Spartan Lysander. The lion who did not hesitate to wear a fox skin

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Spartan Lysander. The lion who did not hesitate to wear a fox skin

The Greek polis (state) Lacedaemon, which is often called Sparta after its main city, was founded in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. BC e. alien Dorian tribes Dimani, Pamphyli and Gillei. The people of the Achaean tribes who lived on these lands were for the most part turned into state serfs - helots. Some managed to retreat to the mountains, but were also subdued, gaining the higher status of the perieks ("living around").

For several centuries, Lacedaemon was the generally recognized cultural center of Hellas, but then it turned into a single military camp. The reason was the fiercest confrontation with Messenia, a state that significantly outnumbered Lacedaemon in terms of population. The most irreconcilably minded representatives of the old Achaean nobility found refuge in it. Lacedaemon withstood two of the most difficult wars with Messenius (in 743–724 BC and in 685–668 BC).




The Second Messenian War was especially terrible - at some point, Sparta was on the verge of a military disaster. Thus, in the crucibles of cruel wars, Sparta, familiar to all of us, appeared - a unique state, the elite of which practically renounced privileges, and all capable of wearing weapon citizens became warriors.


Spartan warriors and flutist, drawing from a Corinthian vase, XNUMXth century BC BC e.

There was no shortage of talented generals in Sparta, but perhaps the greatest of them was Lysander, the first of the Greeks to whom altars were erected and sacrifices made as to a god, and the first in whose honor the paeans began to be sung. Lysander, by the way, was also a very successful naval commander, it was he who crushed the sea power of Athens.


Plutarch wrote about him:

“Lysander grew up in poverty and showed the greatest adherence to order and paternal customs and a truly masculine disposition, alien to all joys, except for those that a person receives, surrounded by honor for his wonderful deeds ...
Ambition and a thirst for superiority were firmly inspired by Lysander by Spartan education, and one cannot to any significant extent consider his natural disposition to be the reason for this ...
His main distinguishing feature was the ability to easily endure poverty: he could not be seduced and bribed with money, but, despite this, he enriched his homeland.

But it was precisely the victories of Lysander, according to Plutarch, that made Sparta "selfish, and through his fault Sparta lost the respect that it had previously enjoyed for its indifference to wealth."

Plutarch also reports that in nature Lysander

"There was more servility to strong people than is typical of the Spartans, and in case of need, he calmly endured the burden of someone else's autocracy."

Lysander himself did not see anything shameful in this, and said:

"Where a lion's skin is not suitable, you need to sew a fox to it."

These phrases are also attributed to him, the meaning of which has long been intuitively learned by any successful politician, even if he has never read Plutarch and other authors:

"Children are deceived while playing grandmother, and adults are deceived by taking vows."

And:

"He who has a sword in his hands, he talks better about borders."

Lysander's student was the Spartan king and outstanding commander Agesilaus. This lame boy, according to Plutarch, was distinguished

“natural restraint and modesty, for, shining among young men with ardent zeal, the desire to be the first in everything ... Agesilaus was distinguished by such obedience and meekness that he carried out all orders not out of fear, but out of conscience.”


Pharnabazus and Agesilaus illustrated by E. Ollier

Agesilaus learned the lessons of Lysander well. He said:

“If we had justice, why would we have courage?”

"It's hard to be together pity and intelligence."

"To break one's word is a crime, but to lead the enemy is not only good and honorable, but also funny and useful."

The last phrase, by the way, is similar to the aphorism of the famous Giacomo Casanova:

"To deceive a fool is to avenge reason."

So, today we will talk about Lysander.

The youth of the commander


Lysander was born around 452 BC. e. and was of rather noble origin, considered a descendant of Hercules himself, that is, he was a relative of the Spartan kings of the Agiad dynasty (its representative was, for example, the famous Leonid, who died at the Battle of Thermopylae). However, Lysander did not have any advantages over his peers and was brought up on an equal footing with everyone - in a strict Spartan spirit.


Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. Spartan boys


Fernand Sabatte. "Spartan showing a drunken helot to his sons"

From an early age, he attracted attention for his abilities and ability to get along with people (which Plutarch, probably not quite rightly, called "compliance"). When Lysander was 21 years old, the cruel and bloody Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) began in Hellas, in which the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, was opposed by the Delian or Maritime League, created by Athens.


Peloponnesian and Delian alliances

Its first stage (the Archidamus War - named after the king of Sparta) ended with the mutual exhaustion of the parties, the death in the Battle of Amphipolis (422 BC) of the leaders of the "war party" - the Athenian Cleon and the Spartan Brasidas, and the conclusion of the Peace of Nikiev in 421 year BC e. In 413, the Ionian (Dekeleian War) began. Lysander probably took part in the fighting in both campaigns.

Great Opponent of Lysander


Fortunately for Sparta, the Athenians in 415 BC. e. on a far-fetched and unfair accusation, they decided to judge Alcibiades, the nephew of Pericles and a student of Socrates, who showed great promise and was to become an outstanding politician and commander.



Roman copy of an Athenian herm allegedly defiled by Alcibiades

Claudius Elian directly states:

"The Athenians recalled Alcibiades from Sicily (where he was one of the strategists) to be tried and sentenced to death."

Alcibiades moved to Sparta, where he learned that he was sentenced to death in his homeland, and all his property was confiscated. Declaring that he would prove that he was still alive, he persuaded the authorities of Lacedaemon to help the besieged Syracuse - and under the leadership of the Spartan Gylippus, the Sicilians defeated the Athenian fleet of 200 ships and expeditionary forces, numbering up to 40 thousand people. Alcibiades advised the Spartans to occupy and use the Dekeley region, located north of Athens, as a permanent foothold - and about 20 thousand Athenian slaves went over to the side of the Spartans, and the Delian Union began to collapse before our eyes. Alcibiades suggested that the Spartans build a fleet, and turn to the Persians for money for its construction.

Fortunately for the Athenians, Alcibiades could not resist and seduced the wife of King Agis II Timaeus in Sparta, who gave birth to a boy from him. After that, he preferred to move to Asia Minor, which belonged to the Persians, where he advised the satrap Tissaphernes to refuse the Spartans money for the fleet, stating that mutual exhaustion of both sides was beneficial for Persia. The Athenians, desperate and oppressed from all sides, had some "clearness in mind", and in 411 BC. e they turned to Alcibiades with a request to become commander fleet.

For 4 years, he won a number of victories on land and at sea, including at Abydos, at Cyzicus, near Chalcedon, the city of Selymbria and Byzantium were taken. In 407 BC. e. Alcibiades triumphantly returned to Athens, where he was enthusiastically received by the townspeople and received the post of autocrat strategist - commander-in-chief of all armed forces.


A crowd greets Alcibiades as he enters Athens in 407 BC. e. Illustration from Mary McGregor's book "History Greece told to boys and girls

In the same year, Lysander was appointed navarch of the Spartan fleet. However, fate did not allow him to find out in a personal confrontation with Alcibiades who at that moment was the best commander and naval commander of Hellas.

Savior of Sparta


Lysander became the commander of the Spartan fleet at a difficult time for his policy. He made the unpopular but proven right decision to avoid a pitched battle until new ships were completed and Lacedaemon's fleet gained superiority over the Athenian.

He managed to inflict the first defeat on the Athenians in the battle at Cape Notius - in February 406 BC. e. (according to other sources - in December 407 BC). Here, in the absence of Alcibiades, the helmsman of his ship Antiochus, contrary to a categorical prohibition, entered into battle with Lysander. The flagship of the Athenians was attacked and sunk by three Spartan triremes, Antiochus was killed, the other ships fled, and the Spartans sank 22 of them. According to tradition, the Athenians appointed Alcibiades guilty of the defeat, removing him from command.

Insulted, Alcibiades left Athens, settling in a small fortress he had captured earlier in the region of Thracian Chersonesos (on the Gallipoli peninsula near the Dardanelles). But Lysander, who won a significant victory, resigned: the highest command positions in Sparta could only be held for a year - these are the costs of democracy. He was replaced by Kallikratidas, who at first achieved success in a clash with the Athenians near the city of Mytilene, but then in August 406 BC. e. was defeated and killed in the battle of the Arginus Islands.

With the last funds (including with Persian help), the Spartans formed a squadron of 170 warships. A certain Arak was put at the head of this fleet, however, at the request of the allies of Sparta and even the Persian governor of Asia Minor, Prince Cyrus, the real command was carried out by Lysander (who could not yet officially hold the post of navarch).

In the autumn of 405 BC. e. Alcibiades learned that the Athenian fleet of 180 ships stood on the European coast of the Hellespont (Dardanelles) near the mouth of the river Egospotama, which flows opposite the city of Lampsak (where the ships of Lysander were located). He tried in vain to warn the Athenian strategist Konon about the danger of the chosen position and persuaded him to take the ship to the city of Sest - he did not even listen to the best commander of Athens.

The Spartan ships stood idle for 4 days, Lysander evaded the battle and demonstrated his indecision in every possible way. Then, choosing a convenient moment, he led his ships to attack the Athenian triremes, which did not even have time to go to sea and were destroyed at anchorages, only 8 of them managed to escape to Cyprus, the ninth ship broke through to Athens with the news of the final disaster.


Site of the Battle of Aegospotami

Meanwhile, the landing troops of the Spartans destroyed the land camp of the Athenian army. The losses of the Athenians reached 20 thousand people killed, 3 thousand soldiers were captured. Fearing trial in Athens, Conon fled to Persia. Lysander, by the end of the year, captured Byzantium, Chalcedon, Aegina, Salamis, Milos and Thassos.

Alcibiades left his refuge in Thracian Chersonese and went to seek protection from the Persian satrap Phrygia Pharnabazus. Here he will soon be killed by the Persians at the urgent request of the new authorities of Athens, supported by Lysander: even Alcibiades, expelled and deprived of funds, still inspired fear with the possibility of a new return.


The murder of Alcibiades in a medieval engraving

Proud Athens was blocked from all sides: the Spartan kings Agis II and Pausanias led the land army, Lysander surrounded the city from the sea.


Lysander outside the walls of Athens, XNUMXth century lithograph

At the beginning of April 404 BC. e. the city capitulated, the Athenian authorities handed over to the Spartans almost all the remaining warships (with the exception of 12) and were forced to destroy the Long Walls. At the same time, the Spartans turned out to be much more moderate in their demands than their allies: Corinth and Thebes demanded the complete destruction of Athens.
The Spartan garrison was placed in the Athenian Acropolis, power in the city was transferred to "thirty tyrants". It was then that the sculptors began to sculpt the image of Lysander, the poets composed hymns in his honor, and in some Greek cities of Asia Minor they even began to give him divine honors. Thus ended the 27-year Peloponnesian War.

Hero's death



Sculpture of the head of Lysander

In 398 BC. e. The Spartan king Agis II died. Thanks to the support of Lysander, his former student, Agesilaus II, became the new king of this dynasty: he removed from power the prince Leotichid, whom everyone considered the son of Alcibiades.

However, Agesilaus was already jealous of the glory of his mentor, was burdened by the care of Lysander, and therefore, going to the next war, left him in Sparta. Agesilaus quite rightly feared that Lysander, who was experienced and possessed of unquestioned authority, would actually remove him from command. And the position of Sparta was serious: a new powerful anti-Spartan coalition was formed, which, in addition to the expelled "tyrants" of Athens, included Thebes, Corinth, Argos and the policies of the Aegean Sea. The so-called Corinthian War (396-387 BC) began.

Under these conditions, in the autumn of 395 BC. e. the second Spartan king, Pausanias, turned to Lysander. Agesilaus, at that time, fought in Asia Minor, and then the Greek mercenaries of Cyrus the Younger fought in his army - participants in the famous "Anabasis").

The detachment of Lysander moved to Thebes, where he was supposed to meet with the main army of Pausanias. According to some reports, 600 Spartan hoplites and about a thousand allied soldiers were with Lysander, he joined the militias of the Phocians, Eteans, Heracleians and Melians to them. The city of Orchomenus in Western Boeotia opened the gates before him. Deciding to resist the city of Coronea, Lysander bypassed and headed for Galiart.

Pausanias, who was at Plataea (there were up to 6 thousand people in his army only hoplites), Lysander sent a letter indicating the movement of his detachment and the time of arrival to Galiart. This letter was intercepted by the Thebans, and Pausanias' troops did not speed up their movement. The Thebans managed to pull up reserves to Galiart: part of the troops reinforced the garrison, but the main forces took up positions on the slopes of the hills southwest of the city - up to 4 thousand hoplites, about a thousand lightly armed soldiers and several hundred horsemen.

Without waiting for Pausanias, Lysander began to line up his troops in battle formation, but the Thebans attacked first - during the sacrifice that Lysander brought before the formation of his soldiers. The blow was dealt both from the front and on the left flank of the Spartans. Lysander, who was in front of the line, fell one of the first, they even call the name of the warrior who inflicted a mortal wound on him - Neochorus.

The Spartans, having lost their commander, retreated to the hills, but here they stopped and even counterattacked the enemy, throwing him back to the walls of the city. And the next day the army of Pausanias approached. The Thebans declared that they would hand over the bodies of the dead (including Lysander) only if the Spartan army was withdrawn from Boeotia.

Meanwhile, great importance was attached to the worthy burial of fallen soldiers in those days, cases are described when military leaders were put on trial if they could not agree with the enemy on the extradition of the bodies of their soldiers. So, after the victory of the Athenian fleet in the naval battle of the Peloponnesian War near the Arginus Islands (406 BC), a storm broke out, which prevented the collection of the corpses of the dead soldiers. Two strategists decided not to return to Athens, six others returned, hoping to justify themselves - and were sentenced to death (among them was the son of Pericles and the famous hetaera Aspasia).

Pausanias retreated, although some veterans demanded to attack the enemy and recapture the bodies of their comrades in a new battle. Plutarch reports:

“Lysander was buried immediately outside Boeotia, on the land of the friendly and allied city of Panopia. There now stands a monument on the road from Delphi to Chaeronea.

The grief and disappointment of the Spartans was so great that Pausanias, fearing the trial of the ephors on charges of deliberate delay, which led to the death of Lysander, did not dare to return to his homeland. He went to Tegea, where he spent the last years of his life (he died after 380 BC).

The Athenian navarch Konon and the tyrant of the Cypriot city of Salamina Evagor in 394 BC. e. defeated the Spartan fleet at the Battle of Cnidus. After this victory in Athens, the "Long Walls" (to the harbor of Piraeus) were restored. The Athenian strategist Iphicrates, who is considered the creator of a new kind of troops - peltasts, in 390 BC. e. defeated the Spartans at Corinth.

The last great commander of Sparta, King Agesilaus II, who successfully fought in Asia Minor, was forced to return to Greece. Together with the navarch Antalkid, he managed to achieve victory in the Corinthian War, which ended in 386 BC. e. the conclusion in Susa of the so-called Royal peace treaty. But ahead was a war with the Boeotian Union, whose troops were commanded by Epaminondas and Pelopidas. And in Sparta there were no longer commanders of the level of Lysander and Agesilaus.
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112 comments
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  1. +16
    March 10 2023
    Thank you, Valery!

    I'd like to give another source of aphorisms and information about Sparta.

    The population of Sparta was divided into three estates: Spartans, perieks and helots.
    The Spartans were local aristocrats, did gymnastics, went naked and generally set the tone.
    Periakami gymnastics was banned. Instead, they paid taxes.
    The helots, or, in the words of the local wits, the "under-Ek" had the worst of all. They cultivated the fields, went to war and often rebelled against their masters. The latter, in order to win them over to their side, came up with the so-called cryptia, that is, simply, at a certain hour, they killed all the helots they met. This remedy quickly forced the helots to come to their senses and live in complete contentment.
    1. +9
      March 10 2023
      Quote from Korsar4
      Thank you, Valery!

      Fully agree hi Another great, beautifully illustrated article!
      Sparta is essentially a phenomenon in the development of states, a very interesting and extensive topic!
      1. +11
        March 10 2023
        Another of the associations that persistently appeared in the morning: Garin-Mikhailovsky "Gymnasium students".

        They might have been challenged to draw a map of Ancient Greece.
        But our generation - try to puzzle.
        1. +12
          March 10 2023
          In general, not a question, I'll draw. But I have stable associations with the "Crow's Slobidka", which the schoolchildren did not know about.
          1. +10
            March 10 2023
            And every decade leaves its mark.

            There has always been a discrepancy between fantasies and the ability to draw.

            Problems with drawing developed into a forging with drawing.

            And in the first year I hit all the sore spots: mathematics, drawing, and inorganic chemistry.
      2. +11
        March 10 2023
        Structure and characteristics of the Spartan army
        In his treatise The State Structure of the Lacedaemonians, Xenophon gives a detailed account of how the Spartan army was organized in his time.
        The armament of the Spartan was a spear, a short sword and protective weapons: a round shield, a helmet, a shell on the chest and leggings. The weight of protective weapons reached a talent (34 kg). A heavily armed fighter was called a hoplite. The Spartan army also included lightly armed fighters, whose weapons were a light spear, dart or bow with arrows. The heavily armed were mainly the Spartans - full citizens, and the lightly armed were the perieks and helots. The basis of the Spartan army was the hoplites, which numbered about 5-6 thousand people. Approximately before the Peloponnesian War, full-fledged citizens and perieks served and fought in different units. The cavalry and chariots of Sparta were not numerous, since the area in which the policy was located had an uneven terrain, which made it difficult to train them.
        Hoplites were first divided into 5 lochoses, and by the end of the 8th century BC. e. after the military reform of the Spartan king Cleomenes III. The Spartan army had 64 lochos. In the IV century BC. e. the organizational structure of the Spartan army became even more complicated. The lowest division was the brotherhood, or enomotia (128 people); two brotherhoods made up the pentiokostis (256 people); two pentiocostis formed a lochos (1024 people); four lochos made up the mora (2 people). All hoplites were part of one phalanx, which was a linear system of spearmen. The Spartan phalanx was built eight ranks deep. The distance between the lines on the move was 1 m, when attacking - 0,5 m, when repelling an attack - 8 m. With a population of 5,5 thousand people, the phalanx stretched along the front reached 1 stages (approx. 300 km.) move a long distance without upsetting its order, could not operate on rough terrain, could not pursue the enemy. In addition, in the Spartan army there were small detachments of "special purpose". So, XNUMX of the most prominent young people made up the royal lochos - a detachment of royal bodyguards.
        600 selected warriors, who often went on the attack ahead of the entire army and helped the rest of the units in every possible way, made up the Skirite lochos.
    2. VLR
      +15
      March 10 2023
      Cryptia is the hunt of Spartan youths for helots, who were outside their homes at inopportune times (and, therefore, could be plotting evil). The custom arose after the most difficult Messenian wars. It was a criminal offense to kill helots who followed the rules prescribed by them. In addition, a certain number of helots were assigned to each Spartiate, thanks to whose work they contributed their share to participate in sissitia - joint dinners, participation in which was an obligation, and ephors could be ordered to be whipped for poor appetite. Spartans who were late with a contribution to the sissitia were deprived of all rights. And imagine the situation: a well-deserved warrior turns out to be an outcast only because the helots assigned to him were simply taken and killed by some boys. Of course, this was impossible. Just another black PR from the opponents of Sparta.
      1. +11
        March 10 2023
        And the story with the boy and the fox is also PR? After all, most likely, yes. And how many generations of children were brought up on such examples.
        1. VLR
          +14
          March 10 2023
          With a fox - at least, it is consistent: both children's fear that they will be taken away and punished, and Spartan education, directed education of patience. And now similar examples, though not so extreme, can be cited. In Kaluga, little girls (of preschool or primary school age) during a performance at one of the Days of the City, after heavy rain in the final, sat down together in puddles - as they rehearsed. This, by the way, caused outrage in social networks, the governor justified himself and promised that they would now make sheds. And they didn’t even understand what the fuss was about - they just did what they were taught. Do not mess around because of some puddles there?
          1. +10
            March 10 2023
            Children have more faith in life. And it opens up to them with all sides and colors.

            It's like not being afraid of pucks in street hockey.
            1. +8
              March 10 2023
              Quote from Korsar4
              It's like not being afraid of pucks in street hockey.

              Greetings Sergey!
              You are not afraid of pucks until the first hit in any part of the body. Where are the muscles, there is a * bruise *. Where is the bone? It hurts a lot. laughing But the idea is clear. hi
              1. +4
                March 10 2023
                Greetings, Seryozha!

                This is already at a more reasonable age. And in less reasonable excitement can outweigh.
          2. +8
            March 10 2023
            You just feel proud that we have such girls. But only small ones. Then they begin to be brought up by TV and the Internet, vulgar people from the Comedy Club and obscene women from the Women's Stand-up, Morgenstern and Danya Milokhin. And by graduation we get what we get. And the authorities don't seem to care.
            1. +5
              March 10 2023
              I will disappoint you 60% of the beginning sisters, who have no relation to those listed, but who are 40 or more, admire Ksenia Sobchak: "a self-sufficient woman, an example." I can see better from the inside.
              You don't know what we're talking about.
              In the city, 32000 have a nursing degree. But always someone worked with someone or knows fellow students.
              In private clinics, arrogance is like a dress code. The administration demands for image.
              Most young people run away from such clinics. It is morally difficult + "intimacy" is encouraged. Adults there "teeth" keep. Salary + "bonuses" are different.
              True, not all clinics have "strawberries". If, the head physician is a woman or men of the Soviet era, there is strictly
              1. +1
                March 11 2023
                What is the point of your objection? I wrote that our little girls are very good. but they are spoiled by TV, the Internet, the same Sobchak. What are you talking about?
        2. +3
          March 10 2023
          And how many generations of children were brought up on such examples.

          On those too...


          Hello, Sergey!
          1. +4
            March 10 2023
            Is this Pavlik Morozov talking to his grandfather?
            1. +3
              March 10 2023
              Rather, it is his grandfather talking to him.
              1. +1
                March 10 2023
                I didn’t find the Soviet past, but I KNOW
          2. +4
            March 10 2023
            Good evening, Constantine!

            There are women - their hair is like a helmet,
            their fan smells fatal and thin,
            they are thirty years old. - Why do you, why
            my soul is a spartan child?
            1. +4
              March 10 2023
              "There are people chewing cobalt alloy,
              There are people who have twelve "hens myaf",
              There are mysterious girls with magnetic eyes "(C)
              1. +1
                March 10 2023
                At the turn of the damned two twelve
                The bar blocked my way up.
            2. +2
              March 10 2023
              Beware of being captivated by beauty, friend!
              Beauty and love are two sources of torment.
              For this beautiful kingdom is not eternal:
              It strikes the hearts and - leaves the hands.
              1. 0
                March 10 2023
                Eternal peace is unlikely to please the heart.
                Eternal rest for the gray-haired pyramids.
                And for the star that gathered and falls
                There is only a moment - a blinding moment.
      2. +12
        March 10 2023
        Quote: VlR
        Of course, this was impossible. Just another black PR from the opponents of Sparta.

        There is no particular reason to doubt the existence of cryptia, this is a wild custom from the point of view of the rest of the Greeks, and is numerously described in the ancient tradition. And there is a rather lengthy discussion on the origin and essence of this custom, which has been going on since ancient times. Plutarch himself, who described the cryptia in detail, wrote that this was an invention of Lycurgus (with reference to Aristotle), although he believed that the regularity of their use arose no earlier than the uprising of the helots of 464.
        The very word "cryptia" means an ambush or a hiding place. Most likely, they originate from the ancient rite of initiation of young warriors, which in such an archaic form, due to the specifics of the permanent martial law, was transformed into a socially oriented institution. Most likely this happened during the period of the Messenian wars and the untamed Messenian population (K. Crimes) initially served as the object of attack. It is not clear whether the cryptia applied to the entire Helot population (Laconian Helots and Messenian Helots) or only to the Messenian Helots.
        The legitimacy of the cryptia was betrayed by the sacred rite of the annual declaration of war by the ephors against the helots. That is, from a formal point of view, the Spartans were at war and the rite of homicide had a legal justification. But at the same time, this also pointed out to the rest of the Greeks the initially free state of the helots, especially the Messenians.
    3. +11
      March 10 2023
      The Greek polis (state) Lacedaemon, which is often called Sparta after its main city, was founded in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. BC e. alien Dorian tribes Dimani

      What an ear-pleasing tribal name! smile
      1. +10
        March 10 2023
        the highest command positions in Sparta could only be held for a year - such are the costs of democracy.

        The Romans later adopted this by setting the terms of office for their consuls.
      2. +13
        March 10 2023
        Quote: Richard
        What an ear-pleasing tribal name!

        He is not diman to you! laughing
        1. +3
          March 10 2023
          Nicholas hi check your mail
          1. +6
            March 10 2023
            Nikolay - Panya Kokhanku.
            Komrad Mihaylov - Sergey. If the letter went to Nikolai, he will certainly be glad, but Sergey will not be able to read it. smile
            1. +7
              March 10 2023
              Komrad Mihaylov - Sergey.

              Thanks Michael for correcting
              That's what a year and a half without an Internet means. It turned out inconvenient. fool I apologize dear Sergey
              PS. A parcel for the pan with materials about Pavel 1
              1. +6
                March 10 2023
                A parcel for the pan with materials about Pavel 1

                I am sure that Nikolai will be sincerely happy. smile
              2. +4
                March 10 2023
                Richard, can I have Pavel 1? I'm interested too
                I am surprised myself: I like Catherine 2, already a mini portrait: 10x15 made, but Pavel was also interested, thanks to Valery
                1. +2
                  March 10 2023
                  There is a whole pile of purely archival boring documents - letters, decrees. I don't think it will interest you. Nicholas is seriously engaged in Paul 1 and his era
    4. +8
      March 10 2023
      The Athenian navarch Konon and the tyrant of the Cypriot city of Salamina Evagor in 394 BC. e. defeated the Spartan fleet at the Battle of Cnidus.

      Thanks to this, humanity received a well-known Latin expression.
      Agesilaus, who reached Boeotia with an army, received information about the Cnidian defeat, but lied to his army, declaring Pisander the fallen winner in the naval battle. Encouraged by this news, the Spartan army won the battle of Coroney. When later Agesilaus was reproached for why he lied, he succinctly answered - "mentiram para mim" which translates as - "a lie for the good"
    5. +13
      March 10 2023
      I'd like to give another source of aphorisms and information about Sparta.
      Yes, this whole article turned out. No worse than many published here.
  2. +15
    March 10 2023
    But Lysander, who won a significant victory, resigned: the highest command positions in Sparta could only be held for a year - these are the costs of democracy.
    It has not yet become customary to amend the Constitution.
    1. +13
      March 10 2023
      And this also did not go unnoticed by Teffi:

      The Spartans, cunning by nature, arranged it so that they always had two kings at the same time. The kings squabbled among themselves, leaving the people alone. The legislator Lycurgus put an end to this bacchanalia.
      1. +11
        March 10 2023
        Lysander, resigned according to the Fundamental Laws of Lycurgus smile
        1. +16
          March 10 2023
          It has not yet become customary to amend the Constitution.
          "What are you hinting at? I ask you - what are you hinting at, royal muzzle?!"©
          1. +11
            March 10 2023
            I ask you - what are you hinting at, royal muzzle ?!
            The laws of Lycurgus are not much modified, they survived until the Roman conquest of Hellas in the XNUMXnd century BC, while the basic principles were preserved, life does not stand still. And what did you think?
            1. +16
              March 10 2023
              That's exactly what I was thinking. Also, I love Mr. PeJe the most. Just in case.
              1. +10
                March 10 2023
                There is another well-known trick from the classics:

                "- And I eat an apple and look out the window" (c).
              2. +8
                March 10 2023
                And I also love Mr. PeZhe the most. So.. just in case.
                "And I hope it's mutual" (c)
                1. +5
                  March 10 2023
                  Does the Heffalump love piglets, and if so, how exactly does he love them...
    2. +1
      March 10 2023
      Alexey, good evening "make amendments"
      1) they did not have Valentina Tereshkova.
      2) have not had time to write yet. And so there would be "amendments".
      There were always those who took care of themselves
  3. +8
    March 10 2023
    Thus, in the crucibles of cruel wars, Sparta, familiar to all of us, appeared - a unique state, the elite of which practically renounced privileges, and all citizens capable of bearing weapons became warriors.

    According to Plato, Hippocrates, uttering his famous phrase "You are what you eat", cites as an example the militancy of the Spartans and their "black stew".
    What is this? It would be very interesting to hear the commentators' versions
    1. +13
      March 10 2023
      What is this?
      Black blood stew - one of the dishes of the Spartans, a stew of pork legs and blood with lentils, vinegar and salt. Very nutritious. But it was not customary for the Spartans to treat foreigners with black stew. Either because of the specific look and taste that scared anyone away, or because they considered it only their privilege. Guests were usually treated generously.
  4. +12
    March 10 2023
    "Children are deceived while playing grandmother, and adults are deceived by taking vows."

    "To break one's word is a crime, but to lead the enemy is not only good and honorable, but also funny and useful."

    phrases, the meaning of which has long been intuitively learned by any successful politician

    Honestly, it would be better if Putin did not do judo at school, but read Plutarch and other authors.
    1. +4
      March 10 2023
      I doubt that anything has changed dramatically, everything was laid down even before judo. request
      1. +1
        March 11 2023
        I don’t understand, do you deny the importance of knowing history? Perhaps if Putin had read Machiavelli and the same Plutarch in time, perhaps he would not have been so "simple" and naive in negotiations with the same Merkel. The same applies to Gorbachev and Yeltsin.
  5. +14
    March 10 2023
    For the sake of interest, I looked how many times the name of Alcibiades is mentioned in the article. Nineteen times. smile
    Valery loves this character, although it’s hard for me personally to understand why he attracts him so much.
    In general, I envy the ancient Greeks - they are warm, it’s good, everything grows by itself, there was nothing for people to do - so they described their every step, every word, and now we can read it all and admire ...
    1. +14
      March 10 2023
      how many times the name of Alcibiades is mentioned in the article. nineteen times
      So, it didn’t seem. Not only to me, or rather. These two names were constantly spinning in my head when reading - I even got confused who the main character of the article was from them. Another verse known about Lenin and the game sounded in the background. In my head. Lissander and Alcibiades. brothers. Who is more valuable than mother-history.
    2. +13
      March 10 2023
      In general, I envy the ancient Greeks - they have warmth
      Yeah. "It's warm there. There are apples" (c) smile
      1. +15
        March 10 2023
        "Tea grows there. But I don't need to go there."
        1. +10
          March 10 2023
          There tea grows
          Tea grows in England too Yes .
        2. +4
          March 10 2023
          "I don't need to go there", you probably don't like tea. Do you, like most people, prefer coffee?
          I love coffee: in the morning, if I'm not in a hurry, I brew coffee (I like extra fine grinding) Brazilian Arabica, and if I'm in a hurry, something cheap instant.
          My husband earns well, but I have a rule ': I restrain my whims and pay myself
      2. +12
        March 10 2023
        Yeah
        And now there's pasta in prison...

        smile
        Here's what I thought about.
        The first ancient Greek states were formed in the XIII century. BC.
        The first Slavic, if we consider the state of Samo as such, was in the XNUMXth century. AD
        About 1400 years have passed since the formation of the first Slavic state. During this time, the Slavs managed to master nuclear energy, fly into space and build a state from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic.
        The Greeks, during the 1400 years since the formation of their first state, did not even leave the slave system, and lost their own state half a millennium before the expiration of this period.
        Question. Who is progressing faster?
        laughing
        1. +7
          March 10 2023
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          The first ancient Greek states were formed in the XIII century. BC.

          Earlier: in the XNUMXth century BC have already been. hi
          1. +7
            March 10 2023
            Especially. smile
            They had so much time... laughing
            1. +5
              March 10 2023
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              They had so much time...

              The Greeks had 2 calls, and if you count with Byzantium, then 3. hi
              1. +5
                March 10 2023
                Why not count it? The most successful Greek project, in my opinion. But it also ended a long time ago. And the new ones are somehow not impressive. smile
                1. +5
                  March 10 2023
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  And the new ones are somehow not impressive.

                  They are not impressive, but probably everything has already ended for them: it happened 3 times, and God loves a trinity. hi
                  But in general, all 3 runs they turned out to be very interesting.
                  1. +4
                    March 10 2023
                    The first - understandably - Ancient Greece. The second is the Byzantine Empire. And the third, I counted modernity, after the Ottomans, and, in my opinion, it does not show anything interesting, at least not yet.
                    Apparently we think differently, am I missing something?
                    1. +4
                      March 10 2023
                      Quote: Trilobite Master
                      The first - understandable - Ancient Greece

                      I thought like this:
                      The first is the Mycenaean civilization: in general, the first early state formations in Europe (2nd millennium BC)
                      The second is classics and Hellenism: everything is clear here.
                      Third - Byzantium
                      And I must say in all three cases they performed "with all the money": almost 3 thousand years in the forefront on the stage, a huge influence on the entire civilization, in the case of Byzantium, even greatly underestimated. Who else can boast so much?
                      And now - yes: the guys are really tired, they want to relax in the shade, sipping cold retsina. hi
                      1. +4
                        March 10 2023
                        The only question is to what extent Hellas can be considered the heir to the Mycenaean civilization.
                      2. +4
                        March 10 2023
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        The only question is to what extent Hellas can be considered the heir to the Mycenaean civilization.

                        It is quite possible to consider, although through the prism of the "dark ages". Approximately to the same extent as medieval Europe was the heir to the Roman Empire. hi
                      3. +4
                        March 10 2023
                        I think that in the second case, the effect is an order of magnitude greater.
                      4. +3
                        March 10 2023
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        I think that in the second case, the effect is an order of magnitude greater.

                        No doubt, but in the first it also took place, although much on a smaller scale. hi
                      5. +3
                        March 10 2023
                        I somehow ... missed the Mycenaean civilization. smile But then the question is: what about the Minoan? Is it even older? Or is she no longer "Greek"?
                        Yes, there is something to think about. recourse
                      6. +3
                        March 10 2023
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        how about the minoan? Is it even older? Or is she no longer "Greek"?

                        It is older, but not Greek. Apparently, these were not yet Indo-Europeans. Their language has not been deciphered, although it has been preserved (Linear A). There are a lot of versions, as usual, but most likely it is a pre-Indo-European language, which has not survived to date. hi
                      7. The comment was deleted.
        2. +3
          March 10 2023
          During this time, the Slavs managed to master nuclear energy, fly into space and build a state from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic.
          Tame mammoths...
  6. +13
    March 10 2023
    To a man who claimed to love and praise him very much, Lysander said: "I have two bulls in the field and both are silent, but I know very well which of them is a hard worker and which is an idler."
  7. +13
    March 10 2023
    Lysander was born around 452 BC. e. and was of fairly noble birth

    According to the ancient tradition, Lysander was a mothac, Plutarch points to the poverty of Lysander's father - Aristocrite, perhaps the latter was a hypomeion. That is, the dubious origin and poverty of his father made Lysander's political career very long: by 407 he was already in his fifth decade.
    1. VLR
      +11
      March 10 2023
      Lysander was poor, but descended from Hercules: that is, although the "seventh water on jelly", but a relative of one of the two royal dynasties of Sparta.
      1. +11
        March 10 2023
        but was descended from Hercules
        As now, you read the comments, all from the Rurik family, either the Romanovs, or other boyar families. laughing
      2. +11
        March 10 2023
        Lysander was poor
        It seems that this is almost his only virtue .. If you read Plutarch
        Lysander's ambition was painful only for people who occupied the first places in the state and were equal to him in dignity. However, the flattery of others led to the fact that, along with ambition, arrogance and intolerance appeared in his character. Neither in honors nor in punishments, he knew the measures inherent in a democratic form of government: he had unlimited, tyrannical power over cities as a reward for friendship and hospitality, and only the death of a hated enemy could calm his anger - Lysander's opponents were not allowed to go into exile. In Miletus, fearing that the leaders of the people would not run away, and wanting to lure those who were hiding, he swore not to commit violence. They believed him: some remained, others left their shelters, and he gave both of them - and there were no less than eight hundred of them - to be punished by the oligarchs. The number of supporters of the people killed in the cities is generally impossible to count; Lysander executed, not only punishing for misdeeds, but, pleasing his friends, everywhere he helped them settle scores with numerous enemies and indulged their insatiable self-interest. Therefore, the words of the Lacedaemonian Eteocles that Greece could not bear two Lysanders became so famous. Theophrastus says that Archestratus said the same thing about Alcibiades. But Alcibiades was mainly intolerable to his arrogance, passion for luxury and self-will, while the power of Lysander made his cruel temper heavy and terrible.
    2. +7
      March 10 2023
      That is, the dubious origin and poverty of his father made Lysander's political career very long.
      "Social elevators" then worked slowly. The slave system. smile
  8. Fat
    +12
    March 10 2023
    hi Valery. Thank you for the article. It was very interesting.
    However, I must note that the phrase "medieval engraving" is almost an oxymoron. Especially when an etching is shown (not earlier than the 16th century) in a classical style (not earlier than the 17th century)
    1. +10
      March 10 2023
      Quote: Thick
      the phrase "medieval engraving" is almost an oxymoron.

      I thought about that too :)
    2. +5
      March 10 2023
      This is the work of Hermann Vogel. The beginning of the signature can be seen in the image.
      Hermann Vogel (German: Hermann Vogel; October 16, 1854[1], Plauen, Kingdom of Saxony - February 22, 1921[1], Burgstein, Vogtland[2]) was a German illustrator.
      Vogel was born in Plauen to an architect's family. From 1874 to 1875 he studied at the Dresden Academy of Arts.
      Later he worked for the publishing house Braun & Schneider and was one of the founders of the German Art Society (Deutsche Kunstgesellschaft).


      Full size with visible caption
      Vogel's illustrations appeared in the 1881 edition of Andersen's Selected Tales, the 1887 edition of the Museus Tales, and in 1891 he illustrated Gustaf Schalk's The Nibelungen. From 1896 to 1899 his work was collected in two volumes. Volumes 3 and 4 appeared in 1903 and 1908. Vogel died at Krebes in Saxony.
      1. Fat
        +4
        March 10 2023
        hi Thanks Vladimir. It's good that you found the author. I'm just about like this, the 19th century and would date the engraving. smile
        1. +5
          March 10 2023
          The above image was immediately suspiciously similar to the German romanticism of the 19th century. 15-16 centuries are still different. Also unique and recognizable.
          Here are the "Three Soldiers"

          This is Daniel Hopfer the Elder (German Daniel Hopfer, 1470, Kaufbeuren - 1536, Augsburg) - German artist of the Northern Renaissance, engraver and gunsmith. One of the first to use the etching technique. He has a lot of works depicting soldiers and they are all so "mannered", handsome. Some pants are worth it.
          1. +2
            March 10 2023
            and all such "mannered", handsome.
            What else to be Landsknechts?
            Wine, women and rags!
            Hello Vladimir!
            1. +2
              March 10 2023
              Well, they are so cool. While choosing a picture for an example, "stuck", looking at this magnificence. And Durer, I just adore him.
              1. +1
                March 10 2023
                Judging by the vestments, the "captain" is "in the last battle."
              2. Fat
                0
                March 10 2023
                A well-deserved looter and arsonist, an ardent fighter for personal and not very personal property, a favorite of the marauders and a generally charming person - Bernhard Rothbart.
                Artist Mikhail Ivanov
                (I hope he doesn't get too mad for using this work... After all, it's taken from his "official portfolio") smile
                1. +2
                  March 10 2023
                  Yes, I did, thanks. An illustrator by profession, she is fond of military history. For me, it's a very worthy work. In principle, a military costume, especially a medieval one, is a fertile topic.
  9. +12
    March 10 2023
    Unfortunately, the article does not contain the most interesting thing related to Lysander - a description of the so-called "power of Lysander", that is, that complex system of international relations that Lysander built on the basis of the institutions of decarchies and harmosts. According to ancient tradition, it was Lysander who was the organizer and ideological inspirer of the "Spartan Empire", the collapse of which took place during the life of Lysander himself.
    1. +3
      March 10 2023
      the collapse of which took place during the life of Lysander himself.
      This is another. smile The bright image of the hero is collapsing smile
  10. +7
    March 10 2023
    Valery, as usual, on the level.
    I read and thought: Alquiad and Lysander were worthy opponents.
    But Alquiades was treacherously killed, and Lysander died in battle
  11. +5
    March 10 2023
    "sworn not to mend violence" deceived the people and not the slightest remorse.
    My word, which means that I want to do what I do with my word.
    Valery, at first, when I read it, I wanted to say: what a clever girl, but now I want to say that he is a scoundrel!
  12. +5
    March 10 2023
    “The past cannot be changed,” said the physicist. “What are we getting paid for then?” the historian objected.

    The day passed unproductively, but I read the article in between works and came to the conclusion:
    times change, and with them the way in which the surplus population is disposed of changes.
    Only the very idea of ​​recycling is a constant.
    But how beautiful it was in antiquity!
    wassat )))
    Some names are worth it.
    1. VLR
      +5
      March 10 2023
      What are the names of M. Uspensky:
      Master you! Zhikhar said with respect. - What names are all right,
      Algernon alone is worth something! Oh, if I were Algernon, so the whole world is
      break a brick! Only two names I didn’t like - Gawain, yes
      Tristan.
      - You are very attentive, dear brother. But what is bad, for example,
      Tristan?
      - Looks like diarrhea.
      Yar-Tur grimaced.
      - Noticing that this young man was preoccupied with something, I called him Tristan, which
      means sad...
      - Yes, you will be sad with such an illness ...
      1. +7
        March 10 2023
        Laughed...
        You know, whatever you call some - well, there, Great, Sun-faced - all the same substance turns out. And some are really great even with unsightly names.
        I began to figure out who we have with unsightly names?
        Did not find. Pseudonyms are taken, cursed wassat )))
        Yes, and the title of the article is good, a play on words.
        1. +6
          March 10 2023
          I began to figure out who we have with unsightly names?
          "One is called Evdondohya, and the second is Snandulya" (C)
          1. +3
            March 10 2023
            In general, I was interested)))

            It turns out that there were people who at one time dug up the Moscow telephone directory (is there such a one now in connection with the era of complete mobilization of the population?), so there it is!...
            But if in the context of an article with an expansion of the context to a transfer to a different era, then .... Here are two Russian commanders with different, but the same root surnames. And if you offer these names to a random passerby who has forgotten the school curriculum and is not at all aware of what is happening, and ask which of them is great, provided that the other is just famous, then the person will certainly give the right answer. Sound hardness.
            1. +5
              March 10 2023
              there were people who at one time dug up the Moscow telephone directory
              At the turn of the nineties-zero there was such a funny phrase: "I read my father's pager. I thought a lot."
            2. +3
              March 10 2023
              (is there such a thing now in connection with the era of complete mobilization of the population?),
              You, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, as the second nominee for the title of "Best conspiracy theorist of the resource", should know that we are all under M(i)ler's hood!
              1. +2
                March 10 2023
                we are all under the hood of M (and) ler!

                Of course we know!
                I admit, homegrown Muller is present even directly.
                Therefore, I believe that in the name "Lysander" we incorrectly put the idea of ​​​​the properties of the animal, which, if it was found on the territory of Greece in those ancient times, was not called "fox", but in some other way, as a result of which Lysander turned out to be fellow tribesmen cunning according to the circumstances of their activity, and not according to the sound of the name.
                But coincidence is funny for us! laughing )))
        2. +4
          March 10 2023
          I'll have to quote the hooligan:

          I would have known that it would turn out so unprepossessingly,
          I would remove my fingered hand,
          And I would sit at home without a beach,
          Far from the big powerful rods ...
          1. +4
            March 10 2023
            Yes. From the application to the prosecutor's office.
            "I was walking down the street in a state of slight intoxication. Four people met me. I asked for a smoke. I lay down and smoked."
    2. +3
      March 10 2023
      Lyudmila Yakovovlevna, glad to see you. I miss your kindness
    3. The comment was deleted.
  13. +4
    March 10 2023
    Valery, and who said: "I hate your beliefs, but I will die so that they can express them"?
    1. VLR
      +2
      March 10 2023
      Attributed to Voltaire, but they say that this is a reworking of the phrase:
      "I do not agree with a single word that you say, but I am ready to die for your right to say it" - from Evelyn Hall's book about Voltaire.
      1. +2
        March 10 2023
        Oh, that's where the conversation turned!
        On the path of death.
        Did the ancient generals have beliefs?
        To me, this is how they look like the leaders of countless modern PMCs on a global scale.
        Who hired, who provided the ships and soldiers, fought for that. And only our time pulls on them, the ancients, the toga of patriotism. And there was often just a desire to realize oneself in the role of a commander ...
        Oh History! What a beautiful haze you wrap ancient times with their pools of blood of innocent helots.
        1. +2
          March 10 2023
          The "sense of duty" is perhaps the only thing that distinguishes the intelligent from the animal world.
          1. +1
            March 10 2023
            If so, then the most intelligent are dogs and cats. The web is full of examples.
            1. The comment was deleted.
        2. VLR
          +1
          March 10 2023
          Well, why, here is the same Lysander - a bright Spartan patriot, nothing for himself - everything for the Motherland. He didn’t take an obol for himself, he enriched Sparta. If it is necessary to deceive a "partner" for the good of the cause - for God's sake, with great pleasure. Here, Basayev, for example, he would not have released from Budyonnovsk: he would have given his word, and then ordered to shoot everyone, perhaps even at the walls of the hospital on the air.
      2. +1
        March 10 2023
        I really like this position. Real nobility
  14. 0
    March 11 2023
    Yes, it seems that his compatriots put forward a claim for a bribe from the Persians.
    I am more for Lycurgus and his laws.
  15. 0
    1 May 2023
    Yes, at the end it came true, a detailed analysis of wars appeared. Hurray comrades!
    But there is food for thought. All these internecine wars among the Greeks did not arise from scratch.
    Before, when I read about Macedonian, I thought that there were contradictions between northern and southern Greece, but it turned out to be more and more confusing, and this is even good. Because the geography is expanding from Anatolia and even mussels to Africa and even mountains of ampere.
    Here are some interesting facts
    Athena Zeus and Poseidon originated in North Africa. Apollo is either associated with the Omphal stone, the same as that of the Persians, or indeed with the north, perhaps the oracles went from it. The temple of Aritemis was excavated in Ephesus by the Achaeans or the inhabitants of Artsav or someone else.
    There is a joke about this Artsava or Mira in general. Luvian tale of Troy. There was a division of the country and one ruler gathered a fleet and sailed to Troy; there he gathered the people and sailed to build walls near Jerusalem. In general, this place of artsava lydia Mira was a hostile place. The Cimmerians fought with her. The Hittites fought. There was a Greco-Carthaginian war. And the Luwians migrated somewhere, possibly to the Caucasus.
    In the 8th century BC, as a result of a disagreement in Tire, the Phoenicians were divided and Carthogen Rome was formed.
    The Ionians are Pilasgians. That's it. And Achilles was not an Achaean. Then who was Aeneas.

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