How Russia helped Turkey in the war with the French and received the war of 1806-1812 in "gratitude"

How Russia helped Turkey in the war with the French and received the war of 1806-1812 in "gratitude"
The Russian squadron under the command of F. F. Ushakov, going through the Strait of Constantinople. Hood. M. Ivanov

Free passage through the straits

After Petersburg missed the only chance in the XNUMXth century to capture the straits (Russia's Lost Chance: Catherine the Great's Tsargrad Operation), Russia got involved in a war with France. And she began to help her enemy - Turkey.

The French army landed in Egypt, and Sultan Selim III considered it an attack on the Ottoman Empire. Although Egypt ruled autonomous Mamelukes, and Bonaparte repeatedly stated that he was at war not with the Ottomans, but with the Mamelukes. There were also rumors in Istanbul that Bonaparte wanted to restore the Jewish state in Jerusalem and go to Constantinople.

Turkey is asking for help from Russia. Emperor Paul I in August 1798 orders the Chernomorsky the fleet Ushakov, who had previously been prepared to capture the Bosphorus, to go to the aid of the Ottomans. The squadron of the famous Ushak Pasha in the Port came to the Bosphorus.

It is interesting that the population of Constantinople joyfully met "sworn unfaithful enemies." Ushakov wrote to the capital:

"The brilliant Porte and all the people of Constantinople are incomparably delighted by the arrival of the auxiliary squadron, courtesy, affection and goodwill are perfect in all cases."

On behalf of the Sultan, Ushakov was presented with a snuffbox adorned with diamonds. Also, a declaration was handed over to Turkey "On the free navigation of Russian military and merchant ships through the straits ...".

December 23, 1798 (January 3, 1799) in Constantinople, an allied defensive treaty was concluded between Russia and the Porte. The treaty confirmed the Iasi Agreement of 1791. Russia and Turkey guaranteed each other territorial integrity as of January 1, 1798. In the secret part of the agreement, Russia guaranteed military assistance to Turkey. Istanbul promised to open the straits for our navy. For all other powers, without exception, the entrance to the Black Sea was closed.

Thus, the Black Sea became a closed Russian-Turkish basin. At the same time, the right of Russia to be the guarantor of the navigation regime of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles was fixed. If Turkey had kept this treaty as a key one with Russia, then the Russo-Turkish wars could have been put to rest.

The Russians, under the command of Ushakov, liberated the Ionian Islands from the French. Tsar Paul established a republic there! Then Russian sailors and paratroopers helped liberate Naples from the French. Detachments of Russian sailors and soldiers were solemnly welcomed by the population of Naples and Rome.

Alien game

The victories of the Russian fleet and troops were bright and brilliant. However, geopolitically, strategically, Russia was the loser. We fought for others. Malta, which formally belonged to the Russian emperor, was left to the British. The Austrians, with the help of the Suvorov bogatyrs, regained control of Northern Italy and offered Suvorov's army to go to fight in Switzerland. So our victories led to the general strategic failure of Russia.

The Russian sovereign Pavel Petrovich realized what a trap Russia had fallen into, getting involved in an unnecessary war with France, and tried to slip out. He stopped the war with the French, began negotiations with them about an alliance, began to put together an anti-English coalition in Northern Europe. The British immediately used those who were dissatisfied with the policy of Paul in St. Petersburg, the Russian tsar was killed.

Before the new Russian sovereign, Alexander Pavlovich, the question was: peace with France or participation in another anti-French coalition. The neutrality of Russia, according to the British, meant an alliance between the Russians and the French. For this, the British killed Pavel with the help of Russian conspirators and could wage a “war” against Russia, in fact, spoil it, since there were no common borders.

Peace and agreement with France promised great strategic benefits. Petersburg, taking advantage of the difficult situation of Paris, could bargain for serious concessions. In particular, we could formally cede Malta to France (in fact, the British were there), and in return get the right to Constantinople, the straits. It was also possible to restore under our auspices historical Georgia and Armenia, in the Balkans - Orthodox and Slavic principalities and kingdoms. Significantly expand our lands in the region of the Dniester and the Danube.

However, Alexander did not do this, he preferred to negotiate with the British and Germans. Why?

Perhaps he was afraid to repeat the fate of his father. Adhered to the vicious principle of legitimism. He himself was ambitious, dreaming of a big victory over the "Corsican monster". Personally led our army in Germany. Plus the influence of England and the German party at the Petersburg court. Germanophiles and Russian Germans lobbied for a war against France. Also, England was then the main trading partner of Russia.

As a result, Alexander I immediately made peace with England, drew Russia into the anti-French coalition.

mediterranean theater

Since 1803, our garrisons in the Ionian Islands have been reinforced. The supply of Russian forces in the Mediterranean theater passed mainly through the straits. Russian warships were moving in both directions. In 1804, the squadron of Captain-Commander Greig left Kronstadt - 2 ships and 2 frigates. In 1805, Senyavin's squadron left Kronstadt - 5 ships and 1 frigate. Two brigs were bought in England. The base of our squadron in the Mediterranean was the island of Corfu.

In December 1804, negotiations began in Istanbul between our Italian ambassador and the Turkish government on a new union treaty. The central issue was the problem of the straits. In September 1805, a new treaty was signed. It consisted of 15 explicit and 10 secret articles. The agreement was directed against France, on mutual assistance in case of war with the French.

The Turks reaffirmed their obligation to let our ships through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. The right of Russia to the patronage of the Orthodox peoples of the Balkans was confirmed. The Sultan agreed that the Russians occupy the Ionian Islands (4th secret article). The 7th secret article reported that the Black Sea is closed, the appearance of foreign warships is not allowed here. The issue of the regime of the straits concerned only Russia and Turkey. Russia was the guarantor of this regime and joined in the defense of the straits.

At first, in the Mediterranean, Russia and its allies had a complete advantage in forces, means and resources. The sea and land forces of England, Turkey, Russia, Austria and the Kingdom of Naples had a multiple advantage over the French. The Allies controlled all the strategic points of the Mediterranean - Gibraltar, Malta, Naples, Sicily, the Dardanelles, etc.

But in November 1805, in the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon defeated the Russian-Austrian army. Alexander and the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph fled and were greatly frightened by the pogrom. In December, Austria signs an "obscene" peace with France. The Austrian Empire cedes its lands in Germany to Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden (France's allies). France receives the Venetian region, Istria, Dalmatia and the Bay of Kotor. French troops occupy Naples. Joseph Bonaparte is planted by the Neapolitan monarch.

Russian admiral Dmitry Nikolaevich Senyavin (1763–1831)

Turkey goes to the side of France

Napoleon crushed the enemy coalition with one blow. As a result, the position of the Russian forces in the Mediterranean changed dramatically for the worse. Russia's allies occupy Sicily and Malta, the Turks remain a formal ally, but there was little sense from them. Alexander orders the withdrawal of most of the forces from the Ionian Islands, including the fleet.

At the beginning of 1806, the tsar calmed down and ordered the withdrawal of troops and ships back. The Russian commander Senyavin was given the task of "preventing the implementation of French calculations on the Ottoman Empire" if possible. Senyavin acted decisively. In February 1806, a Russian landing force led by Captain Belli occupied the port of Kotor (Boca di Cattaro). Local residents (Slavs-Montenegrins) enthusiastically greeted the Russians and asked for citizenship of the Russian Tsar.

In the spring and summer of 1806, the Russians waged a struggle against the French for the Dalmatian Islands with varying success. Our troops tried to occupy Dubrovnik, occupied by the enemy, but without success.

Austerlitz struck in the heart not only Vienna, but also Istanbul. Having received news of the battle, Sultan Selim recognized the imperial title of Napoleon, conferred on him the title of padishah and offered to consider Turkey a friend of France. In April 1806, the Turks proposed to the Russian ambassador Italinsky to reduce the number of Russian ships passing through the straits. In the autumn of 1806, the straits were closed to Russian ships. Serious restrictions were imposed on the passage of merchant ships.

The toughening of Turkey's position towards Russia was associated with the new victories of Napoleon. In October 1806, the French utterly defeated the Prussian army at Jena and Auerstedt. Bonaparte's troops entered Berlin and Warsaw. The French army was at the Russian borders. The French General Sebastiani arrived in Constantinople. He sought a military alliance between France and Turkey against Russia. The French seduced the Ottomans with the possibility of returning Ochakov and the Crimea, that is, possessions until 1774.

By agreement with Russia, the Porte could remove the rulers of Moldavia and Wallachia only in court with the participation of Russian representatives. In the autumn of 1806, Sultan Selim violated this clause, deposed the rulers Ypsilanti and Muruzi. Russia responds by sending money to Serbian rebels. In November 1806, Russian troops occupied Moldavia and Wallachia.

On December 18, 1806, Turkey declared war on Russia.

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  1. +1
    14 February 2023 08: 01
    Do not forget this experience of "friendship" with the Turks.
  2. +8
    14 February 2023 08: 28
    How Russia helped Turkey in the war with the French and received the war of 1806-1812 in "gratitude"
    It is impossible to state unequivocally that the Russian Empire helped the Ottoman Empire in the war with France. In that situation, they were temporary allies, and the British Empire helped to unite their joint efforts, which thus solved its exclusive interests, weakening all three parties to the conflict, despite the fact that each of the parties involved believed that it was thus solving its own interests. hi
  3. +5
    14 February 2023 10: 40
    And then you saved them again in the Egyptian uprising of 1833. According to some reports, the Ottoman Empire was threatened with liquidation. Interesting....
    1. +3
      14 February 2023 12: 51
      Quote: stoqn477
      And then you saved them again in the Egyptian uprising of 1833.

      We have a hobby. Who shouldn't be saved...
      Quote: stoqn477
      According to some reports, the Ottoman Empire was threatened with liquidation.

      But this is unlikely.
    2. 0
      April 28 2023 09: 26
      Quote: stoqn477
      And then you saved them again in the Egyptian uprising of 1833. According to some reports, the Ottoman Empire was threatened with liquidation. Interesting....
      Are you dissatisfied with this?
  4. +3
    14 February 2023 11: 49
    How Russia helped Turkey in the war with the French
    Uh-huh .. Russia and Turkey were allies in the 2nd coalition against France and jointly conducted operations in the Mediterranean theater of operations within the coalition. And the cause of the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812. was the desire of Turkey, which concluded an agreement with Napoleon, to regain its position on the Black Sea. Turkey took advantage of the fact that Russia was at war with Iran and France. And the reason was the displacement of the Moldavian rulers.
  5. +5
    14 February 2023 17: 01
    Here it is necessary to take into account such a moment.
    In 1801, in Serbia, the Janissary agha (or agha?), also called "dahi", raised an uprising of the janissaries against the sultan and seized power in the Belgrade pashalik. These Janissary dahis hardened the attitude towards the Serbs. The Janissaries did arbitrariness, any resistance by the Serbs was brutally suppressed. In January 1804, the so-called "massacre of princes" took place - the rebellious Janissaries executed people's leaders, nobles, priests, wealthy merchants and former rebels.
    This event gave rise to an "uprising against the rebels" led by Karageorgy, who was notified of the massacre in the last minutes and therefore was able to avoid death by ambushing his people and killing all the Turks sent to kill him.
    So, in response to the execution on February 13, 1804 in the village of Orasac near Topola, the leaders of the Serbs decided to start an uprising. An experienced warrior Karageorgiy was chosen as the leader of the uprising. In March of the same year, he was officially appointed military leader of Serbia, a self-proclaimed leader, and anointed by Bishop Anfim.
    Thanks to good coordination of actions, the rebels destroyed the Turks, located in the khans - small strongholds, and laid siege to large cities. At first, the central Ottoman government supported the rebels, since the demands of the Serbs were moderate, and the main goal of the uprising was to eliminate the arbitrariness of the Janissaries and restore the old order. By the summer of 1804, the Janissary commanders were overthrown and killed, but the Serbian rebels put forward a new demand - greater autonomy for the Belgrade Pashalik.
    The rebels turned to St. Petersburg for help, but their request was received more than coolly: with an indication that petitions should be addressed first of all to Istanbul, to their own ruler. The king did not want to quarrel with the Turks on the eve of the war with Napoleon. Nevertheless, the Napoleonic ambassador in Istanbul, General Sebastiani, was able to convince the Sultan that it was the Russians who were helping the Serbs in the partisan war in the Balkans. The diplomatic combinations skillfully played by the French gave their generous fruits - the role of Russia in the Serbian issue was an old and painful pet peeve for the Turks, which Sebastiani skillfully pressed.
    In the fall of 1806, Istanbul went to a direct violation of the treaty with St. Petersburg, unilaterally displacing the rulers of Moldova and Wallachia. According to the diplomatic protocol, this procedure could only go through the courts and in agreement with the Russian side. The dismissal of the Lords Muruzi and Ypsilanti was a direct non-observance of the previously reached agreements, which could not be let down on the brakes. The situation was complicated by the fact that Alexander I could not fail to respond to such a violation, but at that moment the emperor was bound by the war with Napoleon. In order to somehow react to the Turkish demarches, the official Petersburg finally decided to provide Karageorgy with more substantial assistance than excuses about appealing to its own ruler and so on, "well, you hang on there." On September 24, 1806, Alexander I signed a decree ordering to send 18 thousand gold pieces of gold and weapons to the Serbs.
    Back in April 1806, the grand vizier expressed this position in a demand for the Russian ambassador A. Ya. Italinsky to reduce the number of Russian ships passing through the straits. And in the fall of 1806, the Turks announced a ban on the passage of warships under the St. Andrew's flag through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, and significant restrictions were imposed on the passage of merchant ships.
    On October 4, 1806, Emperor Alexander I signed an order: the commander of the Russian southern army, cavalry general Ivan Ivanovich Mikhelson, was ordered to cross the Dniester and occupy the Moldavian principalities with the entrusted troops.
    At the insistence of the French ambassador, on December 18, 1806, Sultan Selim III declared war on the Russian Empire.
  6. 0
    15 February 2023 20: 29
    The Russian sovereign Pavel Petrovich realized what a trap Russia had fallen into, getting involved in an unnecessary war with France, and tried to slip out. He stopped the war with the French, began negotiations with them about an alliance, began to put together an anti-English coalition in Northern Europe. The British immediately used those who were dissatisfied with the policy of Paul in St. Petersburg, the Russian tsar was killed.

    He didn't try to get out. A very bad term. Paul was too direct for that. stop
    A seditious thought flashed through my mind ... Based on the subsequent events of the 19th century, the Crimean War, the "Great Game", and even from what happened over the past year ...
    Or maybe ... Paul was right after all? Intending to strike at India, and thereby put England on a different path of development, when she would not so badly spoil everyone she could reach? hi
    No, this is an alternative, but you see, there is something in this ... what
  7. +1
    16 February 2023 09: 46
    The events were also strongly influenced by the aristocrats who fled from France, spreading to the neighboring monarchies and intimidating them with a revolution.
    Revolutionary France was doomed to military dictatorship and preventive aggression. It was the only way for her to survive.

    The War of 1812 is a glorious page in our military history.
    But this is the result of attempts by a dense monarchy to crush the new France out of fear of its own past, everywhere Pugachevism was imagining.
    It didn't make any practical sense though. France has tried many times to mend relations. After all, she did not have serious conflicts of interest with distant Russia.
  8. 0
    16 February 2023 16: 10
    Who else have we helped? AND! The key from whom they received thanks. Only, not a month later, but at least ten years later. And so that gratitude lasts a long time. To me (not a historian) two countries come to mind. Cuba and Israel.
    Well, what would be a long time
    Well, now kick me.
    Maybe someone will write, correct me, and especially the current generation, and the previous ones

    No, I'm not being sarcastic. In fact, we need an article on the topvar who we helped and what came of it. No need to dig deep, from now and 300 years ago.
    Who will take it?
  9. 0
    April 28 2023 09: 55
    Yes, what's the problem? The Ottoman Empire had good relations with France since the middle of the 16th century. And consistently good. And we lost to France at Austerlitz.
    Besides, we ourselves took the wrong step. So in October 1806, without declaring war, without waiting for the results of new negotiations begun by our envoy named Italian, General Mikhelson, commander of our army on the Dniester, on orders from St. Petersburg suddenly crossed the river, captured a number of fortresses, besieged and occupied Iasi and Bucharest (December 27) and in a few days became the master of both Romanian principalities, with the exception of the fortresses on the Danube.
    This made a great impression in Constantinople and caused great irritation against the Russians. Perhaps the most perplexed by this sudden breach of the peace was the Italian. It was very difficult for him to explain to the Divan and the Sultan the behavior of his Government, and only the intervention of the representative of France, General Sebastiani, and the representative of England, Erbuthnot, gave him the opportunity to avoid imprisonment in the Seven-Tower Castle and go by sea to Italy.
  10. 0
    4 May 2023 03: 28
    A very relevant article. Especially in light of the fact that today there is something similar, only in the economic field. We are building 4 units of a nuclear power plant worth 20 billion dollars for the fraternal Turkish people free of charge. In gratitude to us, fraternal Turkey is supplying fraternal Ukraine with drones and a host of other weapons.