laughing , he shot game to feed the construction workers of the Kansas and Pacific Railroad Companies when laying the railroad.
            True, he killed a lot of buffalo.
            the Indians did not need a mass genocide of bison from the word at all.

            Have they ever thought about it? winked

            Living for thousands of years side by side and largely dependent on bison and other nature - involuntarily you start to think about it.
            1. -1
              March 13 2023
              Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
              Living for thousands of years side by side and largely dependent on bison and other nature - involuntarily you start to think about it.


              They had another option - to replace the bison with a mustang. Mustangs exist in approximately the same ecological niche as bison, which means ... taking into account the already emerging Indian property stratification, after a few centuries, nomadic empires similar to the Mongol one would have formed there.
              1. +5
                March 13 2023
                They had another option - to replace the bison with a mustang.

                Who?

                Mustangs are descendants of domestic horses, which were brought to the New World by colonists from Europe in the XNUMXth century. Many of the horses brought then, for one reason or another, fought off people and became wild: some ran away from pastures, others gained freedom, having lost their rider in battle.


                a few centuries later, nomadic empires like the Mongol one would have formed there.


                Who would have allowed them to form. laughing

                1. +5
                  March 13 2023
                  Who would have allowed them to form.

                  You posted the Japanese from The Last Samurai... feel Do you think the Japanese would interfere, Uncle Kostya? laughing drinks
                  1. +2
                    March 13 2023
                    Hi Kolya! smile
                    I didn’t see this film, but you’re right, I didn’t pay attention to the muzzles, although the form is very similar to the American one of that time, and I meant the gambler as a means of halving the population of all sorts of "nomadic empires". laughing
                    Well, at least I found it among the Confederates.
                    1. +1
                      March 13 2023
                      Well, at least I found it among the Confederates.

                      One gets the impression, Uncle Kostya, that the gamblers were famously used once or twice, and miscalculated for the entire 19th century. And I don't remember them being used during the US Civil War. what
                      If wrong - enlighten the dunduk! drinks
                      1. +1
                        March 14 2023
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        card-holders were famously used once or twice, and miscalculated for the entire 19th century. And I don't remember them being used during the US Civil War. what


                        The emergence of nomadic Indian empires would greatly depend on the pace of the advance of white settlements on the redskins - the nomadic Indians were already available, the mustangs too - perhaps 25-50 years remained until their tribal alliances formed the first such empire.
                        In any case, the South American Indians independently mastered the level of urban planners, which is much higher than the nomads - but they did not have mustangs and therefore there was no period of classical nomadic states.
    3. +3
      March 13 2023
      "This garbage of yours Chaliapin; Rabinovich whistled him to me, a rare muck."
      You just don't know much about the manufacturing traditions and the craft - purely craft - cultures of the SA. There is a level comparable to the Bronze Age of the Old World, at least.
  8. +8
    March 13 2023
    The image of an Indian, no matter what - steppe or forest, is associated in our minds with a bow.

    Somehow the author paid too little attention to the bow of the North American Indians.



    Bow, arrows and quiver of the Cheyennes.
    They were made from ash, elm, yew, cedar or hazel wood.

    Special literature also mentions bird cherry, juniper and even blackberry.
    Willard Schultz's story "With the Indians in the Rocky Mountains" describes how such a bow was strengthened with tendons laid over its shoulders, and this made it more elastic.

    Buffalo or elk sinew is dried, pounded into thin threads, and glued to the back of the onion in layers with an adhesive prepared from skin scraps/tendon scraps mixed with water. This layering of sinew and glue allows the bow to shoot faster, more powerfully and more resistant to breakage (average draw force 50-70 pounds). Some men have even gone a step further by gluing rattlesnake skin over a tendon backing to protect the backing from the elements.
    1. +5
      March 13 2023
      Somehow the author paid too little attention to the bow of the North American Indians.

      And about the use of poisoned arrows, not a word at all.
      In the early XNUMXth century, some tribes in the Plains used poisoned arrows much more frequently than most sources claim. The use of poison by the Shoshone is known. To do this, they dipped arrowheads in a mixture of crushed ants and animal spleen, which they left to rot in the sun. The result was a deadly poison, and if the tip of such an arrow even scratched the skin of the enemy, he would surely die. In addition, the Shoshone used rattlesnake venom. According to the Shoshone, the Plains Indians never used poisoned arrows, but Kathleen mentioned that the Mandan used poisoned arrows. Wallace's informants reported that the Comanches sometimes used poisoned arrows in the war. The poison was made from an unknown plant, or dipped into the insides of a dead skunk. George Belden especially Fr. He left a description of the method shown to him by the closest relatives of the Teton Sioux, the Santee Sioux. The Indians caught a large rattlesnake and nailed its head to the ground with a forked stick, after which they lightly tickled it with a small branch from head to tail. This drove the snake into a wild rage. Fresh deer liver was placed next to it and released. The snake dug into her time after time, stinging with poisonous teeth, and when it got tired, it was again nailed to the ground and tickled, and then released again and it again pounced on the liver. Then the snake was killed, and the liver strung on a sharp stick was carried to the village. Soon she turned black and began to smell bad, which indicated her readiness. The Indians brought arrows, stuck them in the liver and left it in it for half an hour, after which they pulled it out and dried it in the sun. One liver was enough for a thousand arrows. An arrow thus poisoned was only enough to scratch the skin to kill the enemy. They were treated extremely delicately, but sometimes horses, women, children and even warriors died because of them. Belden suggested that "the Indians abandoned their use for reasons of their own safety, rather than for humanitarian reasons.

      link https://8war.ru/nagrady/indejskoe-oruzhie.html
      1. +3
        March 13 2023
        A very nice addition, thank you!
  9. +9
    March 13 2023
    hi
    Like the article!
    Not in vain, not in vain today the steppe Cree Indians looked into the history section!

    The steppe Cree used to believe that the “gift option” was the “thin end of the horn” on the handle of the knife, which (at the request of the squaw love) can be shortened to normal sizes. request

    And the "broad end of the horn" should be thrown away as useless feel or made in the form of a fantasy wassat guards. But all the hand was not raised, and rightly so!

    As Dakota correctly points out, the "wide end" of the horn/bone is not a guard/clip


    The wide end of the horn is a pommel / head good !


    Hooray fellow Indians! fellow

    Good, useful and sincere articles are written by Vyacheslav Olegovich at this difficult time!
  10. +4
    March 13 2023
    over $1 billion in revenue. Thus, for each of the 500 members of the tribe, about 1,08 million dollars annually.
    What is this math?
    There should be more than two million for each. Without taxes, though. Or is the leader using the position? lol
    1. 0
      March 14 2023
      Well, "income" is not the same as "profit". Utilities, bills, advertising also require something. Again, staff salaries ...
  11. +3
    March 13 2023
    A quiver with arrows was usually worn behind the back so that the arrows could be taken out from behind the right shoulder. At the same time, they were laid with the tips up.

    No normal archer will ever do this - the plumage will wrinkle and it will be unrealistic to hit the target.
    1. +1
      March 13 2023
      However, among the Mongols, the arrows in the quiver were always pointed outward, due to a bunch of types of points, and the different purposes of this pile. Armor-piercing, slam-piercing, two-pronged, sreznt, three- and four-blade with or without a spike ...
      But yes, the Mongols were bad archers, you're right
      1. +2
        March 13 2023
        Quote: AllBiBek
        However, among the Mongols, the arrows in the quiver were always pointed outward, due to a bunch of types of points, and the different purposes of this pile. Armor-piercing, slam-piercing, two-pronged, sreznt, three- and four-blade with or without a spike ...
        But yes, the Mongols were bad archers, you're right

        Can you at least confirm this nonsense?
        1. -1
          March 13 2023
          Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
          Can you at least confirm this nonsense?

          This is not nonsense. There is a study by a very authoritative Siberian historian Khudyakov. And Sokolov's book. At one time I brought them all. I even posted covers.
          1. +3
            March 13 2023
            Khudyakov gives data on the digging of the graves and there the arrows lie in different combinations - up and down and mixed up - it is not known whether they were worn like this or the burial ritual was like that. On the engravings with the Mongols, where quivers are visible, feathers stick out everywhere.
      2. 0
        March 14 2023
        Quote: AllBiBek
        However, among the Mongols, the arrows in the quiver were always pointed outward, due to a bunch of types of points, and the different purposes of this pile. Armor-piercing, slam-piercing, two-pronged, sreznt, three- and four-blade with or without a spike ...
        But yes, the Mongols were bad archers, you're right

        "According to Plano Carpini, each Mongol archer carried with him "three large quivers full of arrows." Quivers were still made of birch bark and held about 30 arrows. Some were supplied with a "pocket" and were similar to Turkic and Kyrgyz ones. Others were made in the form cylinder, slightly expanded to the edges. The arrows in them were closed from the weather with a special cover - tokhtuy. There were also traditional trapezoidal cases. The arrangement of arrows in the quiver was diverse - tips up, down and even in different directions. At the same time, arrows with rare three-blade penetrators were always placed The quivers were decorated with horn overlays with geometric ornaments and images of the animal and plant worlds.

        In addition to the described quivers, the arrows were also stored in leather cases, resembling bows in their shape. One side of them was straight, the other had several protrusions or semicircular cutouts. Their samples are well known from numerous images on Chinese, Persian, Japanese miniatures. They can also be seen in the Armory Chamber of the Kremlin in Moscow among the ethnographic materials of Transbaikalia, Southern and Eastern Siberia, the Far East, the West Siberian forest-steppe, dating back to the late Middle Ages. Arrows were located in them with plumage up, often protruding outward for more than half of their length.

        Quivers with arrows were hung on the right side obliquely by the rings located in the center of the rib with the lower end forward so as not to interfere with riding. Sometimes they were thrown over the shoulder with a long strap.

        Source:
        "Siberian weapons: from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages". Author: Alexander Solovyov (Ph.D. in History, senior researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences); scientific editor: academician V.I. Molodin; artist: M.A. Lobyrev. Novosibirsk, 2003
        Steppes, mountains, horses, Gorny Altai, Kazakhstan, Mongolia - my childhood, youth.
        1. 0
          March 15 2023
          It is also written there that the arrows, which are necessarily located with the tips outward, do not have plumage, due to the large size of the tip, which itself stabilizes the arrow. So the Mongols knew how to shoot and knew which arrow - how to store it in a quiver.
  12. +2
    March 13 2023
    Good day to all.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I am glad that your material is about Indians, not guns.
    Tribes of Indians - synthesis: ethnography, history and ethnoculture.
    The Indians: Sioux, Dakota or, for example, the Hurons, have many differences, but also a lot in common.
    A few years ago, even before the site, there was material on the culture of the Indians on TV. They are in their patterns: they told their biography. For example, he was born in a strong - the corresponding symbol. Participation in the war, etc.
    1. +2
      March 13 2023
      Any tribe is a synthesis of language, culture, history and much more. Therefore, such a peculiar community, different from others, is singled out as a separate part of the ethnos, and is called a tribe. Though the Eskimos, even the pygmies.
  13. 0
    March 22 2023
    Interestingly, unlike the Europeans, the Indians sharpened their knives only on one side, and not on two.
    . This is because they used knives for more than just cutting sausage. A single-edged knife is a much more versatile tool than a double-edged one. They can be planed, scraped, the tip can be used as an awl. Remove the fur from the skin and do not cut the skin - one-sided sharpening is also needed.

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