"The people have the form of government they deserve": the French conservative Gustave Lebon and his concept of the struggle of peoples

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"The people have the form of government they deserve": the French conservative Gustave Lebon and his concept of the struggle of peoples

It is generally accepted that conservatism was initially hostile to nationalist ideas, as it advocated the preservation of the political forms of the XNUMXth century. As you know, the terms “right” and “left” first appeared in the French National Assembly during the French Revolution, where opponents of the revolution, supporters of a constitutional monarchy, who wanted to preserve the status quo, sat on the right. Actually, the concepts of "conservative" and "liberal" also originated and entered into socio-political use in France.

However, a number of researchers are of the opinion that conservatism is a national phenomenon, as opposed to the international ideologies of liberalism and socialism, and therefore universal definitions of conservatism are difficult. In particular, French conservatism, and the views of Joseph de Maistre and François René de Chateaubriand confirm this, had a more traditionalist, religious-mystical bias. This opinion is justified, since the reality is that by the end of the XNUMXth century, many classics of European conservatism acted simultaneously as classics of nationalism. One of these representatives of the national conservative camp was the French sociologist Gustave Lebon.



In historiography, Lebon's heritage has been studied rather poorly. As the historian Aleksey Fenenko notes in his monograph “The National Idea of ​​the French Conservatives of the 1970th Century”, until the early 2000s, Gustave Lebon’s works were of interest mainly as “desktop works” of the greatest dictators of the XNUMXth century. A similar approach also dominated Soviet historiography, where orthodox Marxist positions dominated in the analysis of the views of the French conservative (Lebon's works were not directly published under the USSR at all). In the XNUMXs, several works were published that deserve attention, but they cannot be called impartial.

However, can historiography be completely impartial? Gustave Lebon himself believed that no, and was skeptical about stories as science:

“historical writings must be treated as works of pure fantasy, fantastic stories about facts that were poorly observed and accompanied by explanations made later. Do we know at least one word of truth about the lives of great people who played an outstanding role in the history of mankind ...
In essence, however, their real life is of little importance to us; we are interested in knowing these great men only as they were created by folk legend [1]."

In this material, we will try to analyze the philosophical and political views of Gustave Le Bon and his sociological studies, which still do not lose their relevance.

Scientific activity of Gustave Lebon and the formation of his views


Gustave Le Bon was born in 1841 in the town of Nogent-le-Rotrou, 100 km southwest of Paris. In Nogent-le-Rotrou, Gustave lived with his brother Georges and his parents for only 8 years, but there is a street named after him. The father of the family, Jean-Marie-Charles Lebon, was an official, his mother, Annette-Josephine, was a housewife [4]. They belonged to the middle class, had Breton and Burgundian roots, their coats of arms date back to 1698 [6].

After graduating from the classical lyceum, Gustav Lebon began to study medicine at the University of Paris. He received a good medical education, which allowed the scientist to subsequently develop his scientific knowledge in the field of anthropology and psychology. Having received a medical license, Lebon decided not to limit himself to treating patients, but to achieve academic heights and public recognition. It should be noted that the science of the second half of the 4th century was a vast field with many unplowed plots, and medical education was such that it could serve as a basis for research in anthropology, psychiatry and other disciplines [XNUMX].

The topic of the first publication of G. Lebon (1862) was the diseases of people living in swampy areas. Then he wrote several articles on fever and asphyxia, and his first large book, Obvious Death and Premature Burials (1866), seemed more than strange to physicians of that time, because the deceased is the deceased, everyone knew this, and even more so doctors. And Le Bon argued that many patients who were considered dead were actually not, and proposed methods for preserving and restoring life, a number of which practical medicine began to be considered only from the 70s of the XX century [4].

In The Psychology of the Generation, written at the very end of the 1860s, and in several other works on the medical subject, Le Bon perfected his style and gradually connected his scientific career with pathology and the diagnosis of diseases. It should be noted that, despite the diverse interests in various fields of knowledge, Lebon always considered them from a medical point of view.

At the same time, already in the 1860s, Le Bon began to expand the field of his diagnoses, including certain categories of French life, in particular, growing rates of alcohol consumption and falling birth rates. For Lebon, as well as for many thinking Frenchmen, the contrast when comparing similar indicators of France and Germany testified to the economic and demographic lagging behind of the republic [4].

The lag of France from Germany was clearly manifested during the Franco-Prussian war. Lebon, then living in Paris, voluntarily entered the medical service and organized a military ambulance department. As head physician, he oversaw the behavior of the military under the worst conditions. Armed with a practical knowledge of warfare, military discipline, and a study of the behavior of a person in a state of great stress, he wrote treatises on the leadership of military operations, which, having been approved by the generals, were studied in military academies. At the end of the war, Lebon received the title of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor [4].

Lebon witnessed not only the Franco-Prussian war, but also the Paris Commune. He saw how the revolutionaries burned the Tuileries Palace, the Louvre library, the city hall and the Renaissance theater, part of the Palace of Justice and other irreparable works of architecture. As the historian Nikolai Lepetukhin notes, these events strengthened his personal pessimism and strengthened his confidence in the decay of the French nation.

Gustave Lebon continued his journalistic activity, the combination of popular science and social commentary was his forte. Soon commercial success came to Lebon. Already by 1875 he was one of the few scientists who could live by publishing his work. At this time, Lebon especially enthusiastically delved into the problems of psychology and was actively engaged in anthropology, studying the cranial parameters of various human races. Gustave Lebon was greatly influenced by the scientific works on the theory of evolution of Ch. Darwin; they were for him, according to R. Nye, "the best substitute for religion, a reliable, conservative, practical, completely unwritten deity" [7].

Le Bon's most famous and best-selling work was The Psychology of Crowds (Psychology of Peoples and Masses, 1895) - 14 editions of it appeared in 1895 years (1909–14). In this work, the author considered two topics: racial psychology and mass psychology.

"Psychology of peoples and masses" - the fundamental work of the French sociologist



The book "Psychology of Peoples and Masses" ("Psychology of Crowds") not only had a great influence on the founders of social psychology and the first sociologists, but went beyond the academic environment - into the political and military spheres [5]. Le Bon is rightfully considered the founder of the sociology of the masses. He actually founded such an important area of ​​modern socio-political research as the "sociology of mass communication" - the study of "institutions and characters of mass communication" and their interaction within the mass media [2].

"Psychology of peoples and masses" consists of two approximately equal books. The first book, The Psychology of Nations, is in fact an almost verbatim retelling of The Psychological Laws of the Evolution of Nations, which Le Bon had published a few years earlier. The second book of The Psychology of Crowds, the most valued in science, is called The Psychology of the Masses and consists of three sections (13 chapters).

Consider some of the main theses of this work.

First, the French sociologist pointed out that the life of a people, its institutions, beliefs and arts are only the visible products of its invisible soul, and in order for a people to transform its institutions, its beliefs and art, "it must first remake its soul." According to Lebon, the fate of the people is controlled to a much greater extent by the dead generations than by the living ones.

“Neither revolutions, nor constitutions, nor despots can give to any people those qualities of character that it does not possess, or take away from it the existing qualities from which its institutions flow. Every nation has the form of government it deserves [1]”,

Lebon thought.

In his later work, The Psychology of Socialism (1898), the French sociologist puts forward his own concept of ethnic consciousness, which, from his point of view, is divided into two layers. The author considers the “innate ideas” of its members to be the unconditional support of the nation – “the inheritance of the race, bequeathed by distant or immediate ancestors, the inheritance perceived by a person at his very birth and directing his behavior [3]”. This is followed by a layer of “acquired or mental representations”, by which Le Bon understands those features that a person has acquired under the influence of his own social environment [2].

It is from the hereditary "innate ideas" that the character of a given people depends, that is, the reason why the republican institutions of the United States flourish, and the republics of Latin America are in a state of decline. The founder of the "sociology of the masses" sees the basis of human behavior not in social traditions, but in some kind of ethnic subconscious, bequeathed by the ancestors and not amenable to rational control [2]. We will return to this issue later.

Secondly, Le Bon, being an idealist, argues that the world is ruled by ideas, and the strong personalities who spread them play a huge role in history.

“The history of the origin of ideas, their dominance, obsolescence, transformation and disappearance can be convincingly stated only when it is confirmed by numerous examples. If we could go into details, we would show that every element of civilization: philosophy, religion, art, literature, etc., is subject to a very small number of guiding ideas, the development of which is extremely slow. The sciences themselves do not escape this law...
Whether it be a scientific, artistic, philosophical, religious, in a word, whatever idea, its dissemination is always carried out in the same way. It must first be accepted by a small number of apostles, to whom the strength of their faith, or the authority of their name, gives great prestige. They then act more by suggestion than by evidence [1]”,

Lebon says.

Le Bon notes that it is not inventors and theorists, but strong personalities and fanatics who carry the crowd with them, write history.

“Inventors play an important role in the development of civilization, but no direct role in the political history of peoples. The great men to whom, from the plow to the telegraph, which are the common property of mankind, have never possessed the qualities of character necessary to found a religion or to conquer an empire. At the call of some Peter the Hermit, millions of people rushed to the East; the fame of a hallucinated man like Mohammed created the power necessary to triumph over the old Greco-Roman world; some unknown monk Luther betrayed Europe to fire and blood. Brilliant inventors accelerate the course of civilization. Fanatics and hallucinators are making history [1]."

Similar thoughts were developed many years later by the German philosopher Oswald Spengler, in his "The Decline of the Western World", who noted that theorists' great delusion is that they believe that their place is at the top, and not in the train of great events.

“In the historiography of Western European thinking, one can do without the name of Napoleon, but in real history, Archimedes, with all his scientific discoveries, was of less importance than the soldier who killed him during the storming of Syracuse [8]”,

Spengler wrote.

Gustave Lebon concludes:

“ideas, and therefore the people who embody and disseminate them, rule the world. Their triumph is assured from the moment they have the hallucinated and the convinced among their protectors. It matters little to the power of their action whether they are true or false. History even shows us that the most absurd ideas have always fanatized people more and played the most important role.

Thirdly, the French sociologist makes important discoveries in the sociology of the masses. In particular, Le Bon has the expression "collective soul". He applies this concept to races, nations, nationalities and to the crowd that appears and disappears [9].

“The conscious personality disappears, and the feelings and ideas of all the individual units that form the whole, called the crowd, take the same direction. A collective soul is formed, which, of course, has a temporary character ...
The gathering in such cases becomes what I would call, for lack of a better expression, an organized crowd or a spiritualized crowd, constituting a single being [1].

This comment links Le Bon's thoughts to the theory constructs of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, who writes about the same thing in a work on synchronicity. The ideas about the collective spirit and the influence of heredity on the cause of human behavior are obviously close to Jung's ideas about the archetypal composition of the collective unconscious (Jung believed that the collective unconscious is expressed through universal archetypes - signs, symbols or patterns of thinking or behavior inherited from our ancestors).

In his analysis of the feelings and morality of the crowd, Le Bon proceeds from the fact that it is controlled by the unconscious. The crowd does not reason, it does not have the ability to suppress its reflexes, it obeys the most diverse impulses from the most cruel bloodlust to absolute heroism, because it is under momentary excitement. Therefore, one of the properties of the crowd is its variability and impulsiveness. The crowd, by virtue of its large number, is aware of itself as powerful, does not tolerate objections and obstacles, moreover, feels itself unpunished.

Next, we will consider the concept of the struggle of races and civilizations, which follows from Gustave Le Bon's understanding of the national idea.

The concept of the struggle of races and peoples G. Lebon


As mentioned earlier, the French sociologist put forward his own concept of ethnic consciousness and believed that hereditary factors play a predominant role in the character of peoples. Thus, as A. Fenenko notes, he made a real revolution in the structure of the national idea and transformed the entire system of basic values ​​of European political philosophy of the 2th century. In fact, within the framework of Lebon's sociology, "classical nationalism" was replaced by a new concept of "national-racial identity". In Lebon's sociological system, all state institutions are directly dependent on the "national spirit" [XNUMX].

Le Bon's national theory breaks completely with the traditions of Rousseau and the French Revolution. Political institutions - the basis of the national state in the political thought of the twentieth century - are given a secondary place in it. Speaking about the classification of peoples, the French researcher emphasizes that neither language, nor environment, nor “political groupings” can serve as its basis [2]. Only psychology can serve as such a basis, since it is precisely psychology that shows “that behind the institutions, arts, beliefs, political upheavals of every people there are certain moral and intellectual features from which its evolution follows” [1].

Analyzing the worldview of G. Lebon, one cannot but pay attention to the fact that in his works the concepts of “people” and even more so “nation” are used immeasurably less than the concept of “race”. Already in the pages of The Psychology of Crowds, he introduces two categories: "biological race", based on common anthropological characteristics; and "historical race", united only by common psychological features.

Le Bon's use of the concept of "historical race" shows his deep dependence on the previous layer of French nationalism and conservatism and gives his theory a completely unexpected perspective. In fact, the author of The Psychology of Peoples and Masses acted as the heir to a long tradition of historiography of the 2th century. Within its framework, the concept of "struggle of races" was the dominant leitmotif of the analysis of European history [XNUMX].

The theory of the "struggle of races", as the basis of all European history, originated in English socio-political thought in the middle of the 2th century and reached its peak in France during the Restoration. In those years, a tense controversy took place in French society about the outcome of the revolutionary events and the Napoleonic Wars [XNUMX].

In Lebon's works, the concepts of "nation" and "race" are by no means identical to each other. The French thinker does not deny the "national theory" of his predecessors: he only takes it to a qualitatively new stage, adding elements of irrationalism to it. The basis of his national theory is the irrational self-perception of the nation, inherent in all its members. Such a theory is close to the classical "national idea" of the French conservative Alexis de Tocqueville, although the focus is shifted from rational political institutions to irrational hereditary ideas.

Since representatives of different races live and think based on different values ​​and norms, they inevitably come into conflict with each other: the wars that the races waged among themselves for centuries are due to the incompatibility of their characters. Different races cannot feel, think and act in the same way and therefore cannot understand each other [5].

“The struggle, to which all creatures created by nature are doomed, takes place everywhere and always. Wherever there is no struggle, not only is there no forward movement, but on the contrary, there is a rapid backward movement...
The struggle between the races, and not their illusory agreement, has always been the predominant fact in history. Peoples were in constant struggle, and from the beginning of the world the right of the strong was always the only arbiter of their destinies. The laws of nature cannot be changed by man, they operate with the blind correctness of the mechanism, and the one who encounters them always fails [3]”,

Le Bon states in The Psychology of Socialism.

All this gave reason to the French philosopher Pierre-André Taghieff in his book La couleur et le sang: Doctrines racistes à la française, following the left-wing sociologist Pitirim Sorokin, to enroll Gustave Le Bon in the ranks of social Darwinists.

Thus, by emphasizing the hereditary determinism of the collective unconscious, Le Bon finds himself in the political space of conservatism: stability and repetition are primary in the development of peoples. Since evolution and adaptation are necessarily slow, all attempts to speed them up with revolutions or reforms that are too fast are doomed to failure. The most dangerous, according to the French sociologist, are political utopias based on “leveling theories”: anarchism, communism, socialism, feminism [5].

Political forecasts of a French sociologist



The French sociologist, like none of his contemporaries, managed to predict the inevitability of a big war for the redivision of the world and predict the inevitability of establishing a regime based on militarism and social populism in Germany [2].

In The Psychology of Socialism, there is already a growing sense of instability, both globally and in the West. Lebon notes the rapid breakthrough of the countries of the East, whose races are becoming more and more competitive for the peoples of the West. The most dangerous thing for him seems to be China's entry into the path of industrial development. In this case, the gigantic natural resources, large population and low cost of labor will make the Celestial Empire "the regulator of markets, and the Beijing Stock Exchange will set prices for all world goods" [2].

In addition, Le Bon, in the pages of The Psychology of Socialism, tries to comprehend the rapid breakthrough of Kaiser Germany and the consequences of this for the rest of Europe. For Le Bon, both Kaiser's Germany and German socialism are inextricably linked with militarism and general conscription, which not only created a colossal industry, the organization of which the author of the Psychology of Socialism admires (in his opinion, she has already outstripped the English and is able to compete with the American), but and changed the very spirit of the Germanic race.

The French researcher believes that in the near future Germany will start an open struggle to revise the existing status quo. At the same time, the Latin race is approaching a dangerous threshold, after which Spain, Italy and France will cease to be powerful states. Either the Anglo-Saxon states or the German Empire will come to the fore [2].

Analyzing these processes, the French researcher draws a conclusion about the inevitable growth of militaristic tendencies in the coming XNUMXth century. The study of the works of the creator of the "sociology of the masses" gives grounds for broader conclusions: Le Bon tried to reflect in his concept some of the pan-European political processes that caused the crisis of classical nationalism.

The aggravation of the economic struggle and the establishment of an authoritarian nationalist regime in Germany (in the future, seen by Le Bon in the form of militarized socialism) creates, according to the French conservative, a qualitatively new foreign policy situation [2].

Le Bon constantly recorded the gradual transition of European countries from a simple concept of a balance of interests (searching for compromises or local wars) to a strategy of forceful containment, which inevitably intensifies the arms race. The French conservative points out that this policy is increasingly associated with vital economic interests.

On this basis, he makes a reasonably correct prediction that

"The coming wars between nations will be a real struggle for existence, which will end in the almost complete destruction of one of the belligerents" [3].

Conclusion



“Any political parties and mass media use the principles, recipes and techniques of Le Bon in their work with a mass audience. Propaganda techniques of political parties, probing and shaping public opinion, advertising ploys - all these are elements of Le Bon's mass strategy, based on the irrationality of the masses. But they are told just the opposite. Therefore, politely bowing to public opinion, politicians of various stripes turn their backs on their mentor [4]”,

- writes the historian N. Lepetukhin, believing that this, along with Lebon's anti-parliamentarism and racism, is one of the reasons for the silence of his name in the public field.

Nevertheless, the influence of Gustave Le Bon on the civilized world is really great - all those who made revolutions often read his works on the psychology of the masses.

In addition, the French sociologist's criticism of contemporary democracy led to a revision of the essence of the concept of "national idea". Lebon points out that, in terms of their mental make-up, it is the crowd that is the most staunch guardian of traditional ideas and opposes their change. However, this traditionalism is entirely dependent on outstanding personalities who must ensure the peaceful development of mass society [2].

It could be assumed that in the future, after a long work, the crowd will be able to become a group of conscious citizens capable of making independent decisions. But for LeBon, such a scenario seems unlikely. Much more likely to him is a repetition of Roman history: an uprising of the masses, culminating in the establishment of dictatorship and despotism. Only reliance on tradition and natural conservatism can prevent such an uprising and the establishment of a military-police regime.

Thus, the French traditionalist conservative completed his revision of the Enlightenment ideals: in his concept, a person is not born as a “blank sheet of paper”, but is entirely under the control of his own heredity and innate abilities. Therefore, rejecting the theory of "natural equality" of Voltaire and Diderot, Lebon inevitably questioned the postulates of 1789 on the right of the people to the supreme exercise of political power. In Lebon's sociology, only outstanding personalities have the right to supreme power, and national unity itself is ensured by unconscious heredity, which makes his theory related to the radical nationalist theories of the first half of the 2th century [XNUMX].

References
[1]. Gustave Lebon. Psychology of peoples and masses. - M., 2011.
[2]. Fenenko, A. V. "National idea" of the French conservatives of the XIX century / A. V. Fenenko. - Voronezh: Voronezh State University, 2005.
[3]. Gustave Lebon. Psychology of socialism / G. Lebon per. from fr. – 3rd edition – M.: Sotsium, 2020.
[4]. Lepetukhin, N.V. Theories of racism in the socio-political life of Western Europe in the second half of the 2013th - early XNUMXth centuries: J.-A. Gobineau, G. Lebon, H.-S. Chamberlain / N. V. Lepetukhin; FGBOU VPO "IGASU". - Ivanovo: Presso, XNUMX.
[5]. Tagieff P.-L. Color and blood. French theories of racism. – M.: Ladomir, 2009.
[6]. Picard E. Gustave Lebon et son oeuvre. Paris, 1909.
[7]. Nye, R. The Origins of Crowd Psychology / R. Nye. – London, 1975.
[8]. Spengler O. The Decline of Europe: Essays on the Morphology of World History. T. 2. World-historical perspectives / Per. with him. S. E. BORICH - Minsk: Potpourri, 2009.
[9]. Korniliev VV Negative consequences of the development of mass psychology as part of social psychology. // Psychology and Psychotechnics. – 2013.
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  1. +17
    1 March 2023 03: 51
    Not a characteristic work for VO, but curious - The author is definitely a plus.
    Speaking about the classification of peoples, the French researcher emphasizes that neither language, nor environment, nor “political groupings” can serve as its basis [2]. Only psychology can serve as such a basis, since it is precisely psychology that shows “that behind the institutions, arts, beliefs, political upheavals of every people there are certain moral and intellectual features from which its evolution follows” [1].

    The hero of the article “created” at the same time as the theorists of “communism”, who, denying ace, put “economy” in the edge of the corner.
    However, the century before last, the era of theorists of revolutions and research, in most cases unsuccessful.
    An example of a revolution for the sake of revolution, our native Nechaev, about whom Dostoevsky wrote interestingly in his Possessed "a failed revolutionary and" Petroshevits ".
    In fact, every generation and profession is looking for its idols.
    Have a nice day, everyone!
    1. +15
      1 March 2023 04: 17
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Not typical for VO work
      Much more "uncharacteristic" - a wagon and a small cart. But this one is of good quality.

      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      The author is definitely a plus.

      I will join.
      1. +14
        1 March 2023 05: 13
        I also gladly took advantage of the right to press the appropriate button under the article.
    2. +13
      1 March 2023 05: 16
      ... each people has certain moral and intellectual characteristics, from which its evolution follows” [1].

      The longer I live, the more I am convinced that such peoples do not exist in nature.

      Good morning, Vladislav. smile
      1. +14
        1 March 2023 07: 40
        The longer I live, the more I am convinced that such peoples do not exist in nature.

        I already told this case here on VO.
        ... Once, and it was before 91, one smart, educated Abkhaz asked me:
        - Here two will sink, Russian and Abkhaz. Who will you save, and you will rush to save, I know you! So who?
        - Weaker.
        “No,” said the man, “you will save the Russian!”
        I then got angry. But for the last ten years, I know for sure that I will save the Russian.
        Well, this parable - so, for a warm-up. A person must have knowledge of all circumstances.
      2. +2
        1 March 2023 18: 01
        Good evening Uncle Kostya!
        People are always different, but peoples are the same. For example, it is fashionable to sincerely believe in the pedantry of the Germans, but in my practice the only “purebred Aryan” whom I knew was always late not only for work, but also for dates!
        Banal but true - we are all social animals. True, this dogma is confirmed by an exception to the general rules. laughing
        1. +1
          1 March 2023 18: 33
          we are all social animals.
          The most important moment when the "social" begins to prevail over the "animal". But, unfortunately, the principle of "Women and children first" still does not work well...
    3. +7
      1 March 2023 05: 22
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      our domestic Nechaev

      A man without any ideology and vision of the final result of the revolution. Revolution, for the sake of revolution...
    4. +8
      1 March 2023 05: 23
      French researcher believes that in the near future Germany will start an open struggle to revise the existing status quo

      She already started it. Immediately after the unification of the two Germanys. Ein Volk, Ein Land, Ein Fuhrer. Remember what Germany was like some 20 years ago - a country that had neither its own voice nor its own place in politics. A country that fully followed the instructions of NATO and the European Union...
      1. +10
        1 March 2023 05: 41
        "... A country that fully followed the instructions of NATO and the European Union ..."
        Has anything changed since then? Oh, yes, sorry, now she is completely following the instructions of NATO and the United States.
        1. +5
          1 March 2023 06: 28
          Quote from Arifon
          Has anything changed since then?

          Has changed. Germany, along with other countries, is already deciding the fate of Afghanistan and Syria. Actively involved in resolving the Ukrainian crisis. The Bundeswehr is allowed to participate in conflicts outside of Germany. Was this possible before?
          1. +9
            1 March 2023 06: 56
            Quote: Luminman
            along with other countries, is already deciding the fate of Afghanistan and Syria. Actively involved in resolving the Ukrainian crisis. The Bundeswehr is allowed to participate in conflicts outside of Germany.

            As a manual, well, well - a chain dog USA, nothing else ...
            1. +3
              1 March 2023 10: 59
              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              Like a manual, well, a chain dog, USA, nothing else

              As long as Germany does not have nuclear weapons, she will be a dog. Chain. How will the story go on?
    5. +1
      1 March 2023 10: 54
      Not typical for VO work, but curious

      Yes, the author, of course, worked hard. But I got the impression (I’ll be glad to be mistaken) that when creating an article about Gustave Le Bon, the author did not read Gustave Le Bon himself. Therefore, the article turned out to be "Philosophical views of Gustav Le Bon in the interpretation of A.V. Fenenko." But Fenenko had his own goals when writing the book, so the most valuable and very relevant for today from the creative heritage of Le Bon, namely the "psychology of the crowd", remained outside the scope of today's article.
    6. +8
      1 March 2023 12: 44
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      eroy article "created" simultaneously with the theorists of "communism"

      Theory is not "created", but developed on the basis of practice. Lebon "noted" that in the Paris Commune "the crowd was burning down the palaces," while Engels noticed that a new form of democracy had been created - "soviets" of the ancient type.
      Such smart dubs like this Lebon are in bulk in all countries. Therefore, humanity remembered Marx and Engels, and only psychiatrists remembered Lebon
      1. +1
        1 March 2023 12: 58
        You wrote nonsense, although, according to the administration, such a definition is short.
        1. +2
          1 March 2023 13: 16
          And here are the minuses from the crowd appeared - a vivid and visual confirmation of Le Bon's thesis
          Crowds are not very capable of reasoning and vice versa - very capable of action.
          1. +3
            1 March 2023 14: 51
            Quote: Ruyter-57
            You wrote nonsense, although, according to the administration, such a definition is short.

            .
            Quote: Ruyter-57
            Crowds are not very capable of reasoning and vice versa - very capable of action.

            Agree. You have no reasoning, but there is action
        2. +3
          1 March 2023 14: 42
          Quote: Ruyter-57
          You wrote nonsense, although, according to the administration, such a definition is short.

          Absolutely agree with the administration. For your brevity is only the sister of talent, but it happens that a brother is smart, and a sister - heh ... heh ... vice versa.
          1. +4
            1 March 2023 15: 00
            You can hit the keyboard as much as you like - this will not affect the degree of your ignorance in relation to the topic of the article in general and Le Bon in particular. I fully admit that in some other field of knowledge you are quite competent, but in this case, alas, your ignorant comment was the result.
            1. -2
              1 March 2023 15: 08
              Quote: Ruyter-57
              You can hit the keyboard as much as you like - it will not affect at all

              Quote: Ruyter-57
              And here are the minuses from the crowd appeared - a vivid and visual confirmation

              Ege .... and here the reasoning appeared. I can knock. Not only on the keys. Please don't get personal.

              True without arguments, but with postulates ... Is this also a confirmation of Le Bon's theses? It happens that the mentally ill talk around the clock. But their reasoning does not prove anything, except for a mental disorder. Curiously, did Lebon understand this?

              PS Some do not even understand that the transition to personality is rudeness ... What can you do with them? The manners of the crowd...
  2. +13
    1 March 2023 04: 24
    Very interesting article.
    Gustave Lebon was one of the founders of the modern technique of mass manipulation.
    1. +13
      1 March 2023 05: 15
      "Who knows the art of impressing the imagination of the crowd, he also has the art of controlling it."
      He same. "Psychology of peoples and masses."
    2. +8
      1 March 2023 05: 20
      Quote: ee2100
      Gustave Lebon was one of the founders of the modern mass manipulation technique.

      Manipulating the masses does not require a technique, but personal charisma and a good education...
      1. +12
        1 March 2023 05: 39
        "...and a good education..."
        Like Joseph Vissarionovich, for example)
        1. +9
          1 March 2023 06: 31
          Quote from Arifon
          Like Joseph Vissarionovich, for example)

          Not a degree, but an education. He was very knowledgeable about many things...
      2. +4
        1 March 2023 05: 45
        There are manipulations, and you are talking about suggestion, persuasion.
        1. +4
          1 March 2023 06: 33
          Quote: ee2100
          There are manipulations, and you are talking about suggestion, persuasion

          In order to manipulate the masses, it is necessary for these masses to make some kind of suggestion and persuasion. And not everyone can do that...
          1. +5
            1 March 2023 14: 57
            In order to manipulate the masses, it is necessary for these masses to make some kind of suggestion and persuasion.
            For example, any religion.
          2. +1
            1 March 2023 16: 02
            What you are talking about is different and even basic things. And unfortunately you do not understand them
    3. +9
      1 March 2023 05: 21
      Sasha, good morning. hi
      I believe that he would have vomited in delight, looking at the current layman with his hoarding of everything that is put into his mouth.
      1. +12
        1 March 2023 05: 44
        Hello Kostya!
        It is we who are now reaping the fruits of these thinkers, such as Lebon.
        1. +11
          1 March 2023 06: 05
          Yes, rather themselves, a person is a stupid brute, no matter where he lives, and no matter how he tries to philosophize. Otherwise, we now did not have what we have. Sad and disgusting.
          1. +14
            1 March 2023 08: 46
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Sad and disgusting.

            That's not to be so. laughing
            Happy Cats and Cats Day, gentlemen, comrades! March 1 is the day of cats in Russia. bully
            1. +15
              1 March 2023 09: 16
              Thanks for the reminder, Seryozha. smile

              All a Happy Holiday! drinks

              1. +14
                1 March 2023 09: 21
                Exactly. Spring is the same. Happy Spring everyone!
                Sing, swallow, sing.
                The world breathes in spring.
                Let the arsonist hiss and yell
                The dove is flying.
              2. +9
                1 March 2023 10: 43
                Such an angle is possible only if the author of the drawing was sitting on the roof of the former State Duma (corner of Nevsky Prospekt and Dumskaya St.) smile
                1. +10
                  1 March 2023 11: 04
                  This angle is only possible if the author of the drawing was sitting on the roof


                  Artists are creative people. wink
                2. +6
                  1 March 2023 17: 18
                  Michael, that's great. First, there was no State Duma on Nevsky Prospekt. At the corner of Nevsky and Dumskaya streets, the building with a spire is the City Duma.
                  Secondly, if you open a map and draw lines of sight to St. Isaac's Cathedral and the Admiralty, setting aside at the level of the Kazan Cathedral to the right half of its width and to the left 3 widths of the dome, approximately, the point of their vanishing will go to the area of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbEkaterinensky Square.
                  If you look from the tower of the Duma, then the Admiralty and St. Isaac's Cathedral will be to the right of Kazan.
                  1. +2
                    1 March 2023 17: 46
                    Quote: balabol
                    with a spire is the City Duma.

                    Of course, I'm sorry. hi
                    Quote: balabol
                    if you open the map

                    If you open it, maybe so. smile I eyeballed it.
                    1. +4
                      1 March 2023 17: 58
                      You simply did not take into account that Kazansky is in the depths of Nevsky Prospekt.
                      1. +1
                        1 March 2023 18: 27
                        I took it into account, but what happened, happened. By the way, I mentally "placed" the artist not on the tower itself, but on the roof of the house somewhat to the left, if you look towards the Admiralty. In addition, in the artist's field of vision there are no wide streets, the panorama of the Gostiny or Kat'kin garden, based on this, among other things, I made my choice. smile
                      2. +4
                        1 March 2023 18: 35
                        "The best view of this city,
                        If you get into a bomber "(C)
                        Hello Vladimir!
                      3. +4
                        1 March 2023 20: 47
                        Greetings Anton. Today we went here to discuss all sorts of topics like "how do we equip Russia." Various methods were proposed up to the calling of the Demiurges. I thought - that's exactly what we lack on the streets of our city. smile
                        That is why the discussion of the place from where the artist looked at Peter and the cats seemed to me the most important. When viewed from the rooftops, the grid of streets is lost, familiar facades and perspectives disappear. Only high-altitude landmarks help determine your place. There is a site where they post pictures of the city from unusual angles, new buildings and technical structures. It seems to be written what and where it was filmed from, but there is nothing for the eye to catch on. You have to draw on the map of the direction.
                        By the way, once I talked with the pilots who flew to St. Petersburg and asked what was interesting to see. Without thinking, I advised Isaac, saying that a lot of interesting things can be seen from above. And they answer, it’s not necessary, we’ve already seen everything from above, we would like to see something from the ground.
                      4. +3
                        1 March 2023 21: 04
                        That is why the discussion of the place from where the artist looked at Peter and the cats seemed to me the most important. When viewed from the rooftops, the grid of streets is lost, familiar facades and perspectives disappear.
                        When viewed from the level of the Vodokanal manholes, they are all the more lost.
                      5. +2
                        1 March 2023 21: 58
                        By the way, once I talked with the pilots who flew to St. Petersburg and asked what was interesting to see. Without thinking, I advised Isaac, saying that a lot of interesting things can be seen from above.
                        I think it made sense to recommend going down the subway. At "Chernyshevskaya", for example... It cures a lot of agorophilia.
        2. +12
          1 March 2023 06: 40
          Good morning everyone,
          at one time I hardly mastered his "Psychology of Peoples and Masses", tried several times to abandon the reading, but forced myself to read it to the end in order to delve into the author's essence.
          I did not find anything new and useful for myself. In principle, if we discard all the water and the author's "cleverness", the essence of the book can be safely reduced to one phrase:
          “The crowd goes not to those who give it evidence, but to those who give it an illusion that seduces it”
          .
          1. +7
            1 March 2023 06: 48
            The author is certainly a plus, the article is interesting, well written, with a list of references.
            And a question for the editors - this article is the place in the "Analytics" section, and not in the "History" section. What's on the branch of the author's crisis?
          2. +17
            1 March 2023 07: 37
            Yes, he is boring. Lebon, not the author. Is it the case here:
            It is very easy to manage any people - you need to tell them that they are going to attack them, show them the enemy, and declare all pacifists unpatriots.
            Everything is clear and understandable. Or this:
            Give me the media, and I will make a herd of pigs out of any nation.
            In general, I agree with this statement here:
            There are no bad people, there are only bad people.
            1. +14
              1 March 2023 08: 02
              Quote: not the one
              It is very easy to manage any people - you need to tell them that they are going to attack them, show them the enemy, and declare all pacifists unpatriots.

              Topical. Bravo! hi
              1. +16
                1 March 2023 09: 18
                And what, isn’t it? As you can see, nothing has rusted, everything works. That's all.
                A fool doesn’t need a knife:
                you’re lying to him with three boxes -
                and do what you like with him.
              2. +5
                1 March 2023 11: 54
                Phil, you admire G. Goering's statement, just in case you didn't know.
                Any politician can find a set of sonorous and paradoxical phrases. Many of them offer a simple solution to a complex problem and initially seem like a decent solution. However, this is self-deception. A difficult task requires a very difficult solution.
                Many phrases from them grow from here: Niccolò Machiavelli, "Sovereign". The treatise was written around 1513. Quite relevant

                A man can avenge a small evil, but he cannot avenge a big one; from which it follows that the offense inflicted on a person must be calculated so as not to be afraid of revenge.

                How can two people get along when one suspects the other, and the other in turn despises him.

                When hard times came, they preferred to flee rather than defend themselves, hoping that their subjects, irritated by the excesses of the victors, would call them back. If there is no other way out, this one is good, it’s only bad to give up all the others for it, just like you shouldn’t fall, relying on being raised.

                The best of all fortresses is not to be hated by the people: no matter what fortresses you build, they will not save you if you are hated by the people, for when the people take up arms, foreigners will always come to their aid.

                Minds are of three kinds: one comprehends everything himself; the other can understand what the first has comprehended; the third - he himself does not comprehend anything and cannot understand what is comprehended by others. The first mind is outstanding, the second is significant, the third is worthless.

                Which is better: to be loved by the sovereign or to be feared. They say that it is best when they are afraid and love at the same time; however, love does not get along well with fear, so if you really have to choose, then it is safer to choose fear.

                People, believing that the new ruler will be better, willingly rebel against the old one, but soon they are convinced by experience that they were deceived, because the new ruler always turns out to be worse than the old one.

                Victory is never complete to such an extent that the victor has nothing to reckon with....

                There will always be a reason for rebellion in the name of freedom and the old order, which will not be forced to forget either time or the good deeds of the new government.

                If it will be objected to me that many have already been sovereigns and have done great things at the head of the army, but they were known as the most generous, I will answer that you can spend either your own or someone else's. In the first case, frugality is useful, in the second, as much generosity as possible.

                People retaliate either out of fear or out of hatred.

                Indeed, the passion for conquest is a natural and common thing; and those who consider their possibilities will be approved by everyone or no one will condemn; but a reprehensible mistake is made by one who does not consider his own possibilities and strives for conquest at any cost.

                All the armed prophets won, and all the unarmed perished.
            2. +4
              1 March 2023 11: 12
              Well, it's not full to quote. Name the authors of these masterpieces.
              "It is very easy to govern any people - you have to tell them that they are going to be attacked, show them the enemy, and declare all pacifists unpatriots." Hermann Göring
              "Give me the media, and I will make a herd of pigs out of any nation." Joseph Goebels
              Alolf Aloizovich was forgotten. He has a lot of biting phrases to be found.
            3. +2
              1 March 2023 15: 55
              Quote: not the one
              There are no bad people, there are only bad people

              This is what Lebon said in vain .... He did not live to see WWII.
              Lebon would definitely have been banned from VO for trolling because he was a top-notch troll, judging by the saying. The people - isn't it made up of people?
              And besides, the Bible says otherwise. For example, Deuteronomy Chapter 28. Marx, by the way, said that there are no bad and good peoples, but there are progressive and reactionary periods in their history. The same as in the Bible, only in a materialistic manner. When the people are progressive, they should be proud, when they are reactionary, they just need to be wetted. Like the Jews of the Canaanites, and the prophet Moses the Jews (Exodus ch. 32)
  3. +9
    1 March 2023 04: 51
    This means that the Germans deserve fascism, and the Ukrainians deserve the Zelensky Jew.
    1. +11
      1 March 2023 05: 10
      And we have what we have. You can't argue with that, and it makes no sense laughing
      1. +7
        1 March 2023 05: 18
        Yes, sure. But we are talking about theory.
        1. +8
          1 March 2023 05: 34
          Sergey, but we practically live, and there is nowhere to go. request
          1. +4
            1 March 2023 05: 57
            Speaking in this perspective, the destruction of Ukraine will bring me joy. Complete destruction, one might say comparison with the earth. And no more Ukrainians in the administration of our state. Enough with me Khrushchev. Loss of rights on a national basis. They regularly betrayed us, they will betray us again. It is in them genetically, with rare exceptions. But exceptions only prove the rule.
            1. +7
              1 March 2023 06: 42
              I hope you are not serious. Otherwise, you are not much different from Adolf Hitler and his last ones like Bandera.
              1. +6
                1 March 2023 11: 18
                Have you ever killed someone in this war? At me yes - therefore such judgments. Although you can call the entire USSR an associate of Adolf, he simply burned with hatred for the Germans. You are a demagogue.
                1. +10
                  1 March 2023 11: 49
                  Although you can call the entire USSR an associate of Adolf, he simply burned with hatred for the Germans

                  No need to compare yourself with all the people, this is too much. I sincerely sympathize with you on your loss. But you should not hate the whole people, no matter what nationality they belong to. From hatred the wound will not heal and it will not become easier for you, in the end it will burn you, this hatred.
                  But I don’t see demagoguery in my words, unlike misanthropy in your post.
                  1. +4
                    1 March 2023 13: 16
                    Are you treating me? I don’t compare myself with the whole nation, but I just want to destroy it ... Yes, this is an empty conversation, I don’t understand you, you me. Thanks for the sympathy.
                    1. +3
                      1 March 2023 18: 40
                      Quote: Sergey Averchenkov
                      Are you treating me? I don’t compare myself with the whole nation, but I just want to destroy it ... Yes, this is an empty conversation, I don’t understand you, you me. Thanks for the sympathy.

                      I will be cruel, with all due respect to you.
                      Information from the 2010 census wiki:
                      Ukrainians (Cossacks (with the Ukrainian language), Little Russians, Little Russians, Ukrainians) - 1 people

                      That is, you are ready to destroy almost two million of your compatriots?
                      1. 0
                        1 March 2023 23: 15
                        How much can I. This is not a joke to you, they killed my brother's son, I was the first to pick him up from the hospital and he immediately pissed me (sorry for the expression). And now he's gone. And the fools are guilty of this. Not you, not me - hoohly. And so... Forgive? Yah. And I wanted to poop on the wiki and the census. This is personal, he was a tanker. Family is the main thing that I have and I will never forgive anyone for such an attitude towards her. My brother died in the 12th year from stomach cancer, so his son is my son, I put him on his feet. His name was also Sergei, I was left with his wife and child. What did you think? Is it that simple? Killed and that's it? And Ukrainians are not my compatriots.
                    2. +1
                      2 March 2023 01: 23
                      I do not compare myself with the whole nation, but I simply want to destroy it...


                      What can I say ...
                      As for the mass destruction of any people, try to read the book by Robert Merle "Death is my trade". The story is told on behalf of the commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Hess (not to be confused with the same Hess).
                      The author himself was a participant in the war, was captured during the Dunkirk operation and experienced "life" in a concentration camp for himself.

                      Do you want the same? Russians and Ukrainians were equally burned in these furnaces, without being interested in their nationality.
                      1. 0
                        2 March 2023 05: 03
                        You don't say anything, and you don't have to say anything. I don't need your photos with ovens. I can also provide you with a photo of how the German troops were met in Lvov or Kyiv (I don’t remember exactly, sorry). Probably in Lvov. Simple question - who made these ovens? I? No need to slander me, I just want to avenge my son (almost a son), is my desire criminal?
              2. -1
                1 March 2023 21: 08
                Quote: Sea Cat
                I hope you are not serious. Otherwise, you are not much different from Adolf Hitler and his last ones like Bandera.
                This is not the first time he writes this, and obviously seriously. Only the real motives of his misanthropic chants are unknown...
                1. -1
                  2 March 2023 08: 48
                  You are observant. I am writing seriously. Motives revenge for the family.
            2. +7
              1 March 2023 07: 51
              Quote: Sergey Averchenkov
              Speaking in this perspective, the destruction of Ukraine will bring me joy. Complete destruction, you can say comparison with the earth

              Nothing. Absolutely nothing will bring either you or me. It's too late. And is it partly the fault of the Russian authorities, of course? Just look at the personalities of the Russian ambassadors in this country. Isn't it? And how did it happen that today Russia has no real allies? Belarus? So far, yes, but tomorrow “The day after tomorrow?” My firm conviction is that first you need to ensure a decent life for your citizens, and only then .... Something like this. hi
              1. +3
                1 March 2023 11: 22
                Even if it doesn't, which I'm not sure about. These creatures must be destroyed.
                1. +1
                  1 March 2023 19: 57
                  I beg your pardon, but do you have many centenarians in your family?
                  1. 0
                    3 March 2023 14: 12
                    Actually, there is no one. 78 years is the maximum. Well, as far as I remember.
                    1. 0
                      4 March 2023 19: 25
                      Similarly, you are very maximalistic, but clearly not young, so I thought that you were from a family of centenarians.
              2. +4
                1 March 2023 11: 24
                Good suggestion, but impossible. It will not be possible to close oneself from troubles behind an iron curtain and get 10-20 years to "ensure a decent life for its citizens." Here, as in a fight, you can’t say: “Wait a minute, I’ll rest, I’ll eat a sandwich and then we’ll continue.”
                Actually, the 90s showed under what conditions a relatively calm life is possible. Acceptance of the conditions of the West - for this, the elite is allowed to merge into the Western world. Conditions - financial and economic dependence on the West. Otherwise, instability, chaos and bringing to power a government loyal to the West.
                It will not work first people, and then deal with the outer contour.
                I must say right away, yes, I agree that both at the same time do not work out in the best way.
                1. +1
                  1 March 2023 19: 52
                  Why do you think it won't close? I believe that this will happen due to insurmountable circumstances.
              3. +2
                1 March 2023 12: 17
                Quote: ArchiPhil
                to begin with, it is necessary to ensure a decent life for its citizens,

                I thought: what is a decent life? No worse than most? Better than most? Better than everyone?
                If you make the lives of others worse, leaving yours at the same level, will your own life become more worthy?
                In general, a life that is usually called "worthy" (usually examples of such a life are seen in the West - in Europe with the USA) is expensive. To have so much money you need:
                1. Do not let yourself be robbed.
                2. Rob others.
                Question: what else should our state do so that citizens consider their life worthy within its borders?
                1. +5
                  1 March 2023 13: 12
                  In general, a life that is usually called "worthy" (usually examples of such a life are seen in the West - in Europe with the USA) is expensive.

                  To begin with, it is worth concretizing the concept of "worthy life" and not confusing this concept with the concept of "worthy existence."
                  And then it suddenly turns out that for a decent life, on the one hand, you don’t need to rob anyone, on the other hand, this refrain that in order to ensure a decent life for citizens you need to rob someone is very convenient for crowd manipulation.
                  Unfortunately, the author in his article carried a nonsense about a certain "struggle of peoples", which he did not cover, but did not show how relevant his studies of the "psychology of the crowd" are.
                  1. +3
                    1 March 2023 15: 04
                    Quote: Ruyter-57
                    To begin with, it is worth concretizing the concept of "decent life"

                    Complex issue.
                    If you approach it strictly scientifically smile , then, perhaps, one can come to the conclusion that the term is incorrect in principle. Speaking of a decent life, I personally meant a well-fed and calm life, when the basic needs of a person (in food, rest, safety, household amenities) are satisfied, as it were, by themselves, without additional super efforts on his part. But here you can argue, argue and argue - what is worthy and what is not, the matter is purely subjective. Someone does not see a decent life without a weekly trip to the theater or museum, someone without a daily intake of 500 ml. strong alcohol inside.
                    I read Le Bon (I read it, I didn’t study it) for a long time and it was his work on the psychology of the crowd. I then thought differently and saw many things differently. But the general meaning of what I read fit into one phrase: the crowd is more willing to listen to those who shout louder. This is her whole psychology.
                    1. +1
                      1 March 2023 17: 22
                      Speaking of a decent life, I personally meant a well-fed and calm life, when the basic needs of a person (in food, rest, safety, household amenities) are satisfied, as it were, by themselves, without additional super efforts on his part.

                      This is what you meant by "a worthy existence."
                      1. +4
                        1 March 2023 17: 57
                        Life as a form of existence or existence as a form of life?... wassat
                        Does our existence continue after the end of life? Is it possible to live without existing?
                        Something I do fool
                        In general, they don’t argue about terms, they agree on them. I have no desire to argue, so I see no point in negotiating. smile hi
                        However, if it entertains you, offer your definitions - what is, in your opinion, a "worthy life" and what are its fundamental differences from "worthy existence" and, perhaps, "worthy being".
                      2. +2
                        1 March 2023 18: 34
                        offer your definitions - what is, in your opinion, a "worthy life" and what are its fundamental differences from "worthy existence" and, perhaps, "worthy life".

                        This will be an article, moreover, quite voluminous.
                      3. +2
                        1 March 2023 19: 04
                        This will be an article, moreover, quite voluminous.
                        No need. Will not work.
                        The concept of "worthy life" has completely replaced the concept of "happiness".
                      4. +1
                        1 March 2023 19: 53
                        Will not work.

                        Why won't it work? It just takes time and silence...
                        The concept of "happiness" cannot be replaced. It is irreplaceable.
                      5. +2
                        1 March 2023 20: 34
                        It just takes time and silence...
                        This is true. But here, either a cell or a solitary cell.
                      6. +2
                        1 March 2023 20: 39
                        either a cell or a solitary cell

                        My dacha will suit me just fine.
                      7. +2
                        1 March 2023 21: 15
                        How little a person needs to be happy!
                      8. -1
                        2 March 2023 02: 23
                        For creativity, for happiness much more.
                      9. +2
                        1 March 2023 19: 35
                        One definition of "life" is worth something. laughing
                        How do you like this:
                        A worthy life is a biochemical reaction that is equal in value to another similar reaction from the point of view of itself.
                        laughing
                      10. +3
                        1 March 2023 18: 39
                        Life as a form of existence or existence as a form of life?
                        So we will get to the features of the psychology of viruses.
                  2. +4
                    1 March 2023 18: 08
                    To start? Yes, for 1000 years the saints and Russian righteous have explained that a worthy life is the fulfillment of the Commandments of Christ.

                    Since the Russian people did not understand either ...... Exactly 1000 years after the adoption of Christianity, that is, in 1988, apparently Upstairs, it was decided to disband ...

                    It's too late to ask about a decent life. It's payback time, not questions. For 1000 years, 40 generations have passed and everyone asked about a decent life ... Enough ....
                2. +1
                  1 March 2023 20: 16
                  Well, for example, to pay a salary to a teacher in the province, sufficient to have two or more children, to provide oneself with housing and dowry for children, to have a vehicle and the opportunity to engage in hobbies (leisure). This is 70-80 thousand per month against 20-40 at the moment, i.e. at current prices (we don’t count thieves from clans, they had this amount 7 years ago). This is about the teacher in particular. But there is more in general. I won’t write about this, and it’s so long and pointless, because it’s useless anyway.
                3. +1
                  1 March 2023 21: 07
                  2. Rob others.
                  Not necessarily. Norway and Ireland (and Finland), which were colonies for a long time, are proof of this.
        2. +8
          1 March 2023 06: 07
          But we are talking about theory.

          What about the meaning? We see practice... request
      2. +13
        1 March 2023 05: 18
        we have what we have
        And what do you want, nothing changes. As it was #allpowerfromgod, so it remains #whoifonecat
        1. +12
          1 March 2023 05: 38
          Hi! drinks I only want beer, there was a lot of vodka yesterday, but there’s nowhere to get the damn thing.
          And I don’t need to ask provocative questions, I’m fine as it is. drinks

          Look in person.
          1. +17
            1 March 2023 07: 32
            Beer, you say .. Beer is good. Vodka is also not bad .. It's not beer or vodka that kills people. 12-hour working day, low wages, loans, mortgages are ruining people...
            Do not lose health and cheerful spirit!
            1. +13
              1 March 2023 08: 21
              I do not agree with all the provisions.
              Definitely against loans.

              The question is - what is the 12-hour working day filled with. The conveyor in all manifestations - that's what's scary.

              And each has its own button. And your lure.
            2. +14
              1 March 2023 08: 27
              Mostly destroys their own stupidity and, as a result, the credibility of the mediarequest

              1. +13
                1 March 2023 08: 35
                A common sense check is never superfluous.

                Taste is brought up by life and books.
              2. +5
                1 March 2023 16: 10
                Kostya, this is for you!

                Take a look, it will be interesting.
                You inspired me to publish my article here!
                I think the beer is too much drinks
                1. 0
                  2 March 2023 01: 34
                  Thank you, Sasha. smile

                  Just where to look, did not understand? request
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. +11
    1 March 2023 05: 38
    "The people have the form of government they deserve"
    And every form of government has the people in the posture they deserve.
    1. +12
      1 March 2023 07: 28
      Even when people back away, they back up after the ideal - and believe in some kind of "forward".

      Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
  6. +11
    1 March 2023 05: 46
    "The coming wars between nations will be a real struggle for existence, which will end in the almost complete destruction of one of the belligerents" [3].
    A very timely warning!
  7. +10
    1 March 2023 06: 07
    However, the main question regarding Le Bon's theory is: are his main statements true? Does a worthy loner really transform in a crowd exactly as Le Bon describes? Does he lose his ability to make critical judgments, fall into excessive emotionality, do monstrous acts just because he is in the crowd? The spectacle of a raging crowd shows that this is not always the case. The question remains open - however, Le Bon should be thanked already for asking a question that has not lost its significance so far.
    1. +14
      1 March 2023 07: 41
      More than one comrade Lebon asked this question.
  8. +9
    1 March 2023 06: 16
    In the pax americana universe, democracy can be said to be non-existent. It is replaced by blah blah slogans and wrappers. Especially with the system - from power to business and vice versa several times. Corrupt and simply business and friendly ties are formed, on the one hand, it can be good when it is necessary to boost on one project, but on the other hand, there are no restrictions and taboos on adventures for the sake of beautiful quarterly reports and dividends to shareholders. We add the purchase of the media with this money and we already have a terry dictatorship under the guise of democracy.
  9. +10
    1 March 2023 06: 38
    Thanks for the article, but I still did not understand what the genius of this lebon was and what theory he discovered, which would be applicable in practice today.
    1. +10
      1 March 2023 07: 22
      but I still did not understand what the genius of this lebon was and what theory he discovered, which would be applicable in practice today.

      There is such a correct formulation in historical science:
      he became the property of historiography ...
      ...those. it seems that he once wrote something that surprised the world, important, but not at all relevant today.
      1. +13
        1 March 2023 08: 20
        Well, why, it is quite relevant today. His methods of manipulating the masses have not lost their relevance, and I do not think they will.
        1. +3
          1 March 2023 16: 05
          I have not read your articles before, no offense, I did not see a rational one, but this one is really advanced and interesting and still relevant!
        2. +2
          1 March 2023 18: 53
          Quote: Viktor Biryukov
          Well, why, it is quite relevant today. His methods of manipulating the masses have not lost their relevance, and I do not think they will.

          I will take the opportunity to say personal thanks to the Author, but I do not agree with the thesis of the relevance of G. Lebon's work. Today they work with the masses much more subtly and competently. Over the past century, society has developed a certain immunity from straightforward technologies.
          1. +1
            2 March 2023 02: 53
            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Today they work with the masses much more subtly and competently. Over the past century, society has developed a certain immunity from straightforward technologies.

            Look at the society. In our "society" three alkonauts met at night in December 1991 in a Belarusian forest. And they signed a paper that the USSR is no more. And in the morning the country fell apart by almost 300 million people ..... Here is the "society" .... Fantastic nonsense in the style of surrealism ....
      2. 0
        1 March 2023 15: 02
        ...those. it seems that he once wrote something that surprised the world, important, but not at all relevant today.

        How wrong you are. It's called - I didn't read it, but I condemn it.
  10. +16
    1 March 2023 08: 23
    Having read the article to the end, I realized that everything that Lebon had worked out had been known to me for a long time, although I had no idea who this person was, I had never even heard such a name.

    It seems to me that any sane and interested person, such as the one who asks himself the question, and what, in fact, is happening, will very quickly find the answer. I once found this answer. Just suddenly and immediately there was a concept in my head. And the reason for her presentation was some article by Shpakovsky, which I went to quite by accident (then I went to news and opinions). There, in the debate, I outlined my understanding of society, referring to a separate mono-ethnic people.

    The people are a stagnant swamp, into which the surrounding nutrient streams flow. The swamp ejects from itself especially active engorged (passionaries) in the form of the following parts:
    -- suggestors (power);
    - sixes (executors of the will of power, overseers of the swamp);
    - messiahs (persons who, with their voices, establish the norms of morality in the uprooted part, in the swamp and establish a moral balance between the two - religious figures, writers, any moral and at the same time widely known authorities).

    The swamp, after hesitating after being uprooted, returns to its former state, and the uprooted establish their power over it, trying to keep it in its former passive state.

    My then weak vision of the situation was that I did not take into account the demiurges. The task of any government is the physical elimination of recalcitrant demiurges, and to put those who are ready for cooperation into their service. This is how political strategists appear.

    She didn’t say everything, once)))

    And Biryukov is smart! Thank you! )))
    1. +13
      1 March 2023 09: 27
      Spring, and you are talking about the swamp! With New Spring! With New Hopes!

      Spring, spring! And she's happy!
      How to forget what standing
      And you can hear the fresh smell of the garden
      And the warm smell of thawed roofs.
    2. +11
      1 March 2023 11: 26
      Swamp sustainable formation. With its beauty.

      On the raised bog - wild rosemary, heather. Other times cloudberries. I even wanted warmth in the swamp.

      But if there is less rainfall, then the swamps suffer.
      1. +7
        1 March 2023 12: 51
        Sergey, the swamp can be poisoned.
        For example, by making it a waste disposal site for chemical production.

        In a figurative sense, too.
        1. +3
          1 March 2023 19: 20
          Immediately a cartoon about "Cheburashka" comes to mind.
      2. +3
        1 March 2023 22: 22
        On the raised bog - wild rosemary, heather - beauty!


        And sphagnum, Sergey, isn't it beautiful?
        As a child, I remember with my great-grandmother they decorated home-made Christmas toys with them. Grandmother said that earlier warm baby diapers were made from it and heaters in clothes, and medicinal tinctures, and as an absorber of harmful odors in houses and barns were used. She always collected and dried it in the summer. And what a smell it was!



        1. +1
          1 March 2023 23: 57
          Very handsome. Just the basics.

          In general, when you step on moss: even white, even green, you feel like in a fairy tale.
          Who will create this by hand?
          1. +1
            2 March 2023 00: 34
            I don’t remember who said that sphagnum was given to us by God - if not for him, then the earth would have been infected by methane and poisonous fumes of decay
    3. 0
      2 March 2023 11: 19
      Quote: depressant

      The people are a stagnant swamp, into which the surrounding nutrient streams flow. The swamp ejects from itself especially active engorged (passionaries) in the form of the following parts:
      -- suggestors (power);
      - sixes (executors of the will of power, overseers of the swamp);
      - messiahs (persons who, with their voices, establish the norms of morality in the uprooted part, in the swamp and establish a moral balance between the two - religious figures, writers, any moral and at the same time widely known authorities).
      The swamp, having shaken after being uprooted, returns to its former state,


      Why so harsh? People are representatives of the most worthy detachment - the higher primates. And the most respected class - mammals. HUMAN - THIS SOUNDS PROUDLY, FOR WE ARE HERD AND NOT JUST CATS!! We must honor our name and rank


      Herds have collective instincts that determine sympathy, mutual assistance, intuitive awareness of common interests. Where it is developed, there the herd thrives. Where it is not developed, it is engaged in "carrying the cross", professional suffering, humiliation and torture of each other, and so on. psychopathic nonsense. It's all about the level of development of natural healthy herd instincts. The problem of Russia is the underdevelopment of the initial collective instincts (atomization of society), therefore, the massive spread of stubborn, inflexible psychopaths and cretins
      (as the poet N. Tikhonov formulated "nails should be made from these people ...."
      , and not at all Mayakovsky, as many people think), but otherwise life is beautiful - and that's a plus!

      In other words, our problems are not social, but rather medical. But such medical ones that are almost not treated, and this is a minus.
  11. +7
    1 March 2023 09: 30
    Quote: Luminman
    Has changed. Germany, along with other countries, is already deciding the fate of Afghanistan and Syria. Actively involved in resolving the Ukrainian crisis. The Bundeswehr is allowed to participate in conflicts outside of Germany. Was this possible before?


    She does not decide anything and did not decide. So, in the wings of Uncle Sam in ... the twentieth position, and she did not achieve any success in this field. Hangover in someone else's feast.
    Which is quite predictable. Perhaps that is why, with a more adequate chancellor, the FRG refused to participate in the adventure in Iraq.
  12. +9
    1 March 2023 09: 33
    Quote: Luminman
    Manipulating the masses does not require a technique, but personal charisma and a good education...


    Nonsense. Handicraft. In today's world, it is methodology that rules. A good advertising agency manipulates the masses so much, forcing them to buy all sorts of bullshit at an inflated price, that all the former charismatic dictators modestly smoke on the sidelines.
  13. +6
    1 March 2023 09: 38
    Quote: ArchiPhil
    For now, yes, but tomorrow? The day after tomorrow? My firm conviction is that first you need to ensure a decent life for your citizens, and only then .... Something like this.


    And then what? I have to disappoint: fascism and Nazism flourish beautifully in countries with a high (material) standard of living.
    What, Breivik was a ragamuffin rogue? And now those who have nothing to eat are going to Ukraine voluntarily to fight on the side of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?
    Alas, alas ... Nazi ideology cannot be drowned in abdominal fat.
    1. +3
      1 March 2023 09: 45
      Quote: Illanatol
      And now those who have nothing to eat are going to Ukraine voluntarily to fight on the side of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?

      They go for thrills.
      Quote: Illanatol
      What, Breivik was a ragamuffin rogue?

      Bredwick maniac.
      Everything is much simpler. hi
      1. +10
        1 March 2023 10: 36
        And was he wrong?
        Police detained a gang of young Tajiks in Moscow who beat a man on Kashirskoye Highway over the weekend. Thanks to the reaction of users on the Web and the attention of the press. In general, the Ministry of Internal Affairs to ignore this was not at all comme il faut.

        And this happens not only in Moscow.
        1. +2
          1 March 2023 15: 23
          Quote: Sea Cat
          And was he wrong?

          And what is right? On his conscience, in fact, the death of seventy-seven people. However, the methods of persuasion, hmmm, are somewhat radical.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Police detained a gang of young Tajiks in Moscow who beat a man on Kashirskoye Highway over the weekend. Thanks to the reaction of users on the Web and the attention of the press.

          The key word is detained! Next is the trial. And it is the duty of society to make sure that the verdict is according to the deeds. Isn't it?
          1. +2
            1 March 2023 21: 20
            death of seventy seven people
            Activists of the youth wing of the ruling party (mostly children of high-ranking functionaries of the same party), who practiced on vacation in Utøya, held debates on how to increase the attractiveness of Norway for immigrants from other cultures and how to integrate them. In other words, they continued the party's line of ousting and replacing native Norwegians with aggressive outsiders. To themselves, the children of wealthy parents, the consequences of the importation of Afro and Arab-Norwegians were not visible from the windows of their mansions. Meanwhile, the Oslo police were already guarding the exits from the Groeneland area, so that the "new Norwegians" who settled there would not go in groups of 10-15 people to other parts of the city in order to show their lone white-skinned passers-by to gaping at their valiant strength. Something like this.
      2. +2
        1 March 2023 23: 14
        Quote: Illanatol
        And now those who have nothing to eat are going to Ukraine voluntarily to fight on the side of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?

        Quote: ArchiPhil (Phil7)
        They go for thrills ... Everything is much simpler. hi

        Sergey, without access to the protocols of interrogation of captured foreign mercenaries of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and information about their recruitment, I would not say so categorically. Unfortunately, the Ministry of Defense does not spoil us with such information.
        1. +4
          1 March 2023 23: 30
          not having access to the protocols of interrogation of captured foreign mercenaries of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
          In March-May last year, when the Armed Forces of Ukraine called on the Europeans to fight and win together, publishing through all the media footage of the burning of thousands of Russian tanks and the destruction of hundreds of Russian helicopters in a day, many "volunteers" willingly gave interviews to Western media. 9 out of 10 saw military weapons only in the movies, but they were driving - to assert themselves, if we discard the husk about world peace. Then the SAS veteran Phil Campion wrote an open letter to his compatriots (having familiarized himself with the "volunteers") where he said directly - if there is no military experience - spend money on a console and play war at home. There will be no respawn in a real war. At the same time, in France, veteran legionnaires made similar statements on TV and in the newspapers. So the statement that the "volunteers" are just adventurers is close to the fact.
          In the newspaper, the family called one of the British shot down "a fair and kind man of honor", and in the comments (quickly wiped Yes ) on another site who knew the goose personally described him as "a scumbag, a loser and a drug addict". Something like this.
  14. +11
    1 March 2023 09: 42
    An excellent article, one of its main advantages for me, that I re-read it twice, got into Wikipedia three times.
  15. +11
    1 March 2023 10: 32
    Quote: not the one
    "Who knows the art of impressing the imagination of the crowd, he also has the art of controlling it."
    He same. "Psychology of peoples and masses."

    Who knows how to start a car well, he is a good race car driver? Is the stupidity of this thesis only obvious to me?
  16. +8
    1 March 2023 11: 50
    Good article.
    I first encountered Lebon's ideas as a student and was not immediately impressed. And how, in fact, could an idealist impress a youthfully radical materialist? smile
    However, nothing has changed in my attitude towards Lebon since then.
    Ideas can only grow on the soil of reality. At the same time, the soil, that is, reality itself, must be suitable for a specific idea - this is a prerequisite, otherwise the idea will not take root and shoots, and, moreover, it will not give fruit.
    There are millions of schizos in the world, everyone has their own idea, but only a few of these ideas (and schizos, respectively) become famous and eventually influence something. So to speak, "the natural selection of ideas." smile
    As for the issues of crowd control, here too Lebon, in my opinion, is too one-sided. In fact, he talks about only one and only way to control the crowd - by energetically imposing any ideas, and the more persistent, aggressive and consistent this imposition is, the more effective it is, and schizos or "prophets" for such an impact, just fit perfectly better. There is no doubt - there is a considerable rational grain in such constructions. But, like a terry idealist, Le Bon absolutely forgets about reality, or rather, refuses to take into account its influence on ideas.
  17. +9
    1 March 2023 11: 57
    Le Bon was probably one of the first to try to theoretically substantiate the onset of the "era of the masses" and to associate with this the general decline of culture. He believes that due to the volitional underdevelopment and low intellectual level of large masses of people, they are ruled by unconscious instincts. Lebon believes that the mass is not capable of anything. Everything is the result of the activities of the elite. Mass - there is a crowd, then comes the era of the masses, and that's it, the decline of civilization. His revolution is mass hysteria, but this "hysteria", the masses, is pushed by the elite, because, in his opinion, only she can create something. Elites, this is really a phoenix bird, which, burning to the ground, is reborn from the ashes.
  18. +12
    1 March 2023 12: 07
    They say: "Why are you Russians so passive? Why don't you oppose this and that, having gathered in a large crowd?"

    And because the crowd must be organized and given a task (political or economic) - the demiurge, because the spontaneous crowd is a rebellion, easily and without consequences for itself, dispersed by the authorities, and it, the authorities, easily declares and justifies the goals of the people's rebellion as vicious. And the authorities are forced to talk with the demiurge and either destroy him - by physical removal or imprisonment, or win over to their side by bribery.

    Where do demiurges come from? From the middle class and only from it. This is a segment of the population that is dissatisfied with its position and the general state of justice, but at the same time a fairly educated segment of the population.

    Do we have a middle class? Eat. Frail weak, unsettled. But, say, in France - the capitalist formation, which has been well-established over centuries of struggle for its dominant position. In the course of the 20th century, large capitalist corporations took shape, and the middle class, as the bearer of democratic values, so necessary for big capital at the time of its formation, this middle class, a former companion of emerging big capital, was no longer needed. And only long-standing democratic traditions, which are completely absent in our country, inspire the middle class of France to resist the going muzzle of totalitarianism, along the way attracting those who do not belong to the middle class into their ranks. And there is no certainty that this will continue in the future. The middle class as it is now is being destroyed all over the world.

    Well, this is - so, on top)))
    1. +6
      1 March 2023 12: 43
      The middle class as it is now is being destroyed all over the world.
      As a class, and so "intelligent" is destroyed, without any violent sweeps. smile
    2. +4
      1 March 2023 12: 57
      Quote: depressant
      why are you Russians so passive?

      Yes, because most people are fine. It will be bad - the people will speak out, do not hesitate, as it was a hundred years ago. And leaders will appear and corresponding ideas.
      "Democratic traditions", "developed middle class" - I'm afraid that these are just echoes of those tricks with which they lured the people in the late 80s, and then with their help they explained why things didn't get better.
      - Why do we live badly?
      - Because we have neither democratic traditions, nor middle class.
      - When will it be?
      - Haven't delivered yet. Come in for a week.
      At the same time, to the question: "Are we living so badly?" twist a finger at the temple, they say, are you not Russian or what? Of course it's bad! In Russia, it’s always bad for everyone here, with the exception of those who feel good, but it’s definitely not us.
      So it turns out some kind of illogical nonsense - we live badly, but we don’t want to be indignant, but “there” they live well and are indignant. And in order to somehow explain this nonsense, they turn everything upside down to us in the style: "You live poorly because you are not indignant, because you are backward. But we live well because we are indignant, because we are advanced."
      1. +8
        1 March 2023 15: 05
        Misha, and you are crafty! )))
        I repeat, namely: the indignation of each individual, no matter how many of these people united by the same type of need, this indignation is worth nothing. And the crowd, forcing the attention of the authorities to its need, the crowd, is able to gather and lead only a passionate, caring person - the demiurge. Were there such? Were! And where are they? For thirty years, if any laws have been adopted, then only in full - a discriminatory package. Up to deadwood and parsley. I just don’t know if there is something against a sidelong glance, well, an indefinite lowing, or they haven’t thought of adopting a law yet.
        Therefore, if there are demiurges who are ready to lay down their lives at least for the subsistence happiness of the people, then they are underground workers. And the people - they remember how they sent the self-satisfied governor Nikita Belykh to the crayfish for the winter ("Wow! Governor, but they planted!"), And Platoshkin, and Navalny, and Grudinin were equidistant, and ... I will not name the departed. Of course, the names I mentioned are, perhaps, the political technologies of the authorities themselves, so that the people can draw a conclusion: if such people are pushed to the crayfish, then they will push the mop for me.
        I bet they think so.
        Because living with a mop in one place is even worse than living with a half-empty refrigerator.
        1. +3
          1 March 2023 15: 49
          Yes, but some demiurges start with words, others start with man-made deeds. The first take care to give meaning to their creation, the second bake about warmth and food. smile
          1. +2
            1 March 2023 16: 04
            Right!
            Here, the departed political strategist Gleb Pavlovsky, the author of the current political system until 2010, baked about warmth and food, then somehow retired, and now, before his death, he suddenly spoke again, and the meaning of his speeches was reduced to anger and sadness. Like, what have I done! ..
            And what can a demiurge do in the service of power? Strengthen power, and nothing more. The trouble is that with age a person accumulates experience, and the number of events turns into the quality of their understanding. But it's already too late.
        2. +4
          1 March 2023 17: 18
          Quote: depressant
          Misha, and you are crafty!

          Nothing! laughing
          In the late 90s, the country was on the verge of collapse, corruption, lawlessness, separatist ideas, the shameful war in Chechnya, bringing some humiliation, bandits and cops like two drops of water, local kings in the regions, Gusinsky, Berezovsky, Khodorkovsky and others , they are innumerable ... Gloom and hopelessness, in short ... As a result, nationalists of various stripes crawled out, up to outright fascists ...
          And then he appeared - Putin. It was just the same demiurge you are talking about. A few concrete actions, clear and distinct words, not at odds with the deed - and he immediately became a nationwide leader, leading the whole country. And the heads of the oligarchs flew, obituaries from Chechnya were filled with Chechen surnames, not Russian ones, people began to learn to be proud of their country again.
          The people - the people, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, precisely the people! - accepted Putin, fell in love and followed him. And life immediately became better, brighter, there was hope. The people, namely the people, raised Putin to unprecedented heights with their trust, not the media, not the oligarchs, not external forces. And this demiurge-Putin appeared exactly when he was needed and did what people expected and wanted from him.
          And him - can you imagine? - they still believe, although he is far from the same, and the country is already completely different.
          And now the question is: could he NOT appear? Not in the sense of Putin, but the one you call the demiurge? Probably, theoretically, he could, but the chances that he would not appear were regrettably small. Any person who would say what Putin said then, the first of those who managed to say it loudly, so that he would be heard, would be doomed to such a political success, because people were waiting for him, hoping that he would come and as soon as they saw him, they immediately followed him, if not all, then the vast majority. Remember how it was.
          He (the demiurge) could appear earlier, could later. But as for me, he appeared as soon as the conditions for his appearance were ripe. As soon as the people internally realized what they want and what they expect, they are right there.
          What is happening in the country now, as well as what the current Putin and his government is, I don’t want to discuss and I won’t - different eras and different people. But the fact is that now Russia has turned from jelly on a platter of the late 90s, already brought to the table for consumption and even partly divided, into a completely successful bourgeois liberal state, albeit slowly, but still, in spite of everything , even a ban on cutting dead wood in the forest, a developing state in which most people lead a completely normal, calm and well-fed life.
          And, to be honest, I don’t really understand what can be expected from the new demiurge, if such one appears. And I'm not sure if it's needed now at all.
          1. +4
            1 March 2023 18: 05
            After this panegyric, I was reminded of Weller's The Messenger from Pisa.
          2. +4
            1 March 2023 22: 24
            what can you expect from the new demiurge
            Reindustrialization and increase in per capita GDP at least one and a half times, which will allow the average Russian to live at the level of a resident of Poland or Latvia, although not as high as in Norway / England, but quite acceptable.
            1. +5
              2 March 2023 00: 00
              There are different ways to increase GDP per capita. Including the decrease in the denominator.
        3. +4
          1 March 2023 21: 26
          and Navalny
          Navalny will sell you all in bulk for a lower price than Khodorkovsky. If now the fleet of yachts "Russians" is envied by Arab sheiks, then under him American admirals would already envy Yes .
      2. +4
        1 March 2023 15: 58
        Misha, hello!
        Passed the edge!
        drinks
        + + + + + +
        1. +2
          1 March 2023 17: 19
          Hi Sasha.
          I didn't understand the limit. Am I in any danger? smile
          1. +1
            1 March 2023 20: 38
            I didn't understand the limit. Am I in any danger?

            Threatens.
            Avid Putinists are now out of vogue with Putin himself wassat )))
            For their expectations are too high, and it is precisely such people, if something goes wrong, that are capable of exclaiming in a fit of deep, sincere disappointment, rapidly turning into uncontrollable anger: "But we hoped! And he! ... "
            Shout out and do big trouble laughing )))
            This is what the authorities are afraid of, about which signals have been given in the news feeds lately.
            1. +1
              1 March 2023 23: 50
              Quote: depressant
              Avid Putinists are now out of fashion

              Then it's definitely not a threat. laughing
              The Putinist of me is so-so, to be honest. The merits of this figure in the past - I admit, and it is difficult, in my opinion, not to notice. But if it were not for him, someone else would most likely appear and just as well would have taken off from nowhere.
              Now, I repeat, this is a different person in another country. There is no desire to talk about him today.
              Quote: depressant
              This is what the government is afraid of.

              Do you really believe in it? That the government is afraid of something? What should she be afraid of? All the levers of governing the country are in her hands, everything is under control, a counterweight is already prepared in advance for any emerging force, and no surprises are foreseen for her in the near future. Here are surprises for us, probably prepared, yes, but we are not the authorities. Yes, and for the better.
  19. +2
    1 March 2023 15: 19
    Someone wittily remarked that if in Russia, no matter what they do, a Kalashnikov assault rifle is sure to turn out, then in Europe, no matter what theories are put forward, Nazism will definitely turn out. So here. Leaderism, the superiority of races and nations, and the dominance of the one who can subjugate the "crowd". Well, talk about the "soul of the nation" and "irrational hereditary ideas" looks more like quackery.
  20. -1
    3 March 2023 09: 15
    Quote: ArchiPhil

    They go for thrills.


    Those who have no problems meeting basic needs have a need for thrills. Extreme sports are just not rogue.


    Quote: ArchiPhil

    Bredwick maniac.
    Everything is much simpler. hi


    Well, Adolf was also recorded as a maniac ... do you know how many fans this "maniac Scandinavian" has?
    And if a maniac promotes a certain, well-defined and clear ideology, then he is no longer just a maniac.
  21. -1
    3 March 2023 09: 19
    Quote: kor1vet1974
    As a class, and so "intelligent" is destroyed, without any violent sweeps.


    Since this is not a class at all, but an artificially created social stratum. Now conditions are simply being created that reduce the possibility of its further existence. Shooting is not needed to eliminate hamsters.
  22. 0
    24 August 2023 13: 04
    [quote] "the next wars between nations will be a real struggle for existence, which will end in the almost complete destruction of one of the warring parties" [quote] [/ quote] is extremely debatable. I do not remember a single nation that was almost destroyed as a result of world wars.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"