Military Review

19 November 1190 was founded by the Teutonic Order

21
Eight centuries ago, in 1212, the first major military clash of the Russians with the new enemy of Russia, the Crusader Knights, occurred. United 15-th. The army of Veliky Novgorod and Polotsk, led by the then Prince of Novgorod Mstislav Udalym, struck the support bases of the Order of the Sword-bearers in the Baltic States. The Crusaders actively mastered the lands that were within the sphere of influence of Russia, which alarmed the Polotsk principality and the Novgorod land. True, the Germans soon concluded a separate peace with the Principality of Polotsk, and the Novgorodians, being alone, also agreed to an armistice with the order.



The Teutonic Order, like other knightly orders, was a project of the Roman throne, which in the Middle Ages was engaged in the creation of a common European community. In the XI century, Rome almost completed the subordination of the European nations proper: the Celtic and Slavic cultures were partly destroyed, some were subordinated and subjected to hard assimilation. The Roman throne came to the borders of Western Europe and the question arose of further development, or rather expansion, since the West was founded as a civilization-parasite from the time of the Roman Empire. On the Iberian Peninsula, the West faced strong resistance from the Islamic world, the reconquest process took several centuries, and this territory could not satisfy the needs of the West. The Roman throne needed hundreds of thousands, millions of slaves and a constant influx of various resources. Therefore, the most promising areas were: “the onslaught to the East” - in the lands of the Balts and Eastern Slavs, and the Middle East - the crusades with the aim of “liberating the Holy Sepulcher”.

The continuous war with the Islamic and Balto-Slavic world demanded not only the constant mobilization of the forces of the Western feudal lords, but the permanent armed forces. We needed professional warriors, completely loyal to the Roman throne, ready to give up the pleasures of life, to live in the most severe conditions, fastened by iron organization and discipline. The solution of this problem was the spiritual and knightly orders. During the century, more than a dozen such orders were established, among them such famous ones as the Templars, the Hospitallers, the Benedictines, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, the Teutonic and Avisian Orders, the Orders of the Sword, Calatrava, Satyago and others. The orders submitted only to Rome, having their own lands, they were self-sufficient, actually turning into a kind of state formations. A certain system of organization and education turned them into a formidable fighting machine.

The German Order was founded in 1190, and it was a necessary measure. During the siege of the Middle East fortress of Acre, a very difficult situation arose in the field of medical care for the army of the Crusaders. Diseases mowed down soldiers, hospitals were overloaded, besides Johnites were worried primarily about the British and French. Then some immigrants from Germany, mainly from the cities of Bremen and Lübeck, decided to create their hospital order. To take care of the wounded and sick. This initiative was supported by the representative of the German nobility duke Friedrich Hohenstaufen. The new monastic order was quickly approved. The new fraternity was named the German Order of the Hospital of St. Mary. By 1197, when a new army of crusaders arrived in the Middle East, the order flourished. He now not only cared for the sick, but also supplied food, helped with housing, supplies, those who were poor, or were robbed along the way, lost everything in battle. Bremen provided material support to the order.

19 November 1190 was founded by the Teutonic Order


In 1196 - 1199 the order was transformed into a spiritual knight, having received military authority. For quite a long time the order could not decide on the main direction of its activities: to concentrate all efforts on the defense of the Holy Land or move to Europe, sending forces for war with the pagans in the Baltic States. Only the loss of Acre in 1291 caused the order to slowly and reluctantly say goodbye to the hope of returning to Jerusalem.

Back in 1211, the Hungarian king Andrash II invited the Teutonic knights to help fight the Polovtsy. The German knights settled on the southeastern border of Transylvania, in Bourzenland, and they gained considerable autonomy. By 1220, the German knights built five castles, and gave them the names that later called the castles in the Baltic States. Marienburg, Schwarzenburg, Rosenau and Kreuzburg were located around Kronstadt twenty miles away from each other. These fortresses became the bridgeheads for capturing the almost uninhabited Polovtsian lands. The expansion was carried out at such a rapid pace that the Hungarian nobility and clergy, who were not so interested in these lands, who were in danger of constant Polovtsian raids, were inflamed with envy and suspicion. The prospects for the Crusaders in this region were broad. Purposeful and well-organized knights could easily walk along the Danube and take the valley to the Black Sea, reopening the land route to Constantinople. The success of the knights, their refusal to share booty with influential people from the Hungarian nobility, ignoring the rights of the local episcopate, irritated the Hungarian ruling elite. In turn, the knights did not have enough diplomatic skills to maintain their positions in these territories. Local nobility demanded that the king remove a handful of rogues who create a kingdom within the kingdom. In 1225, the king demanded that the knights immediately leave his land. Militarily, this weakened the kingdom, since the Polovtsians soon resumed their raids. And during the invasion of the Tatars, part of the Polovtsian hordes migrated to Hungary, undermining its stability for a long time.

This failure seriously undermined the position of the order. Many people gave years of life and all their means to gain a foothold in the new lands. All these efforts went awry. The situation was saved by the penetration into the Baltics. Attempts by the Polish kings and nobles to expand their territories at the expense of the Baltic tribes, to Christianize them, met with stubborn resistance from the pagans. Then they turned for help to the Roman throne and knightly orders. In 1217, Pope Honorius III declared a campaign against the Prussian pagans, who seized the lands of the Polish prince Conrad I of Mazovia. In 1225, the prince asked for help from the German knights, promising them possession of the cities of Kulm and Dobryn, as well as the preservation of lands seized from the pagans. As a result, the Baltic States became the main base of the Teutonic Order.

The first to enter Prussia was a small detachment under the command of Conrad von Landsberg. The Germans built a small castle Vogelzang (with him. "Bird song"). The knights could not resist the onslaught of the Prussians, but by this time the area where they had strengthened was already heavily devastated from the former Polish invasions, and some residents accepted Christianity. In addition, the Prussians did not see in the small detachment a great threat, it was a big mistake. After the knights fortified, they began to cross the Vistula, killing, burning settlements and crops. Von Landsberg agreed to a truce only on the condition of the adoption of Christianity by the pagans. It was a period of reconnaissance in force, when the knights did not have the strength to gain a foothold behind the Vistula. They explored the terrain, learned customs, language, military tactics of their opponents.

In 1230, reinforcements arrived under the supervision of Master Hermann Balck. Pretty soon, an army of crusaders, consisting of Germans, Poles, and local militia, devastated areas of West Prussia. In 1233, about 10 thousand people were forced to convert to Christianity. Another fortress was built near Marienwerder. In the winter of 1233, the Prussians suffered a heavy defeat. The knights won battles if they passed by their rules: the Prussians could not withstand the blow of knightly cavalry, disciplined infantry with their crossbows. The Prussians, on the other hand, waged a skillful forest war, using the knowledge of the terrain, forest and marsh shelters. The Crusaders preferred to attack in the winter, when numerous rivers, rivers, lakes and swamps froze, and it was easier to find the enemy’s shelter, to go out to them. In 1236-1237 there was a big offensive campaign. Each year, a small army of crusaders invaded Prussia and expanded the possessions of the order. Initially, Polish and Pomerelle warriors played a large role in these campaigns, but gradually their significance fell. The Germans strengthened their positions, and they no longer needed the help of former allies. In addition, the Polish Piast feuded with each other, Konrad Mazowiecki had problems at the borders, the Polish nobility could not constantly send forces and resources to the occupation of Prussia. The occupation of Prussia became the task of the Teutonic Order. The knights in their attack used not only direct force, but also the strategy "divide and conquer." The defeated Prussian tribal alliances were used as allies in subsequent wars. Relying, thus, on foreign military resources, the Crusaders won up by considerably superior forces of Prussians. Prussian campaigns were completed in the 1283 year, when the Sudavia region was subordinated.

In the 1237 year, the remnants of the order of the Swordsmen were joined to the Teutonic Order, and in 1236, they were defeated in the struggle against the Baltic tribes. This was the beginning of the struggle of the Teutonic Order with Russia.
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  1. Romeohihnic
    Romeohihnic 19 November 2012 08: 26
    +2
    Knights Templar

    From the translator. For us in Russia, the Teutonic Order is unambiguously associated with German knights, crusaders, Germany, German eastward expansion, the battle of Prince Alexander Nevsky on Lake Peipsi with dog-knights, aggressive Prussian aspirations against Russia. The Teutonic Order is for us a kind of synonym for Germany. However, this is not entirely true. The Order and Germany are far from the same thing. Guy Steyr Santi’s historical essay, offered to the reader, translated from English with additions made by the translator, traces the history of the Teutonic Order from its inception to the present. Yes Yes! The order exists today.
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 19 November 2012 17: 25
      +2
      The picture is not the Templar but just the Teutonic. The templars had a red crese on a white background
      1. Klin klinovv
        Klin klinovv 20 November 2012 00: 22
        -2
        and here it is and spread out - LODGE. you already put Fomenko in the press and in TV and put everything on the shelves. If you want to believe fairy tales of the 16-18th centuries, believe it. Or they have fashionable sources.
        1. Alex
          Alex 12 December 2013 17: 08
          +2
          Klin klinovvBefore making such strong statements, learn the Russian language. And Fomenko, to put it mildly, is not an argument.
  2. Tatanka Yotanka
    Tatanka Yotanka 19 November 2012 09: 20
    +17
    19 November 1190 was founded by the Teutonic Order
    19 November 1942. The counteroffensive of the Soviet forces at Stalingrad began
    how symbolic are these dates
    am i ready to bet
    that all descendants of those teutons
    forever remember Stalingrad
  3. predator.3
    predator.3 19 November 2012 09: 36
    +3
    The Battle of Rakovors (German: Schlacht bei Wesenberg) is a battle that took place on February 18, 1268 between the armies of the principalities of North-East and North-West Russia with the combined forces of the Teutonic Knights and Denmark near the Rakvere fortress.

    The army of the Livonian Order [4], which became the Livonian landmaster of the Teutonic Order in 1237, came out from St. George's, and after joining the Danes, who had more significant forces, took a position on the left flank against Svyatoslav, Dmitry and Dovmont. The Danes stood on the right, against Mikhail Yaroslavich. The Novgorod Chronicle cites a story, absent in the chronicle, about a fierce battle in the center between the Novgorodians and the enemy’s iron regiment, during which the Novgorod posad and 13 other boyars were killed by name, thousands and 2 more boyars were missing by name, and Prince Yuri retreated, due to with which he was even suspected of treason.

    Meanwhile, the Russians inflicted a powerful counterattack. The composition of its participants is precisely called by the Livonian Chronicle: 5000 soldiers led by Dmitry Alexandrovich, - he reports that the knights managed to stop him with small forces. At the same time, the chronicle connects with this counterattack the general victory of the Russian army in the battle, and talks about the pursuit of a running enemy for 7 miles to Rakovor himself by three roads, because the horses could not step on the corpses.

    In the evening, another German detachment approached the scene of the battle, but limited itself to plundering the Novgorod convoy. The Russians waited in the morning to fight him, but the Germans withdrew. Only 8 years after the defeat at the Battle of Durb from the Lithuanian forces, the crusaders suffered a new defeat.
  4. Boris55
    Boris55 19 November 2012 10: 34
    +1
    Almost simultaneously, the "Tatar-Mongol yoke" struck a blow to the south of Europe without almost reaching the Pope ... There was a war with the carrying cross (there are not only crusaders, but also the church, for their faith).

  5. kopar
    kopar 19 November 2012 10: 43
    -1
    Knights' orders united Europe. Both politically and religiously.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 19 November 2012 11: 00
      -1
      They are carriers of the biblical concept. Destroying the local government, local priesthood, they planted their ...
      2.9 "Do not let the sorcerers live" (Bible. Exodus 22:18). And the bonfires of the Inquisition throughout Europe ... http://klin.ucoz.net/forum/13-36-1

  6. Middle-brother
    Middle-brother 19 November 2012 15: 25
    -1
    Thanks to the author for the informative article, but let me express my opinion - this is not a format. The site is patriotic, and posting an article on similar topics is not very correct. The same as, for example, lay out an article on the creation of SS troops or something like that.
    No offense hi
    1. Santa bear
      Santa bear 19 November 2012 15: 45
      +3
      on the contrary, I find it very useful to know and remember which enemy our people defeated.
      1. Ross
        Ross 19 November 2012 18: 40
        +3
        Santa bear,
        on the contrary, I find it very useful to know and remember which enemy our people defeated.


        And that enemy who killed or assimilated our brothers Slavs-Prussians and then called them by their name.
        And the role of the Poles, the eternal dogs of the Vatican, is also curious.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 19 November 2012 20: 17
          0
          Ross "And the enemy who killed or assimilated our brothers Slavs-Prussians" Prussians-Slavs? Or is it an alternative? Maybe it's a Baltic tribe. And if so, then we will write down the Samogitians and some Latgalians as Slavs. There you also wrote about Svyatoslav's dream - is this a joke? Do you know about his dreams? Apparently wrote a memoir?
          1. Ross
            Ross 19 November 2012 23: 11
            0
            Nagaibak,
            The Venedov tribes inhabited all of Europe, from the Rhine to the Balkans. The Holy Roman Empire of Othon in the 10-11 century, in the midst of Christianization, gradually broke up with the Baltic Slavs.
            According to Svyatoslav - read more about his deeds, especially about the reason for the transfer of the capital to the Danube and the dispersal of the delegation of the Pope to mother Olga. These are links of one chain.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 20 November 2012 18: 26
              0
              Baltic Slavs? I know western, eastern, southern. Prussians are the Baltics. Western assimilation-bodriches, lutichis, part of the sorbians were assimilated. By the way, in eastern Germany, sorbians still live. Still seem to have been pomors along the coast of the Baltic Sea. All. Near Moscow there lived a rime, also the Baltics. As for Svyatoslav, Nestor wrote about him. Also Byzantine chroniclers. The writer V. Kargalov, who wrote a good ART book, could write about his dreams. Here about his dreams, as many as you want. Sincerely.
  7. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 19 November 2012 17: 39
    +3
    The task of the thousand-year capture of Prussia by the Germans - Teutots was solved by the Commander-in-Chief Generalisimus Stalin I.V.
    His Red - Soviet Army freed Prussia from the Germans, and he gained the right to transfer the thousand-year-old den of militant Teutots - Prussia, to the Soviet Union at the Allied negotiations.
    Stalin and his comrades-in-arms prepared the USSR so that it became an insurmountable barrier to the spread of Germans - Teutons to the East.
    1. Ross
      Ross 19 November 2012 18: 41
      +2
      vladimirZ,
      Stalin gradually united all the Slavs under his wing, realizing the old dream of Prince Svyatoslav.
  8. bazilio
    bazilio 19 November 2012 17: 39
    +1
    Honestly, all the major knights' orders, including the Teutonic, were in fact far from religious aspirations. This was especially true of the Templars - there was a case when, during the assault of Akka (if memory serves), breaking a wall, part of the Templars rushed to the city to rob, and the other part stood in the breach and turned weapons against their allies in order to take all the booty for themselves.
  9. avreli
    avreli 20 November 2012 08: 34
    0
    The “just about complicated” method is welcome, of course. Although entertaining nuances are missed.
    But the addiction to generalizations spoils the picture from the cognitive material about the Teutonic Order.
    Of course, the Vatican inherited something from the Roman Empire. But the statement "The Teutonic Order, like other knights' orders, was a project of the Roman throne, which in the Middle Ages was engaged in the creation of a common European community" - a clear search with a claim to disclose the "secret springs".
    Most of the "orders", rather, were statualized by the pontiffs, and not created by them.
    And by the way.
    “In the XI century, Rome almost completed the process ... Over the course of the century, more than a dozen such orders were established, including such famous as the Knights Templar, Hospitallers, Benedictines, Jesuits, Franciscans, Teutonic and Avis Orders, Swordsmen, Calatrava, Satyago other."
    The Templars --1119
    Hospitallers (Ioannites) - with 1080 humanitarian organization, turned into a religious-military order in 1099, during the First Crusade
    Benedictines - 530 (this is not a typo - five hundred and thirty), the direction is religious education
    Jesuits --1534
    Franciscans - 1208 (poverty, sermon, “social security”)
    Avis Order - 12th century, local Portuguese, as well as Santiago
    Order of Calatrava - 1157, local Spanish

    It is just right to ask what the author smoked. smile
  10. Odesit
    Odesit 21 November 2012 23: 38
    0
    exactly the way it is
  11. olosors
    olosors 3 June 2013 20: 17
    0
    The Teutonic Order withdrew from the German Empire during the 2nd Crusade at the German Hospital
  12. Alex
    Alex 12 December 2013 17: 16
    +2
    The article is quite superficial, sins with inaccuracies and carries a minimum of useful information.