Military Review

Initially Rus

59


WHAT are the original Russian pre-Slavic roots? Perhaps, in the way it was already reflected in the origins of the Russian stories the struggle of Good and Evil in the problem of war and peace. As already mentioned, Russia in the history of mankind stands alone. The role and significance of wars for it have always been fundamentally different than for the other great powers, and Russian history, like no other, gives us many reasons for reflection in this direction, because the Russian state, by the criterion of “power - restraint”, turns out to be uniquely peaceful towards throughout most important periods of its existence. And there are reasons for that - unlike other great powers, Russia lost more on big wars than gained.

The French say: “In war as in war,” but this is not the philosophy of the soldier, the defender of the Fatherland, but justification for violating the laws and norms of ordinary life in a situation where the limits of permissiveness are determined only by brute force. The French say: “The corpse of the enemy amuses,” and they also say: “The corpse of the enemy always smells good” ...

The Russian people have no such “catch phrases”. For a Russian person, war has always been a difficult ordeal imposed from the outside, and always a hard work. I do not know, but I can assume that the phrase "military work" is only in Russian! It is understandable ... Is it possible to call hiking, for example, Alexander the Great, as a military campaign? Or Hannibal and Caesar? Or - Napoleon? Or - the Hundred and Thirty Years War, the War for the Spanish Succession, for the independence of the North American colonies?

Hardly…

And the Russians have always preferred peaceful labor in their own land to the armed seizure of foreign lands. But the Russians had to deal with military work on their own land all the time - not at all according to their will. Including, therefore, the Russian people, knowing how to fight, always sought peace.

This particular peace-loving trait manifests itself even in language. If the word “war” in Russian, as in all others, has one - a formidable and unambiguous meaning, then the word “world” in Russian means two, though internally related, interdependent, but still different concepts.
The modern spelling concealed a characteristic detail that was evident in the pre-revolutionary language. The word “peace” in the Dahl dictionary is defined as “the absence of quarrel, enmity, disagreement, war; lad, accord, unanimity, stingy, friendship, goodwill; peace, tranquility, calm. "
And the word “peace” (through “i”!) The same Dal interprets as “the universe; our earth, the globe, svt; All people, all of them, the human race ... ”By the way, the same word“ peace ”also means“ community, society of peasants ”.

In English, for example, the language “peace” is “peace”, and “mip” is already “world”.

In fact, the modern Russian norm, which united the two concepts in one spelling, seems to be quite successful. It is even deeper and more symbolic than the old norm. There is no world of people without peace in the world.

There is hardly any other great and mighty people besides the Russian, who would perceive and enforce this principle so consistently and “massively” from the very beginning of their national history. But when did the story begin?

* * *

FAMOUS our historian Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky, the first section of the 5 lecture from his course on Russian history, titled "The Initial Chronicle as the main source for studying the first period of our history." Well, for the end of the XIX century, this approach was valid. And archaeological excavations, and Slavic folklore as sources of historical knowledge were not yet in use. Therefore, Klyuchevsky could count our history from its chronicle beginning ...

The bad thing is that at the beginning of the XXI century we often perceive the Russian history all the same - from the times of Rurik, Oleg, Igor, Svyatoslav, Vladimir ... However, this is the end of the first millennium of our era. We remember about the Drevlians and the glades, about the Rus and the Viatches ... But these are also the early centuries of our era. That is - no more than two thousand years.

But the first period of our history, in which the roots of the Russian people are found, begins not a thousand years, not two years ago, but at least ten to fifteen thousand years ago! Now we know that the ancient Slavs of Tszniecko-Komarovskaya, for example, cultures lived in the Bronze Age. This is ten thousand years ago. And on the banks of the Don in the Voronezh region, near the village of Kostenki, the most ancient settlement of people of Cro-Magnon (that is, modern) type was found in Europe. Over 10 square kilometers, more than 60 sites of the Upper Paleolithic era, ranging from 15 to 45 thousands (Kostenki-12 parking) years, were excavated. That is, once having come here, people from these - since ancient times Slavic, Russian - places have not gone away for tens of thousands of years!
Klyuchevsky has no words about those times. He simply had no idea about them. And his “Ancient” Rus is, in fact, Kievan Rus of the early Middle Ages!

But the Russian national character to the times of the Kiev Grand Duke Vladimir had long been formed, and it was initially formed as an awareness of a deep connection with nature. So - it was basically harmonious. Then it was repeatedly distorted and warped, but something that had entered the soul of Russian Slavs for thousands of years remained and passed down from generation to generation. And in what the approach of our outstanding historian is not outdated, it’s in the combination of the origins of the Russian national character with the nature of Russia. Klyuchevsky wrote:

"The forest, the steppe and the river are, one can say, the basic elements of Russian nature in their historical significance."
“The forest,” he notes, “served as the most reliable refuge from external enemies, replacing the mountains and castles with the Russian man. The steppe - wide, detached, brought up the feeling of breadth and distance, the idea of ​​a spacious horizon. The Russian river has taught its coastal inhabitants to the hostel and sociability. The river fostered the spirit of enterprise, the habit of joint, artel action, forced to reflect and contrive, brought together scattered parts of the population, taught to feel like a member of society, treat strangers, observe their customs and interests, change goods and experience, know the attitude. ”


A wonderful, accurate characteristic, quite applicable, by the way, to the USSR. At the same time, in such a characteristic nothing indicates the conditions that would push the Russian Slavs to the sword, and not to the plow. Holding the sword constantly in our hands was forced not by impulses of Evil coming from within, but by the need to defend ourselves from the pressure of external Evil.
Academician B. A. Rybakov in his book “The Paganism of the Ancient Slavs” writes (for the sake of convenience, as above, omit for convenience):

“Clavians threatened the Proto-Slavs from the south. The Dnieper Slavs were for the first time in their history under the blows of the first steppe nomads. However, the Proto-Slavs, who lived in the Dnieper forest-steppe, found enough strength in themselves to, firstly, create their own armed equestrians after the Cimmerian model, and secondly, build approximately in the 9th-8th centuries. BC. (this is more than one and a half thousand years before St. Vladimir! - SK) on the border with the Cimmerian steppe there is a whole system of fortresses in which the entire population of the surrounding tribe could escape from the raid. ”


Let me emphasize that it was the Alaska who defended everyone, not the elect. Thus, by the 6th century BC there was a construction - with the participation of the entire population - of a huge fortification in Povorskale with an area of ​​about 40 square kilometers, with the perimeter of the walls almost 30 km. “The whole complex is rightly viewed as a fortification built for the union of the tribes located along Vorskla. In case of danger, tens of thousands of people with their belongings and herds could really hide here, ”Rybakov notes.

This is the excavation data. But Academician Rybakov is also conducting an interesting study of the connection with the real archaeological data of the southern Russian, Ukrainian legends of the Dnieper region about the terrible Serpent and the Blacksmiths of the Serpentineers. Turning to the connection of life and myth, he writes:

“Proto-Slavs on Tiasmin and Vorskla - on the border with the Cimmerian-Scythian steppe - build a variety of powerful fortifications, which required nationwide participation. Here primitiveness approaches its highest limit, and we are entitled to expect the birth of new ideas and have the right to look for their traces in later folklore. Philologists rightly consider the era of metal and patriarchy, when ethnic and political consolidation takes place, as the time of the birth of a new form — the heroic epic. ”


And who becomes the epic hero of our pre-Slavic ancestors? Rybakov answers this question like this:

“In the pre-Slavic region, the birth of a plow, a forge, and warrior warriors occurs at a single time; the cultural hero-blacksmith and the warrior who defends his people are chronologically merged together. ”


So, the Slavic hero is not the conqueror, but the protector. And the defender, which unites in itself both the creative principle, and the force, capable of protecting it with an armed hand, created by it!

Only the good are able to protect the weak, they are offended by the evil. Is not it? And Russian blacksmiths, heroes in the legends are fighting with the merciless serpent, devouring both old and small. In the image of the Snake, researchers rightly see the personification of steppe nomads who burned everything to the ground. As you can see, the fiery languages ​​of foreign misfortunes blazed on the Russian Land long before the Tatar-Mongol invasion. Deep, deep origins of Russian Good!

Having defeated the Serpent, the divine Blacksmiths harnessed him into the plow forged by them and plow a gigantic furrow on it. And weapons Victory becomes not a sword, but a blacksmith. And when the wonderful Blacksmith grabbed the Serpent with ticks, the Serpent suggested: “Enough, let us put up: let your light be half, and half - of our ... let's change it.” In response, he hears: "It is better to reroot the light so that you do not climb onto our side to take people."

So, the force of Good creates a state of affairs when an insurmountable obstacle is erected on the path of aggression. Accordingly, not aggressiveness, but deterrence of aggression - the original military philosophy of Russian pre-Slavicism! Russia's peaceful policy goes back to the traditions of several millennia.

Plain immense Russia has always been a convenient field for the invasion of the aggressor, therefore, during the creation of the pre-Slavic legends, and much later the Russian people had to fight often and bloodily. Not always, I must say, it was only a defensive war. But aggressiveness did not take root in the basis of our national character — as can be seen from the composition of the pantheon of the main pagan Russian gods.

The list of them was made by St. Vladimir in 980, AD, when he was preparing the baptism of Russia. Here is the list: the thunderer Perun, the lord of the winds Stribog, the sun-fiery Dazhbog and Chora, the winged dog Simargl, guarding the crops, and the goddess Makosh are the fate of fate. This list is a kind of official result of the myth-making of many generations.

After eight years, the pagan "idols" will be chopped to the glory of Christ. Only the silver-headed and gold-bearing Perun, Vladimir's warriors with honor will float across the Dnieper to the rapids. But god of war in this company there was no place.

It is neither among the main nor among the minor Russian gods. Svarog-smith ... "Earthly" cattle god Velez ... Yarilo - the power of grain ... Lada-spring, bringing joy and happy marriage ... All these images are filled with peaceful cares and aspirations, a peaceful life and a peaceful outlook. They are filled with Good.

In the life of the Slavs there was another god - Rod, whose importance in the first folklore studies was downplayed to the role of almost a simple brownie. However, Rod is not just the personification of the strength and indivisibility of the tribal race, the collection of descendants, but also the Slavic analogue of Savaof, the Creator, the Creator.

God Rod is more ancient than Perun!

And the fact that the deity, which came from the epoch of first comprehension of Being, was identified by the Slavs as a deity of the big “family,” also says a lot about the national Slavic character. And this "much" is also colored not with blood, but with the thought of the world.

The ancient matriarchal cult of rozhanits, the two Elks — the mother and the daughter, firmly entered the Slavic consciousness and survived until the XIX century. It can be said that the ideas of universal kindness became not so much the philosophy of the Russian Slavs, as the vital and social principle deeply ingrown into the life of the people.

Even in relation to its heroic epos, Russia stands out in the history of the world. We do not have our own "Legend of Gilgamesh", there is no own "Iliad", although the Russians nailed the Russian shield to the gates of Constantinople. But we have epics about the knights - the defenders of Russia and the people. Moreover, these are all-Russian heroes, heroes of not only southern Kievan Rus, but also the northern state of Moscow. This is evident from the fact that the “Kiev” cycle of Russian epics was discovered in the 18th and 19th centuries in the Great Russian north as a result of records of the live narration of narrators in Zaonezhie, on the banks of the Pechora and the White Sea.

Yes, the Russian North became known as the “Iceland of the Russian Epos”, but the heroes of this epic were the Russian Kiev princes and the Russian heroes of the Russian Kiev squad. And although poetic images appear in epics, they are basically historical. And even from the poetic epic it is clear that their heroes are figures of a completely centralized state. However, Kievan Rus acts as a single state with the capital Kiev (caput regni) and in the chronicles of foreign chronicles, for example, in the Polish Latin-speaking medieval source "The Chronicle of Galla Anonymous", dating back to the beginning of the XII century. And this territory was already the territory of Good.

At one time in the Soviet Union, Vasnetsov's Three Bogatyrs hung in almost every teahouse. Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich - the famous Russian epic Trinity, born in different parts of a single Russian land.

The “small” birthplace of Ilya is already clear from his nickname - he hails from the city of Murom, from the village of Karacharov. And Ilya, “thirty years old”, who has been sitting on the stove, is the image of that Russia, which - according to Bismarck's later characterization - “harnesses for a long time, but it drives fast”.

As for Dobrynya, he, as V. I. Kalugin, the author and compiler of the wonderful collection “Bylina” (Moscow: Sovremennik, 1991. - Treasures of Russian folklore), informs us, is likely to have a real historical prototype - the uncle of the prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich, posadnik Novgorod, and then the governor of Kiev Dobrynya. Mention of it is in the "Tale of Bygone Years".

Alyosha Popovich has several historical prototypes at once.

And all three are serving, as well as their military comrades (and they are mentioned in the epics up to fifty!), “Blush the sun” to “gentle Prince Vladimir”, which reigns in “red Kiev-city”. And more precisely, they serve the Russian people.

* * *

TODAY Russian epics are read differently than a decade ago - in stable times of mighty Soviet Russia. Today, there was a challenge to the most historical future of the Russian state. And it forces us to take a fresh look at the ideas of the “heroic” cycle of Russian epics.


“The bogatyr outposts are not just poetic fiction, the fruit of popular fantasy, but a reflection of a very real historical reality. For centuries such bogatyr guards protected Russia from the Wild Field, were the first to take upon themselves the blows of kosogs, Khazars, Polovtsy, and later - tongues of the unknown, were, in fact, military fortresses, border outposts of Russia. And so it was not only in the times of Kievan and pre-Kiev Rus, but also in the more distant, when the defense of the Slavs passed in the Dnieper region ... - the famous “Zmiev ramparts”. ”


That is, the epic warriors, battle comrades of Vladimir for the protection of the Russian Good, are the continuators of the traditions of the mighty Slavonic tribal unions, descendants of the legendary Dnieper Kuznetsov snake fighters, who fought the terrible Serpent.

And should we, and Europe, forget that the Pro-Slavic Blacksmiths blocked not only Russia, but also Europe from the pressure of the Wild Field? But only Good can not give in to force. Evil is always inferior to her!

Of course, as the power of medieval Russia developed and strengthened, the attitude to the problem of Good and Evil at the princely, sovereign level began to blur. The famous prince Svyatoslav Igorevich waged external wars in the Balkans and — in the opinion, for example, of the Soviet historian A.N. Sakharov — had plans to create an empire in the South, and therefore went to Byzantium, nailing the shield to the gates of Constantinople-Constantinople ... It would seem Well, what is not the eastern analogue of Western Charlemagne? The difference is that Karl was more successful in his plans than Svyatoslav.

Anyway, Svyatoslav in the history of the formation of the Russian Universe was an episode. Already his son, Vladimir I Svyatoslavich, who baptized Russia, and his grandson, Yaroslav Vladimirovich the Wise, in which Russkaya Pravda was compiled, were concerned about the development of their own lands, and not about dreams of others. The grandson of Yaroslav the Wise, Kiev Grand Prince Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh, in 1108, was founded by Vladimir-on-Klyazma, giving rise to Vladimir-Suzdal land. And after 130 years, Russia had a special lot - in the new historical setting, in the Middle Ages, we again had to find ourselves in the path of a wild nomadic wave.

And again, Russia has covered Europe. We often forget about that, and the evil forces of Europe, the world and the “Russian” do everything so that we never remember about it. They are trying to put the Russian barbarians in order that the historical fact that the early Russian civilization was not inferior only to the emerging, medieval European civilization and that this very promising and distinctive civilization took upon itself the blow of the steppe nomadic barbarism and did not completely repel this blow, was destroyed.

Initially, the Russians were not barbarians, but they were thrown into barbarism by the barbarians, allowing Western Europeans to develop their civilization. The Russian Good again assumed the mission of confronting Evil - just like during the time of the Serpent-Blacksmiths. Although this time the outcome of such a mission was tragic. For the Russian Good, the era of the first severe trials has come.
Author:
Originator:
http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/K/KREMLEV_Sergey/_Kremlev_S..html
59 comments
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  1. Volkhov
    Volkhov 20 November 2012 09: 44
    0
    The "serpent" is not a steppe, but a comet explosion that burns out everything, like on Tunguska, and a wriggling trajectory trail in a magnetic field gives the analogy of a snake.
    The blacksmiths - the snakesmen - are the creators of the air defense of those years, more advanced than now - the pyramids, nesting dolls, stupas, clubs - the technique of the time.
    Replacing the Catholic primitive with a slightly corrected one does not give anything in restoration and development - a lie can be defeated by truth, and not by propagating types of lies.
    1. rkka
      rkka 20 November 2012 11: 18
      +6
      Recently I saw a plot on TV where one type twirls a cat above his head and thus establishes a connection with the aliens)) You don’t do this for an hour ???
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 20 November 2012 14: 18
        0
        The Germans did not hesitate to copy ancient technologies and for some reason they have bases in space and throughout the earth, the "Metal Ray" as in ancient clubs, direct fusion charges like a comet explosion.
        The recently announced MO competition for new ideas is caused precisely by the inability to compete (except for the rotation of the cat) - they played out into fooling.
        1. Van
          Van 20 November 2012 23: 29
          +2
          The Army of the Americans appeared as predicted, and the Russians, the first-born of the gods, stood in their way. Now, the Anunahs who created us all are returning, but whatever they bring, salvation or death. lol
        2. Magus
          Magus 23 November 2020 15: 18
          +15
          Quote: Volkhov
          The Germans did not hesitate to copy ancient technologies and for some reason they have bases in space and throughout the earth

          Nonsense ... Where are the Germans' bases in space? On Mars or Jupiter? laughing
      2. Magus
        Magus 23 November 2020 15: 18
        +19
        Quote: rkka
        saw a plot where one type twirls a cat over his head and thus establishes a connection with aliens

        This man needs medical help laughing
    2. Rebus
      Rebus 21 November 2012 00: 20
      +3
      Quote: Volkhov
      The blacksmiths - the snakesmen - are the creators of the air defense of those years, more advanced than now - the pyramids, nesting dolls, stupas, clubs - the technique of the time.

      Are you in all seriousness? Matryoshka is a product of high-tech nano-technologies wassat , it was apparently used for trans galactic modulations ... belay .
      I will open, for you, the great secret of the origin of the Russian doll:
      in Russia, she appeared at the end of the IX Beginning of the XX century, that is, she is a little over a hundred years old. She got her name from the then widespread name Matryona (with the same success she could be called earthenware, on behalf of Agafya or for example marfushka, on behalf of Martha, also very common names) A. Mamontova brought from Japan a figure of the bald old sage Fukurum. It consisted of several figures enclosed one into another. Wood turner Vasily Zvyozdochkin, who worked in this workshop, carved similar figures from a tree that were nested one into another, and the artist Sergey Malyutin painted them for girls in Russian style of clothing. You can find out more here:
      http://kuznetzova.siteedit.ru/page24
      http://www.gumilev-center.ru/russkaya-matrjoshka/
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CC%E0%F2%F0%B8%F8%EA%E0
      http://artorbita.ru/tipy_rospisi/matreshka.html
      And the prehistoric air defense system is generally something. You +, for your inquiring mind and not a standard way of thinking.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 21 November 2012 10: 17
        +2
        Quote: Rebus
        I will reveal, for you, the great secret of the origin of nested dolls



        Quote: Wang
        The Army of the Americans appeared as predicted, and the Russians, the first-born of the gods, stood in their way.


        Thank you for your attention, but a Central Russian worldview is carved from a tree such as American oak, this is actually harmful, oaks do not float well.
        Products in the form of nesting dolls were used in Egypt, in the same place the "snake" is drawn in section ... It was written for people with initial engineering and physical training, to interest them, and then explain what and how with examples and diagrams. It's just that when a person steps on a rake, he gets smarter directly, but when he collides with a "snake" it evaporates and the experience remains without application - some things must be understood with the mind without a personal test.
        1. Magus
          Magus 23 November 2020 15: 18
          +18
          Quote: Volkhov
          It was written for people with basic engineering and physical training, to interest

          wassat Are you serious?...
    3. Magus
      Magus 23 November 2020 15: 17
      +15
      Quote: Volkhov
      "Serpent" is not a steppe

      The "serpent" in folklore means precisely the "peoples of the steppe". Since our ancestors at that time fought mainly with the steppe inhabitants, and also in the folklore about the "snake" the memory of the great migration of peoples is laid.
  2. Prometey
    Prometey 20 November 2012 10: 04
    +6
    And should we, and Europe, forget that the pro-Slavic blacksmiths blocked not only Russia, but also Europe from the pressure of the Wild Field.

    Did the author mean nomadic herders or something? Yes, actually, I think that the Russians never cared to defend Europe from the wild field. Just as nomads themselves did not pose any threat to the Slavic state (except that they could quickly fly into the border villages, rob and quickly dump, until heavily armed knights approached). Even in the texts of the annals (or what is presented for them) there is no mention of large battles between Russians and nomads (except for the sad campaign of Prince Igor), because the nomads were not suicides to engage in confrontation with professional soldiers.
    1. rkka
      rkka 20 November 2012 11: 29
      -6
      Quote: Prometey
      nomads did not pose any threat to the Slavic state
      nomads were the main threat to the Russian state throughout the entire period of its formation

      Quote: Prometey
      rob and quickly dump

      are there few burned villages and a slave population?

      Quote: Prometey
      there are no references to large battles of Russians

      but there are fairy tales that show what our ancestors were afraid of: the gorynych snake flew from the steppe and burned everything, does not resemble anything, the same baba-yaga is a distorted image of the military leader of the steppe nomads.

      Quote: Prometey
      knock down quickly until heavily armed knights come up

      history shows that heavy infantry cannot oppose equestrian archers

      Quote: Prometey
      knights

      Quote: Prometey
      professional warriors.

      all this was called a prince's squad and its number rarely exceeded several hundred, the rest of the Russian army was a poorly armed peasantry.
      The nomads, without exception, were all excellent shooters and riders.
      Please no more hatred.
      1. Mugs
        Mugs 20 November 2012 11: 44
        +15
        Quote: rkka
        nomads were the main threat to the Russian state throughout the entire period of its formation

        It is believed that this is not the case, to put it mildly. Read Gumilev

        Quote: rkka
        are there few burned villages and a slave population?

        In princely internecine wars, far more people died than from nomad sabers.

        Quote: rkka
        Baba Yaga is a distorted image of the military leader of the steppe nomads.

        Is that in a dense forest, in a hut on a chicken leg? No comments...
        1. rkka
          rkka 20 November 2012 12: 06
          -4
          Quote: Mugs
          Read Gumilev
          There is an opinion that, to put it mildly, Gumelev is a fantasy historian. Well this is so, by the way.
          1. bart74
            bart74 20 November 2012 19: 00
            +1
            And this is also to the one who believes in what! I now believe in the bright past of my ancestors. And what do you believe in?
            1. Magus
              Magus 23 November 2020 15: 19
              +9
              Everyone believes in the bright past of their ancestors and everyone hopes for a bright future ...
          2. Bars90
            Bars90 20 November 2012 22: 37
            0
            Did Karamzin whisper in your ear? )))
            1. Magus
              Magus 23 November 2020 15: 19
              +17
              Gumelev is still that historian ... Karamzin is a recognized historian of Russia.
      2. Prometey
        Prometey 20 November 2012 11: 51
        +1
        Quote: rkka
        but there are fairy tales that show what our ancestors were afraid of: the gorynych snake flew from the steppe and burned everything, does not resemble anything, the same baba-yaga is a distorted image of the military leader of the steppe nomads.

        Perhaps it’s better for you to continue reading fairy tales than writing nonsense.
      3. bart74
        bart74 20 November 2012 18: 58
        0
        In fact, the raids of the nomads were just robber raids and nothing more. And there was never any Tatar-Mongol yoke. We ourselves were Tatars (but this is not a self-name, but from the name of Tartarus, as the West called us), and the Mongols in general only learned about Genghis Khan in the 19th century. Therefore, there is no hatred. We always beat everyone and we will beat! But the article agrees very weak.
        1. Magus
          Magus 23 November 2020 15: 19
          +12
          Nonsense ... Ryazan was not ruined by the Tatar-Mongols? What kind of alternatives? ...
    2. Zhaman-Urus
      Zhaman-Urus 20 November 2012 17: 40
      +3
      Read the annals more closely. The siege of Kiev by the Pechenegs, the defeat of one of the princes of the Polovtsian rati despite the Polovtsy’s superiority several times (the names and place of the event were forgotten by Google for you laziness). In general, they chopped and related, and traded and fought, and everything was on a grand scale, as is customary among the Slavs and Turks.
  3. dimitriy
    dimitriy 20 November 2012 10: 30
    +15
    "One way or another, Svyatoslav turned out to be an episode in the history of the formation of the Russian Universe." He put Byzantium with cancer, razed the Kaganate to the ground! In my opinion, he deserves a much higher place in the history of Russia.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 20 November 2012 14: 58
      +5
      dimitriy,
      These were a couple of hundred princes squads :))
      Doesn't resemble 300 Spartans? just the opposite :).
      the name Evpatiy Kolovrat does not mean anything.
      http://everythingaboutrussia.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/EVPATIY-KOLOVRAT.jpg

      But the memories of some and relatively recent.
      http://svpressa.ru/society/article/56325/
      these are not miserable paddling pools!
      For the soldiers of the 45th division of the Wehrmacht, the beginning of the war turned out to be completely bleak: 21 officers and 290 non-commissioned officers (sergeants), not counting the soldiers, died on its very first day. In the first day of fighting in Russia, the division lost almost as many soldiers and officers as in all six weeks of the French campaign.

      And so on and so forth.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 20 November 2012 15: 24
        +3
        You just won’t believe this until you see it with your own eyes. Red Army soldiers, even burning alive, continued to shoot from the blazing houses


        tank raid in Minsk on t28
        http://mechcorps.rkka.ru/files/spravochnik/biblograf/malko.htm
        Any normal person would call it suicide. But from the crew of 6 people 2 survived.
    2. Magus
      Magus 23 November 2020 15: 20
      +17
      Exactly! In addition to all of the above, he annexed Bulgaria to Russia, not for long, but still ...
  4. IlyaKuv
    IlyaKuv 20 November 2012 10: 41
    +4
    Yes, the whole history of the Slavs suffer-the people-martyr. From all sides the enemies overlaid us both 1000 years ago, and now.
    1. bart74
      bart74 20 November 2012 19: 04
      +1
      Just do not fool around. Something I have never felt myself a sufferer and I am not going to! fellow Everything is cool!!! So far we have nuclear submarines.
    2. Magus
      Magus 23 November 2020 15: 20
      +18
      Quote: IlyaKuv
      Enemies surrounded us from all sides both 1000 years ago and now.

      They are afraid of us. Only our rulers for some reason consider them their "friends and partners" ...
  5. rkka
    rkka 20 November 2012 11: 05
    -5
    The article would be a good fit for school, a lesson in patriotism.
    It has no scientific value. I always wonder when I see something like this here ...
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 20 November 2012 15: 00
      0
      rkka,
      And in my opinion, a very topic, we have too many people forgot where they came from.
      1. white_f
        white_f 21 November 2012 13: 08
        0
        And with patriotism in our country is somehow tight. And you need to know your story yes
    2. Magus
      Magus 23 November 2020 15: 21
      +16
      Normal article. Everything is well and very clearly written.
  6. skullcap
    skullcap 20 November 2012 11: 34
    -2
    The article is unequivocally + already for raising the topic of the ancient history of the Russian people up to the Kostenki-12 site, which the official science cynically deprives of it.
    At the same time, it should be noted that some points covered by the author have not been sufficiently studied by him.
    For example, the statement "... Rod is ... Slavic analogue of Savaof ,, ,," is not correct, because the creators of civilizations in the Middle East were the so-called Cro-Magnons, and future fans of Savaof were at that time Arabian Neanderthals, wild and primitive kozopasami, who did not know God yet.
    Later, having infiltrated Cro-Magnon ethnic groups, mingling with them and eventually taking power over these civilizations, they arrogated to themselves the achievements and history of defeated civilizations, including the names of many predecessor gods, including Svarog (Savaroga: -Volodymyr), reassigned to Savaof, because the structure of their larynx did not allow to pronounce the sound "p".
    And the personality of Svyatoslav the Brave is absolutely wrongly considered.
    And to the author himself and all those interested, I suggest that you familiarize yourself with the works of Yu.D.Petukhov “The History of the Russians” and L.Prozorov “Svyatoslav Khorobre. I'm coming to you! ”
    But now there is also a lot of other literature introducing the latest data of archaeological and historical research into scientific circulation.
  7. Dimitr
    Dimitr 20 November 2012 12: 04
    +1
    Quote: kosopuz
    skullcap

    Definitely +, I completely agree with you!
  8. Igarr
    Igarr 20 November 2012 12: 37
    +1
    Read - read.
    Comments too.
    And the opinion ......
    Original Russia, Kostenki-12, Yu.D. Petukhov, L. Prozorov.
    From memory I can throw a couple of authors.
    Everyone interprets in different ways.
    ..
    Yes, and surprised that the Neanderthals wandered into Arabia. He believed that south of the Caucasus they were not there. And for Gibraltar too.
    All kinds of synanthropes and the rest of the gonados .. the ropes roamed.
    And Neander - I thought - ours, relatives. Russians.
    .. It turns out again not so.
    Well, okay.
  9. merkel1961
    merkel1961 20 November 2012 13: 55
    0
    For those who are interested in other opinions on the history of pre-Christian Russia, I recommend a look at the Commonwealth of Slavic sites, and even recently got rid of the habits of scratching flea bites and relieving the need on the stairs of the Louvre, the European elite has something to read.
  10. George
    George 20 November 2012 15: 04
    +1
    To the author +. Such topics are important. And perfect for school. Although now it is difficult to separate the truth from the lies and a lot of information has poured out on people, I think we can separate the grains from the chaff. Before the revolution, the Germans wrote our story, then the Jews and everyone insists on our dullness and worthlessness. Our people cannot be so because they are RICH by nature. And I believe in our Divine destiny. Glory to RUSSIA !!!!
    1. ser86
      ser86 20 November 2012 20: 13
      -3
      Jews are to blame for everything))
      1. Fox 070
        20 November 2012 20: 52
        +3
        Quote: ser86
        Jews are to blame

        Sarcasm is incomprehensible. Any doubts about the Jews? Or about Judaism? request
        1. ser86
          ser86 22 November 2012 22: 37
          0
          there is doubt that the story was terribly distorted by the Jews, and at the expense of God's chosen Slavs all the more)
  11. sq
    sq 20 November 2012 15: 40
    +2
    Article +
    Although the author did not write a serious article, but some kind of fairy tale. But it is better to believe in such a fairy tale than to groan your past.
  12. Nicotine 7
    Nicotine 7 20 November 2012 16: 10
    +4
    ,, ... St. Vladimir ... ,,. It would be more correct to say St. Basil, for at baptism he adopted the Byzantine name Basil.
  13. Black
    Black 20 November 2012 16: 41
    +4
    ".... the Russian national character by the time of the Kiev Grand Duke Vladimir had long been formed, and initially it was formed as an awareness of a deep connection with nature. So it was fundamentally harmonious!" winked
    The shield on the gates of Tsar-grad was especially harmonious.
    We love myths about ourselves. "forest, steppe, river .." I would like to know where ".. one-sixth of the land with a short name -RUS"? The river brought, whispered the steppe? Russia is the Motherland of the Great Warriors!
  14. Boris55
    Boris55 20 November 2012 17: 31
    0
    Great Russ about the real past of Russia

  15. bart74
    bart74 20 November 2012 19: 05
    +1
    Weak little article. Well, anyway, the author respect for the patriotic mood!
    1. Lexagun
      Lexagun 21 November 2012 18: 38
      +2
      The article is mediocre, and how to express respect for mediocrity?
      1. Magus
        Magus 23 November 2020 15: 22
        +9
        Normal article. Written in accessible, easy language.
  16. serge
    serge 20 November 2012 20: 33
    -1
    The author writes that Svyatoslav in the history of Russia turned out to be an episode (??). This is the Khazar winner, whose name is on a par with the names of Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan the Terrible and Peter I! Well, the author, books must be carefully read, Svyatoslav not only Constantinople fought. The victory over Khazaria in the first century by value is no less than the victory over Germany in the twentieth century. Regarding the lack of a god of war among the Slavs. Perun - the Thunderer was the patron saint of Slavic warriors, often depicted with a bow and arrow. Perun - Svarozhich often presented himself as an armed warrior in a golden chariot drawn by winged stallions. The symbol of Perun was the crossed ax and hammer. The cult of Perun dates back to the XNUMXrd millennium BC. God of blacksmiths, fire and warriors. So our peacefulness at all times was great, of course, but our armored train always stood on the siding.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 21 November 2012 10: 59
      +1
      serge,
      The author simply mentioned the raid of Svyatoslav as a single episode of the military expansion of Russia, such campaigns in Russia were rare.
      Unlike any other country, especially Europe and the Middle East, which only did what they climbed somewhere, we basically did not do this.
      I’m thinking here, what kind of people were then if there are so many homosexuals in Europe now? In my opinion, nothing has changed in Europe since then !!!
  17. Egoza
    Egoza 20 November 2012 22: 07
    +1
    Somehow the author writes doubtfully about Ilya Muromets. But this is a REAL person. And he was buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Scientists, with the permission of the church authorities, carefully examined his mummy. Indeed, during his lifetime a person had a disease of the spine and there are all the signs that "the legs did not walk." Those. most likely there was some kind of pinching of the nerves, which was then corrected, for example, by a talented chiropractor. This man was a warrior, he has many scars from piercing-cutting weapons. According to the chronicles, he came to the Lavra after serving the prince, where he was tonsured a monk. However, when the Tatars attacked, he again stood on the walls of the Lavra, fought valiantly and died as a warrior. For his valor, he was buried in caves, where over time his mummy turned out.
  18. Bars90
    Bars90 20 November 2012 22: 44
    -1
    This article is quite interesting in its content. Thanks to the author ... Of course, there are still controversial questions about the origin of Russia. Of course, this is not surprising, because the history of Russia in itself has a sufficient number of years ... How was Russia formed and how old is it? Apparently a lot. Difficult question...
    1. Magus
      Magus 23 November 2020 15: 23
      +17
      Quote: Bars90
      How Russia was formed

      By uniting Novgorod and Kiev.
  19. Sanok8711
    Sanok8711 21 November 2012 03: 48
    +1
    It was written beautifully, but the author did not teach the history of ancient Russia at school ... Each Grand Duke, ascending the throne, considered it a matter of honor to hang his shield on the gates of Constantinople + raids on the same Polovtsy and Pechenegs were carried out as often as they did. Yes, and look at the maps of Kievan Rus of the 9-10th century and 17-18, that it seems to me that the neighboring country wasn’t voluntarily captured ....
  20. GG2012
    GG2012 21 November 2012 13: 02
    -1
    Good and necessary article. Unfortunately, such articles are not enough now!
    Article good good good
  21. Lexagun
    Lexagun 21 November 2012 14: 34
    0
    Article! Hmm ... Article however wink
    sheer magnificence. winked enthusiastic, roughly approximate, with slightly worried notes.
    Well, for example, I quote:
    "... We remember about Drevlyans and glades, about Rusichs and Vyatichs. But even these are the early centuries of our era. That is, no more than two thousand years ...."
    For those who do not remember the textbook and have not seen any sources in their eyes, I report that between 1200 (the most scientifically assumed) and "no more than 2000 years" (the author of the article) the difference is quite relevant. Those who want to giggle can start, but shake their heads in sorrow.

    Well, and the love of blacksmithing in general is very revealing. This is what matters here. Nuances wink
    For example: where did the blacksmiths get the ore? I ask you not to offer options with a swamp crust, which is not even suitable for making a kitchen "rezhik" of acceptable quality. And those who are especially stubborn can try to repeat the process. Well, the second question will be about fuel. Let me explain. If for just forging, the temperature range from 900 to 1200 degrees is sufficient, which is achievable in a forge (very good forge) on very high quality charcoal. THAT for obtaining iron from ore requires 1539 degrees. which requires coal already hard and preferably coking wink
    Hence the conclusion. Blacksmithing in our conditions could exist only on imported semi-finished products. Actually, the blacksmiths did not mine ore.
    But in general, the author, as it were, nowhere writes about the sources of raw materials for blacksmiths wink And that's why. He simply did not think about it. And this is crucial. due to the fact that the role and position of the blacksmith that he describes on imported raw materials is not possible to realize - technically.

    About the warriors the same is very interesting: you can start with the youngest, as they knew Popovich. wink Just in case, not a "last name" is a nickname because dad was a priest. Just the very beginning of the Christianization of Russia. The name Alexei has nothing to do with Slavic in principle. Usually it is believed that it is Greek, although it is more true that it came to us through Greece, but this is not entirely true. The name is Biblical, that is, Semitic wink by origin (if something I Alex and not a Jew wink ) Well, the professional and confessional affiliation of the pope indicates that he can be, for example, Greek, but cannot be a Slav. Dad - Greek, son, who? Yeah understand - Popovich wink
    1. Lexagun
      Lexagun 21 November 2012 14: 37
      -1
      Ilya Muromets. do not rush to harvest stones, they will come in handy. Name, hmm. biblical again. wink Muromets - the nickname may well be and is related to Murom. Only Murom is not related to the Slavs. Muroma is a Finougorsk tribe (or rather Ugric). now considered slavish. (a highly controversial statement) is all the more incomprehensible when this happened, if at all.
      The second nickname was Chobotok. I must tell you that Ilya (Eli, Eliya - the sun) was already a monk (a member of the militarized order?) In his mature years. The word Chobotok is not typical for the North of Russia, rather for the South, where most of the events described in epics took place. But the name of the tribal village is very revealing. Kara Charovo (separately specially) Familiar from childhood, but absolutely non-Russian word? (or Russian, but already in need of translation?) Kara - black, Enchantment - magic, witchcraft. In general, Karacharovo is a village of black (dark-skinned / dark) wizards. By the way, in the south this name meets with enviable regularity, especially in the North Caucasus and the Black Sea region. (southern motives again?). In general, in addition to Slavic origin (based solely on imprinting, the habit of perception - as they said in childhood, we think so on) other options are emerging wink
      1. Lexagun
        Lexagun 21 November 2012 14: 37
        -2
        Well, Dobrynya Nikitich is an interesting character. wink DBR and TVR without promulgations Good and Goods. Why without vowels ?, and wrote so earlier. Yes, and the meanings of these words are close, we say take away your good, I haven’t gained good, etc. (by the way, word forms from Old German, which is a miracle, the closest relative of Yiddish, like Russian and Belarusian for example)
        He, Dobrynya, unlike the other two, has given birth, after all, the grand duke's uncle and his right hand. By the way, who is this uncle? Brother of dad or mom. Dad Vladimir doesn't have a brother with that name, but his mom? There was of course. By the way, who is mom? They say almost a slave, a certain housekeeper, whom the prince used to use under the stairs and had to marry like an honest man. This is utter nonsense. The Malusha housekeeper of Princess Olga could not be a random character in principle, for the right to serve the prince with slippers (and therefore have access to the prince and whisper something in his ear or petition), the princely families embarked on serious intrigues. And the terms themselves: devious, bed-dweller, etc. speak for themselves. And besides, the position is not just significant, but extremely significant, however, the Kremlin's manager. So whose will Malusha be? She is Dad's daughter, and Dad's name was Mal. It is in our sources that he is Mal. Voivode, by the way, and not a small town, namely Lyubech. True, in the sources from the "other side" there is no Mal, but there is ... Malfred (who, by the way, had a daughter - .... Malfrida). The city of Lyubech was distinguished not only by the name of the voivode and his daughter, who became the housekeeper of Princess Olga, which was strange for the Russian ear, but also by the fact that this city lived according to Magdeburg law. and those who we will later call the Germans ran it. Dad is German, daughter is German, (conventionally, of course, the Germans as a nation have not yet formed, it would be more accurate to say) and who's brother?

        Here we are Russians from all this, and even with an admixture of many other peoples and nationalities and languages, and it turned out (how many words do we have that mean the same animal dog, for example? Dog, Dog, dog, bitch, mongrel, puppy).
        In general, not a pathos blundering, of course, not popular prints for a simplified consciousness, but this explains our tendency not to destroy other ethnic groups, but to assimilate them. This is a familiar mechanism. The Anglo-Saxons have a different familiar mechanism.

        And more often use sources (with domestic narratives, the situation is very bad, there are very few of them and relatively reliable ones start from the 18th century), and do not hesitate to check the academicians. And then for a long time I believed that we are all Slavs, well, what about !? Indeed, in the tale of bygone years, it is written approximately like this (as if discovered by the Poles and the Germans in 1696) that they live there: - Likhachev. Only in the story itself there is no word - and "others." Likhachev invented it, for a bundle. Otherwise, it turns out that all of the above are not Slovene. Indeed, they are Dregovichi wink or meryans. (Fino Ugric, or rather, just Ugric).
        1. Flooding
          Flooding 22 November 2012 19: 50
          -1
          Quote: Lexagun
          German pope, German daughter, (conditionally, of course Germans as a nation have not yet taken shape, Goth would be more true) and who is the brother?

          Yes you? And they talk about the Slavs who once lived on the Germanic lands today.
          1. Lexagun
            Lexagun 24 November 2012 00: 33
            0
            Grandmas talk at the entrance wink

            But seriously, do they "talk" on some grounds? That's right, and these foundations in their absolute mass are linguistic, mainly toponymy. It is precisely because of the poet that the Slavs in Germany are only forced to "talk", there are very few grounds for other conclusions. Only here the name Malfred and these "sayings" can not be attracted, in any way, as well as the version of the current legislation.
            1. Flooding
              Flooding 24 November 2012 12: 31
              0
              But seriously, it is impossible to seriously consider only one version of the origin. What did you actually do, citing Tatishchev's hypothesis.
              After a quick reading, I can say that I am more interested in the arguments of Prozorovsky.
              And there are others. So let me treat your information as requiring additional evidence.

              Well, the Slavic Slavs ... Well, then, consider that they were not there. Your right.
              1. Lexagun
                Lexagun 27 November 2012 20: 20
                +1
                Yes, besides the Polabskys, there is also, for example, alpine noriks, then where to put these like other Wends? But once again I draw your attention to the fact that the idea of ​​Slavic central Europe is based primarily on phonetic tracks, I myself am a big fan of them wink But isn't it easier to assume that the Slavs are not an ethnic term, but a religious and cultural one. corresponding to pre-Christianity, early Christianity. Ethnic groups are different, but the writing is common, interstate, interethnic, intertribal, with the writing the common culture also spread. Pay attention to the fact that the Central European "Slavs" write in Latin and are Catholic (and zealous). We are rather correct Slavs wink (they wrongly praise god wink ), that is, for some common elements (mainly introduced in the era of church reform), they are very, very different from the same Poles or Czechs in the way of the economy, the collective way of surviving as such. We are closer to the Bulgarians, Croats Serbs, who incidentally do not have ethnic relations with the Slavs at all and are considered conditionally wink
                So the Slavs are a shape-shifting term, like the Tatars. Today we consider the Volga Bulgars to be Tatars, who are also ethnically very close to the Russians, who "for some reason" in the 16th century decided to start calling themselves Tatars ?! and Which have nothing to do with the Crimean Tatars. They do not have at all, not a drop, but the Caucasian Tatars are related to the Crimean Tatars, direct relatives, however, are you not familiar with the term Caucasian Tatars? Yes, today it is not used, for just over 100 years it has not been used. Today we call them Ayzerbajans wink (Turks however) And Krymchaks Turks and Turks Turks (but not all) and Gagauz. Here they are all really Tatars, but today we call Tatars completely different, isn't it strange?
  22. andrey-tse
    andrey-tse 21 November 2012 18: 00
    -1
    We are not European civilization, we are Russian civilization. From the article, the main idea is good. Good is the whole point, it is true by definition, it cannot be achieved by force or imposed on someone. Our ancestors are not angels, but they tried to be fair. Now there is no counterbalance to the Anglo-Saxons ("great European civilization"), before you could even complain to the USSR, but now you either sing to the tune of "democracy" or you are not.
  23. anti-fluid
    anti-fluid 22 November 2012 03: 30
    -1
    Reading the first two paragraphs, this Christian nonsense that we have been instilled in since childhood with the idea that the Slavs are patient and that we should only work and kick our fate from birth, and only after the enemy ruins our lands should we unite under the sign of Christ and drive the enemy from our land. But it’s somehow impossible to get into this idiotic church version that the Slavic Arians occupied territories from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, from the Arctic to the Chinese mountains in Asia and the Black Sea in Europe. This is probably because we are so peaceful and absolutely did not want to fight. It's just that no one could compare with the army of the Slavic Aryans in equipping troops and in tactics of warfare. And all the peoples who did not want war with the Slavs lived in peace and harmony with us and there was no oppression and slavish attitude towards the conquered. Or rather, on the contrary, we taught these peoples culture, agriculture, architecture and military affairs. This we achieved through the hard work of our people, and the fact is that the Slavic-Aryans contemplated slave labor. As soon as it took Christianity to our people, they began to teach us that we should be measured against the fact that we are spread rot, which is supposedly such a fate that we must accept and accept. We are kind in spirit, but menacing warriors in life. We are SLAVES.
    1. Flooding
      Flooding 22 November 2012 19: 40
      0
      Quote: anti-fluid
      We are kind in spirit, but menacing warriors in life.

      Well, yes, and as soon as they adopted Christianity, they immediately forgot how to fight.
      By the way, admins your nickname is normally perceived? Doesn't your eyes hurt?
      And then they have recently been finding fault with more and more little things.
      1. anti-fluid
        anti-fluid 23 November 2012 02: 40
        0
        I didn’t say a word that I forgot how to fight. I wrote that the attitude to the war was instilled differently. And the prince’s attitude to his people has changed, and our leaders still have this attitude to us. But we have not forgotten how to fight, no matter how rotten our army is, it all fulfills its functions, that is the proof of our people. He, like a bone in the throat, stands by the powers that be, by his presence, but they cannot do anything with us)))
  24. Flooding
    Flooding 23 November 2012 10: 14
    0
    Because Russia has always been strong in its faith and its traditions.
    Look at what the decline of both led.
    And do not look for the roots of this decline in Christianity, but rather think about whose mill neopaganism pours water on.
    1. anti-fluid
      anti-fluid 24 November 2012 02: 49
      0
      I would say by faith in my traditions, but no matter how faith, be faith in Christianity, communism or democracy. A sense of duty to your children and parents, someone else has a feeling of duty to the HOMELAND. Although everyone in the word MOTHERLINE puzzles his own.
  25. Pit
    Pit 12 December 2012 10: 29
    0
    The famous prince Svyatoslav Igorevich waged external wars in the Balkans and had plans to create an empire in the South, why he went to Byzantium, having nailed a shield to the gates of Constantinople ... It would seem - well, what is not the eastern counterpart of western Charlemagne? The difference is that Karl was more successful in his plans than Svyatoslav.

    This is insanity, he did not go to the Khazars for land, but to stop their raids from the south. And he fought with Byzantium, so there the emperor himself is to blame, then he will persecute the Pechenegs against Svyatoslav, then he himself crawls. And Crimea Svyatoslav conquered just to cover the country from the south, from the same Pechenegs and Byzantines.
  26. Gunslinger
    Gunslinger 7 June 2013 16: 57
    0
    From the first lines, the author enthusiastically begins to carry anti-scientific nonsense and remains faithful to himself until the last paragraph. Sorry, but this is not to be taken seriously.
    WHAT are the original Russian pro-Slavic roots? Perhaps, in how the struggle of Good and Evil in the problem of war and peace was already reflected at the origins of Russian history.
    Very reminiscent of the beginning of a school essay laughing
    As already mentioned, Russia stands apart in the history of mankind
    Who says? When is it said? request
    In general, from this text you can collect a lot of very controversial and frankly ridiculous quotes.