21 November 1368 The Grand Duke of Lithuania Olgerd (ruling 1345 - 1377) defeated the Moscow army on the Trosne River. Thus began the Lithuanian-Moscow war of 1368 — 1372, also known as “Lithuanian”. In fact, it was a conflict between the two Russian powers (both states had approximately 80% of the Russian population, since most of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania consisted of the former lands of the Old Russian state), there was a struggle between the two centers for leadership in the Russian land. It should be noted that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was under great pressure from the West, both military and religious-cultural, which was constantly increasing, and eventually led to the absorption of the state by Poland. Pagan and Orthodox began in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania suffered a defeat, the Lithuanian nobility chose the “European way”.
History of war
Olgerd, the son of Gediminas, concluded an agreement with his brother Keistut, according to which Keistut rules Lithuania and Zemaitia, focusing his attention on the western direction, restraining the onslaught of the crusaders. Olgerd concentrated his efforts on the eastern direction, collecting Russian lands under his rule. In general, such a system, when the state had two senior officials (diarchy), justified itself and brought success. Olgerd paid great attention to the strengthening of the influence of Lithuania in Pskov, Novgorod the Great and Smolensk. In Novgorod, formed a strong prolitovskaya party. The Grand Dukes of Smolensk, Ivan Aleksandrovich and Svyatoslav Ivanovich, became practically assistants to the princes of Olgerd. So, Svyatoslav was obliged to accompany Olgerd in campaigns and give Smolensk army to fight the crusaders and Moscow. Attempts to evade this duty were punishable by invasions of Lithuanian troops.
Around 1355, Olgerd's army “fought” Bryansk, after which many other inheritances, into which the former Novgorod-Seversk and Chernihiv lands fell, submitted to him. The Grand Duke divided all Chernihiv-Seversk lands into three areas: he gave his son Dmitri Chernigov and Trubchevsk, his other son Dmitry-Koribut - Bryansk and Novgorod-Seversk, nephew of Patrike Narimuntovich - Starodub. In 1362, Prince Olgerd defeated three Tatar princes in a battle on the banks of the Blue Waters (left tributary of the Southern Bug). As a result, a significant part of the modern territory of Ukraine (including the sparsely populated Podolia and the Northern Black Sea region), together with Kiev, which were already under Lithuanian influence after the battle on the Irpin River 1324, were under complete control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, having annexed South-Western and Western Russia to its possessions, became the largest power in Europe at that time.
In Kiev, Olgerd put his son Vladimir. Olgerd establishing control over the lands of the former Ancient Russian state in Volyn faced the interests of the Polish king Casimir III. Only in 1377, already under Louis, Casimir’s successor, with the mediation of Keystut, an agreement was concluded between Olgerd and Louis, according to which the Beresteis, Vladimir and Lutsk inheritances were recognized by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Kholm and Belz lands were transferred to the Kingdom of Poland.
Thus, almost simultaneously, the rise of two political centers, which claimed leadership in the Russian land, was taking place. In the eastern part of the Russian land there was a sharp strengthening of Moscow. Ivan Kalita received a shortcut to the great reign of Vladimir, defeated Tver, began to collect the “Horde way out”, receiving considerable financial resources under his control. Moscow has become the church capital of Russia. The eldest son of Ivan Danilovich Simeon (Semen) Proud continued the policy of strengthening the position of Moscow. After the war, Novgorod the Great called upon the power of the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir — Simeon the Proud was the title prince of Novgorod from 1346 to 1353 a year, and paid tribute. After Pskov laid back from Novgorod the Great, the Pskov land recognized the great prince of Moscow as its head and agreed to elect to the Pskov reign of persons acceptable to Moscow.
Algerd, concerned about the success of Simeon, sent his brother Koriat to the Golden Horde to Khan Janibek with a request to deprive the Moscow Prince of the label for a great reign and send an army against Moscow. However, Khan gave Koriat to Moscow, which made the Grand Duke of Lithuania ask peace from Simeon.
The immediate prerequisite for the Lithuanian-Moscow war of the 1368 — 1372. became a conflict over the Grand Duchy of Tver. In 1350, Prince Olgerd, after the death of his first wife, Vitebsk Princess Mary, married the daughter of Prince Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver, Prince Juliana of Kholm, for the second time. Thus, the Grand Duke of Lithuania was able to intervene in Tver affairs. The interests of Prince Mikhail Aleksandrovich Mikulinsky and Vasily Mikhailovich Kashinsky clashed in the Tver principality. The side of the first was supported by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Olgerd, the second by the Moscow Prince Dmitry. Mikhail Alexandrovich, not having the strength to resist Moscow, went to Olgerd to ask for help. Prince Kashinsky Vasily and Prince Dorogobuzh Yeremey Konstantinovich with the support of the Moscow ratification laid siege to Tver, but could not take it. Then Michael, with the support of Olgerd's troops, occupied Tver and plundered the principality of Dorogobuzh.
In 1368, Mikhail Alexandrovich was invited to Moscow to resolve the dispute, but they took him into custody. However, the arrival of the Khan's embassy forced Dmitry Ivanovich and Metropolitan Alexy to release Mikhail of Tver. Michael was forced to abandon the Township and part of the inheritance of Semen Konstantinovich (the brother of Prince Dorogobuzh Yeremey), where Moscow planted its governor. Offended by the Tver prince, he again went to Olgerd and complained to the relative about "many offenses, many great offenses." In the autumn of 1368, Olgerd, using this occasion, marched with a large army to Moscow.
Hike 1368 of the year. Olgerd applied his usual tactics, trying to hide from the enemy where he was plotting to go and why he was assembling a large army. He began the offensive not from the traditional direction - not from the west, from the Rzhev area, where he could rely on the allied principality of Tver, but from the south-west.
Dmitry Ivanovich sent letters of letters to the cities, summoning the troops, but the warriors did not have time to the assembly place before the enemy invasion. Dmitry was able to send to the enemy only a sentry regiment consisting of Muscovites, Kolomna residents and Dmitrovtsy, under the leadership of the governor Dmitry Minin and Akinf Shuba. At this time, Olgerd reached the borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Starodub prince Semyon Krapiva tried to stop the enemy, but his team was defeated, and the prince himself fell in battle. Then Olgerd's troops took Obolensk, the specific prince of Obolonsky Konstantin Yuryevich was killed.
On November 21, Olgerd's army on the Trosna River defeated the Moscow watch-keeping regiment, the governor Minin, Shuba and the boyars who were with them fell in battle. The Lithuanian army quickly approached Moscow. Dmitry Ivanovich ordered the burn down of the tenements, while he himself locked himself in the Kremlin with his cousin Vladimir Andreevich, the metropolitan and the people. For three days the army of Olgerd stood at Moscow, but could not take the new white-stone Kremlin, which was added in 1367 year. Olgerd's troops ravaged all the surroundings, captured a large full, a lot of loot and November 27 moved back. Taking advantage of the departure of the Olgerd army, Moscow regiments led by Vladimir Andreevich conducted retaliatory raids into Smolensk and Bryansk lands.
According to the results of this campaign, Rzhev joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Gorodok and part of Semen Konstantinovich’s inheritance had to be given to Prince Alexander of Tver of Tver.
Hike 1370 of the year. The truce between Moscow and Lithuania did not last long. In 1370, the great army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, under the command of Keistut, Olgerd and their sons Jagiello and Vitovt, invaded the lands of the Teutonic Order. In February, the Teutonic Order commanded by Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode defeated the Lithuanian army at the Battle of Rudawa (Rudau) in February. The Moscow government decided to take advantage of Olgerd’s failure and strike. In August, 1370, the Moscow regiments moved to Tver. The Grand Duke of Tver Mikhail Alexandrovich fled again to Lithuania. The army of Dmitry Ivanovich took the city of Zubtsov and Mikulin, a large one was taken to Moscow land.
Olgerd was able to assemble an army only for the winter. In the Christmas post, the troops of Olgerd, Keystut, Mikhail of Tver and Svyatoslav of Smolensk moved to Moscow. While on the way to Moscow, Olgerd laid siege to Volokolamsk (26 — 29 on November 1370 of the year). The city defended the Russian garrison led by the brave Prince Vasily Ivanovich Berezuysky. The besieged successfully kept the defense and even made a sortie, throwing the enemy from the walls. In this battle Prince Vasily was mortally wounded. However, the garrison did not lose heart and continued resistance. Olgerd, in order not to waste time, was forced to lift the siege and go to Moscow.
The delay of the army of Olgerd and Keystat near Volokolamsk enabled Prince Dmitry Ivanovich to organize the defense of Moscow. 6 December 1370, Olgerd's army laid siege to Moscow. The defense of the city was supervised by the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir. His cousin, Serpukhov-Borovsky prince Vladimir Andreevich assembled regiments in Przemysl. The allied regiments of Moscow, Prince Vladimir Dmitrievich Pronsky and Oleg Ivanovich Ryazansky, went to join him.
Olgerd once again convinced of the inaccessibility of Moscow fortifications, offered Dmitry Ivanovich “perpetual peace”, with the condition to fasten him with the marriage of his daughter Helen and Prince of Serpukhov Vladimir Andreevich Khrabryi. The Moscow government approved the idea of marriage, but instead of “perpetual peace”, only a truce was made before 29 June 1371 (Petrov's day). December 16 Lithuanian army gone.
However, the conflict was not settled. Mikhail Tverskoy, whose interests Olgerd did not take into account in his agreement with the Moscow government, turned to the Horde, to Mamai and received a label for the great reign of Vladimir. Mamai offered the army to help, but the Prince of Tver refused. He, together with the Khan ambassador Sarahodzhoy, left for Vladimir to be solemnly put on the grand duke's throne and led all the princes to the cross kissing allegiance. But Dmitry Ivanovich acted faster. He himself hastened to bring the boyars and black people in all areas of his principality to take an oath of allegiance. At the same time, Dmitry Ivanovich gathered an army from Pereyaslavl. When Mikhail Aleksandrovich and the Khan's ambassador arrived in Vladimir, they were informed that they already had a legitimate sovereign. Sarahodzha the Moscow prince said: “I don’t go to the label, I don’t allow Mikhail to enter the capital, but I will send you a free path after you”. The Moscow boyars without much difficulty called Sarahoja to Moscow and generously bestowed upon him. Prince Michael had to return to Tver without achieving success.
In the same year, Moscow successfully resolved the issue with Ryazan. Oleg Ryazansky, though he helped Moscow in the fight against Olgerd, was an extremely independent, impudent man. Even during the time of the Moscow Prince Ivan Red, he seized the city of Lopasnya belonging to Moscow. Dmitry Ivanovich decided to take advantage of the strife that arose between the princes Pronsky and Ryazan, to return the city. Arrogant Ryazan decided to use the tactics of the Tatars, using light cavalry. But the heavily armed Moscow army under the command of 16-year-old Dmitry Mikhailovich Bobrok-Volynsky utterly defeated the Ryazan army. Prince Oleg Ryazansky himself barely carried off his legs.
These successes allowed the Moscow government to start solving the problem of Tver. From the beginning of 1372, Dmitry began to prepare troops to march on the principality of Tver. Soon learned about it in Vilna.
Hike 1372 of the year. Olgerd, despite the advantageous world with the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the marriage of his daughter to Prince Vladimir Andreevich, decided to support the Prince of Tver. But, observing formal propriety, he went on a campaign not by himself, but sent Keistut with his son Vitovt with the army, his son Andrey Polotsky and Prince Drutsk of Druz.
The regiments of Keystut and Andrey Polotsky, acting as suddenly and covertly as Olgerd, 7 of April unexpectedly laid siege to Pereyaslavl. Simultaneously, the attack took Michael of Tver and captured the city of Kistma. Immediately after this, Kashin's prince Mikhail Vasilyevich sent an ambassador to Moscow and concluded an alliance with Dmitry Ivanovich, laying down an oath of allegiance to Prince Mikhail of Tver.
Then the troops of Mikhail Alexandrovich united with the forces of Keystut and besieged Dmitrov. Lithuanian-Tver troops ravaged the environs of Pereyaslavl and Dmitrov, many people were taken into captivity, taken from both cities. After that, the Lithuanian and Tver rati moved to Kashin and he shared the fate of other cities. Kashin had to pay a big tribute, and the Prince of Kashin, Mikhail Vasilyevich, was forced to take an oath of allegiance to Mikhail of Tver. From Kashin, the allies went to Torzhok and took it. Mikhail Alexandrovich put his governors in Torzhok. However, soon the Novgorodians fought off their suburbs, a small Tver squad ran without a fight. Novgorod, in retaliation, plundered Tver merchants.
Mikhail Alexandrovich, having learned about this, on May 31 of the year 1372 returned to Torzhok and demanded that the Novgorodians take his governors to Torzhok and extradite the people guilty of robbing the merchants to trial and punishment. But the proud Novgorodians, led by Alexander Abakumovich, the famous ushkuynik, refused. Novgorodians left the city engaged in battle with the Tver army. Novgorodians were defeated, fell in battle and their leader. Torzhok was again captured and subjected to defeat. In addition, a strong wind blew the fire started and almost the entire city burned out. Those who locked themselves in the stone church of the Holy Savior, fleeing from the robbers, suffocated in the smoke.
Mikhail of Tver moved to Lubutsk, where Olgerd himself came with the army. From here Olgerd planned to go to Moscow. A few days after the combination of the Tverches with the Olgerd army, the Moscow army secretly came out to Lubutsk under the command of Dmitry Ivanovich. Moscow troops smashed the Lithuanian sentry regiment with a sudden blow. This defeat was enough for the cautious Olgerd to withdraw his troops over a deep ravine. Both rati stood against each other, divided by a ravine. Neither side dared to attack first, and negotiations began. Soon a truce was concluded - until October 26 1372. The agreement was signed on behalf of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Olgerd, Troke Prince Keistut and Svyatoslav of Smolensk, Mikhail Alexandrovich, Dmitry Bryansky and several other princes were also included in the Lubutsky Treaty. Olgerd vouched that Mikhail of Tver would return all the loot in the lands of Moscow, recall his deputies from them and promised that if Tver would start a war with the Grand Duchy of Moscow during the truce, the Lithuanian state would not intervene for it. From Moscow, three Ryazan princes, Oleg, Roman and Vladimir Pronsky, were included in the treaty.
Later clashes between Moscow and Tver continued, but without the serious participation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. However, the union of the land of Tver and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian was preserved, he even grew stronger in connection with the marriage of Mary, daughter of Keystut, with Ivan, son of the Grand Duke of Tver, Mikhail Alexandrovich (1375 year). In 1373 — 1375 Olgerd managed to achieve the approval of Cyprian to the Kyiv-Lithuanian metropolis with the prospect of becoming the metropolitan of the whole Russian land after the death of Alexy, an associate of the Grand Duke of Moscow, Dmitry Ivanovich.
In 1375, the Prince of Tver, Mikhail Alexandrovich, was again able to obtain from the Golden Horde Khan a label for the great reign of Vladimir and his troops attacked Torzhok and Uglich. Then Dmitry of Moscow moved to Tver the united ratios of North-Eastern Russia, the Bryansk, Verkhov and Smolensk principalities. Tver was besieged, and Mikhail of Tver was forced to abandon the label of great reign, recognize himself as the younger brother of the Grand Duke of Moscow and join the antiordynsky alliance. The Lithuanian prince Olgerd limited himself to a military demonstration in the direction of Tver and destroyed the Smolensk land, which this time supported the Moscow principality.
In 1376, Dmitry Ivanovich sent regiments under Vladimir Andreevich to Rzhev. For three days the army stood at the walls of the city, and it devastated the neighborhood of the city. The counterattack of the Lithuanian principality did not take place, Olgerd died in 1377. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, civil strife began, which shifted all attention to the situation inside the country. With his testament, Olgerd sowing distemper in Lithuania, transferring the throne not to his elder son Andrei Polotsky, from his first marriage to Maria Vitebskaya, but to his eldest son from his marriage with Ulyana Tverskaya - Yagailo. A quarrel between Andrey and Jagiello began, the owner of Polotsk lost in her, and then the conflict between Jagiello and Vitovt (Keystut's son). This allowed Dmitry Ivanovich to concentrate his efforts on the struggle against Mamai and win over to his side a part of the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.