Central Asia is moving to the next stage in the formation of an alternative union

Central Asia is moving to the next stage in the formation of an alternative union

On January 27, the Declaration on Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan was signed in Bishkek. Its signing is one of the links in a complex and multi-stage process of internal, and most importantly, independent integration of the countries of Central Asia.

One of the main conditions for reaching this agreement, of course, was border issue around the Ferghana Valley. Since the collapse of the USSR, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have lived in conditions of up to the end not defined boundaries of the valley, which is the central node of the region, which annually gave rise to armed conflicts, including major ones. The last one between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan led to serious loss of life, affected hundreds of thousands of people and was extinguished with great difficulty.

There have been no clashes of this magnitude between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in recent years. But we should not forget that from the time of the Osh clash in 1990 to the events of 2010, a lot of time also seemed to have passed. Both clashes claimed up to half a thousand lives, and crowds with rebar wiped entire suburban neighborhoods and villages into dust, which indicates the extreme degree of bitterness of the parties. However, there were not only fittings, but also hotter guns. And in both cases, the Osh, Jalal-Abad and Andijan regions of the neighbors, and the Uzgen region became one of the nodal points.

The territory of Kyrgyzstan covers the Ferghana horseshoe valley from the northeast, east and southeast. The sources of water and pastures are in the Kyrgyz mountains, the main irrigation and crops are in the Uzbek part of the valley (Andijan region). Points of tension were located not only in the areas described above, but also along the entire perimeter, just in the Osh region since the time of the USSR, an ethnic composition sometimes equal in shares has developed in the regions. After the collapse of the USSR, ethno-enclaves remained in each republic, and the main agricultural production and export of products went through Uzbek Fergana. It is clear that the Uzbek part of the business in Osh somehow had some, albeit implicit from the outside, advantages. And the question is who and how will regulate these issues and for what purposes.

Therefore, the period from 2010 to 2021 in itself could not be a guarantee of automatic calm in the region. By March 2021, Tashkent and Bishkek approached the substantive delimitation of territories. The arrangements in the commissions were as follows. Uzbekistan takes into its jurisdiction the entire Andijan (Kempir-Abad) reservoir, where it previously controlled a small part in the north-west and hydraulic drains.

Kyrgyzstan receives land territories mainly to the north, at the junction with the Namangan region of Uzbekistan on the slope of the Chatkal ridge (the region of the Gava-say river) and 12 districts of various sizes. As a result, Uzbekistan received a reservoir and the surrounding area for 4,5 thousand hectares, Kyrgyzstan in total 19,7 thousand hectares. In the Uzgen region, Tashkent and Bishkek exchanged small territories, and they agreed to use the reservoir on a 50-50 basis.

It would seem that the exchange was achieved entirely with the advantage of Kyrgyzstan, but protests soon began, since the area around the reservoir is very fertile, one of the best varieties of rice for pilaf “dev-zira”, or golden Uzgen rice, is grown around. The border of Uzbekistan is now completely adjacent to the main road from Osh, which goes around the reservoir and goes through the passes to Bishkek.

But how fertile the slopes of the Chatkal Range, many in Kyrgyzstan began to doubt. These tensions did not allow Bishkek to quickly bring the agreements to a legally binding level, and the absence of a decision prevented the main ones related to formation of a single community of Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan - Agreements on it were reached as a framework in July last year.

The overwhelming majority of observers in Russia missed this summit, classifying it as "symbolic". However, in reality it was just a diametrically opposite event. And the fact that the general agreements on strategic rapprochement were not just a declaration, we saw when in December Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, eternal rivals, did the seemingly impossible - signed a union treaty, which for an outside observer, as it were, "came out of nowhere." No, it arose over two years of painstaking work, which was largely initiated by Tokayev as part of the long-term strategy of the “Asian center”, and which came to fruition this year.

K.-J. Tokayev always insisted that one of the main priorities was precisely the delimitation of borders. This was usually associated with his past as an internationalist, but the idea was wider and deeper. But what union, a common trade, energy and production circuit, if there is no clear understanding of whose border crossing? Without solving the main problem - borders, and hence the use of water resources, it is impossible to solve the issues of unification. Kazakhstan was the first to take care of this. Now Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have solved this puzzle. Tajikistan is next.

In October-November, there was a second attempt in Kyrgyzstan to slow down the border agreement, but in Bishkek, discontent was not allowed to reach the proper degree of concentration, and the foreign ministers signed an agreement on separate sections of the border and an agreement on the joint management of water resources of the Andijan (Kempir-Abad) reservoir. At the end of January, the Declaration on Comprehensive Partnership is signed, and instruments of ratification are exchanged. The Declaration itself includes 23 agreements, half of which are the development of energy, joint ventures, trade and simplification of customs procedures. That is, the same Central Asian political and economic cluster is already being legally built.

It is important to note that the participants were able to approach the implementation of such a project in two years, while relying purely on their own initiative. The frames were delivered in July with the conclusion "Treaty of Friendship, Good Neighborliness and Cooperation for the Development of Central Asia in the XNUMXst Century”, and today we are already seeing the results of the work according to the plan. At the summit in July, Russia was offered to take part in the consultative meetings of this association in the status of an “honored guest”, and Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan politely refused the idea of ​​a “gas union” in December. And given all of the above, this is not surprising.

We can say that the path from agreements to full-fledged unification is “long and thorny”, but here we must understand that in many respects we are talking about the will of the parties and goal-setting, which, obviously, exist if the main issue - borders is successfully resolved using internal resources . And the organizational moments of the participants for twenty years were able to go through trial and error, gaining experience in the structures of the EurAsEC and the EAEU, where a huge regulatory framework has been formed. Participants have something to rely on. The foreign trade turnover of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in 2017 is 250 million dollars, in 2021 - 950 million, in 2022 - 1,26 billion. These are very impressive growth rates. And this has been achieved so far without the full use of the famous mega-trade corridors, the branches of which are being built in reality at a rather low pace and in very specific directions.

All this does not mean that in five years we will receive in the south the reincarnation of a certain commercial and industrial empire of the Khorezmshahs. It's just that in the conditions of Russia's outright passivity and China's trade expansion, our neighbors decided that it would be better to go into the Chinese economic cluster together. But in addition to the economy, this also gives political weight, because Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have reached agreements in the military sphere. In the future, such a merger will allow the region to attract investment resources of a completely different scale than $10-12 billion each.

In this regard, the author is very surprised that in our country even venerable political scientists and economists often say directly that the formation of the future Eurasian economic space, the common ruble zone, is a question, as it were, deliberately and historically resolved. Like the inevitable change of seasons. But, as we can see, even the format of the EAEU does not mean at all that the desired common space is being formed. It is possible that Iran will join the EAEU, but primarily for the sake of a market for its own, including high-tech goods. A single space while still looping back to Beijingand not Moscow.

But this is not a single space where the total value is formed, but the import of goods and labor. For such work and with such an approach, Russia does not need the format of the EAEU as an organizational and political structure, it just needs free trade agreements. An economic cluster needs a common market of resources, labor, capital, and a single grid of cost accounting and cost calculation, and then we are talking about a common tariff policy, and for imports it is necessary to remove duties and simplify procedures, but everything else is not needed.

Why talk about tariff regulation, harmonization of tax policy, etc., if we de facto were, remain and, most likely, will continue to be importers? When it comes to joint industrial production in this region, all this makes sense, but when we buy finished products produced without our participation, then what is the point of harmonizing tariffs? The EAEU stepped over the EurAsEC format only, unfortunately, on paper. In practice, joint production is needed, where the cost of labor, intellectual labor, raw materials, materials and technologies is formed from all participants. This is where a common tariff policy, tax policy, etc. is required.

Why should we focus on this? Because here and on this example, many other processes can be traced and analyzed. Set the task of creating a single value space that is stable in the face of the outside world, which means that you form a complex around yourself with a division of duties and labor. We set the task of trading, which means we trade, but together we do not work on the value. Here, China works not only as a manufacturing factory, but also as an assembly shop for finished products: part of the components is produced throughout Southeast Asia with its investment, and Beijing itself is the final assembly and packaging, which means the trade function. Not in everything, but already close to 50% in the region, if you look at the foreign trade balances. This is the total cost.

Approximately this scheme is followed by our southern neighbors, and it can be seen that this scheme is different in execution from ours. Therefore, they do not need a gas union so much. This is logical, it is necessary to buy - we will buy, but it is undesirable to participate in the processes of establishing the total cost.

So it’s rather strange to hear how by itself, “at the behest of a pike”, a new single currency or other zone, Eurasia, the Horde, the USSR, etc., will form. not yet going.
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  1. +12
    14 February 2023 05: 11
    The CIS, died, lies in a coffin, decomposes .. They don’t bury, they pretend that they are sick.
    1. +1
      14 February 2023 05: 19
      Quote: parusnik
      CIS, died

      Zombies, voodoo, undead, walking dead
      1. +5
        14 February 2023 05: 22
        Yes, whatever you like, no sense, but other unions are being created .. The collapse continues.
        1. +5
          14 February 2023 06: 07
          Bad feelings from all the political and economic transformations on our borders. We don't have a single reliable ally. China and Turkey will soon arrange for us both the great Turan and some other dirty trick.
          1. +9
            14 February 2023 09: 08
            Quote: ASAD
            We don't have a single reliable ally

            Allies are drawn to the strong, rich, successful, having a clear development strategy and firmly following it ...
          2. 0
            16 February 2023 14: 24
            Our money is with the gnomes. Zurich is their home.
            We do not live in our country.
            End of story.
            Only the rejection of the free capital market, rigid protectionism.
            This will not be done by hand-strikers and they will not be allowed over the hill.
    2. +7
      14 February 2023 11: 04
      By the way, yes. Yes, and the CSTO is of no use. No, was it really good for Kazakhstan, but not for us. Many international organizations have overgrown with mud for a long time, take the same UN ..
      - What are two zeros and "M"?
      - Men's toilet!
      - What is two zeros and "Ж"?
      - Women's toilet!
      - And what are two zeros and "N"?
      - UN!
  2. +5
    14 February 2023 05: 19
    With all due respect, if in S.A. and integration and the formation of alliances are taking place - which means that one of the serious players (the United States or China) has taken up this.
    1. SAG
      14 February 2023 05: 38
      Definitely not the United States, their emphasis is arrogantly Saxon - to pit everyone against everyone. And in such a region ... In the underbelly of Russia, not far from the borders of China. They sleep and see, I assure you hi
    2. +1
      14 February 2023 05: 39
      it means that one of the serious players (USA or China) took it up.
      A holy place, empty, it doesn’t happen .. I dropped a penny, it’s sure, someone will pick it up
      1. +3
        14 February 2023 06: 08
        Here they didn’t drop a penny, but a whole handful!
    3. +5
      14 February 2023 06: 00
      Quote: Vladimir80
      if in s.a. and integration and the formation of alliances are taking place - it means that one of the serious players took up this

      Not necessarily, the local clans/elites are themselves interested in diversifying their economies/political risks... take Tokayev, for example, although it is believed that Kazakhstan is ahead of China (in the economy), but the influence of the United States/West is no less, one can recall recent arrivals high-ranking officials, from the Pope to the head of the European Council .... and the agreements between Kazakhstan and the West on the supply of resources, also directly speaks of the multi-vector nature of our "friend".

      Uzbekistan - there is also the same situation, military exercises with the United States in 2022, the rejection of the gas union (with Russia), and the orientation towards the West / China in the economy ...

      The picture is similar for other countries in the region. And regarding this new union, Turkey will most likely act as the conductor / patron of this union. she has the closest ties with these countries, and she is in normal relations with the West / China .... and when the West applies sanctions against the PRC (sanctions of our level .... a complete blockade), then the question will already arise with whom further along the way .... China or the West, that is the question.
      1. +5
        14 February 2023 06: 57
        Quote: Aleksandr21
        Optionally, local clans/elites are themselves interested in diversifying their economies/political risks

        That's right, there is no talk about unions, in the sense that there is no attraction in the article yet. Yes, Turkey has an intention to unite in the Turan Union. But this is still in words and more speculation on common roots, for internal use. And the signing of partnership agreements now is all the initiative of Uzbekistan and its president. This is his strategy - to remove the existing thin and weak spots that the Big Players can put pressure on. So he is trying to build good-neighbourly relations, to remove differences due to disputed borders. Not only with neighbors from the former USSR, but also with Afghanistan. And at the same time with a special oriental approach - not to select, but to share, to agree. You to me, I to you.
      2. +4
        14 February 2023 12: 35
        Turkey is trying, but it does not yet have economic power, or rather, "reserve capacity." However, Ankara was able to achieve something else - to ensure the growth of exports to the region. Those. it is not yet able to form alliances, but it has succeeded in firmly integrating into trade. This is a question of who and how used the theme of "trade corridors" East-West. The Turks slowly turned their stream to the East. But this is still not enough for political unification.
        1. -3
          14 February 2023 14: 47
          Mikhail, I read your opus, which I still didn’t understand about ... sorry, of course, but you piled up perfectly! Turks, Chinese, Nanai .... when was the last time you were in the countries of Wed. Asia?
          And yes .. The Osh events of 1990 and 2010 have nothing to do with water!
          1. +6
            14 February 2023 14: 58
            Three years ago, the last trips were. Before the "pandemic", but I'm constantly in touch at work.
            Water is a common problem. And it may or may not be a specific trigger for events like Osh. But in any division of territories, water will be a factor. You can also say that last year's massacre between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was formally "not because of the water."

            The point in the article is that the parties themselves got out of the 30-year period of uncertainty and began to independently and quite successfully solve integration issues systematically. We (Russia) do not participate in these matters. And in vain, because the same economic cluster is being formed in the south, and in many respects on the shoulders of the EAEU, but without the EAEU. There are not only issues of a specific reservoir, but there is also the topic of building and operating new hydroelectric power stations. It’s just that it didn’t “crawl” into the article so as not to overload the material. I will probably write about this separately if it comes to the energy crisis in Uzbekistan this winter.
            1. +3
              15 February 2023 09: 36
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              Water is a common problem

              This problem is more far-fetched and skillfully fueled by interested parties.
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              And it may or may not be a specific trigger for events like Osh.

              Osh 1990 is the work of the KGB of the USSR on the collapse of the USSR, as well as Fergana-Margilan, as well as Almaat in 1986, as well as Sumgayit in 1988, as well as Tbilisi in 1989, as well as the legendary Uzbek case!
              Osh 2010...reciprocal move of the Rulers of the World for the April Revolution financed by China and Russia.
              In the Fergana Valley, people of different nationalities have lived in peace and harmony for centuries!
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              we can say that last year's massacre between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was formally "not because of the water."

              Yes, not formally, but definitely not because of water ... the reason was the SCO summit in Samarkand!
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              the parties themselves got out of a 30-year period of uncertainty and began to independently and quite successfully solve integration issues systematically.

              laughing Come on! Mikhail, do you naively think that the parties interested in this region have suddenly become altruists? Has a region of great geopolitical importance suddenly become useless to anyone? Kyrgyz color revolutions, an incomprehensible coup attempt in Kazakhstan, riots on interethnic hatred, strange military conflicts between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (which these countries do not need at all) to help you, dear Mikhail!
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              We (Russia) do not participate in these issues

              This is how to look, dear! Russia, as a state ... yes, I agree, there is little participation. Russia, as a business partner ... but excuse me here! With the same Uzbekistan, trade turnover increased by 40% last year and amounted to 7,5 billion Baku presidents! Only in the industrial park "Chirchik" Russian projects worth $35 million are being implemented.
              Gazprom, Rosneft, Lukoil, KAMAZ, Beline, Yandex, Magnit, DODOpitsa have already become commonplace in SA!
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              in the south, the same economic cluster is being formed, and in many respects on the shoulders of the EAEU, but without the EAEU

              Are you sure about that?
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              there is a topic of construction and operation of new hydroelectric power stations.

              This topic has been discussed since the late 90s. New HPPs ... I'm wildly sorry, but who will be the end consumer of such a volume of electricity? After all, the Kyrgyz Kambarata 1 got burned on this very problem!
              Quote: nikolaevskiy78
              I will probably write about this separately.

              You better cover the construction of auto-railway. highway China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan-Tajikistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan, the construction of which is funded by China!
    4. +3
      14 February 2023 11: 33
      In this case, this is actually "local creativity", which China last autumn at the SCO, let's say, "blessed". This is the uniqueness of the process that we observe stage by stage.
  3. +2
    14 February 2023 05: 20
    In this regard, the author is very surprised that in our country even venerable political scientists and economists often say directly that the formation of the future Eurasian economic space, the common ruble zone, is a question, as it were, deliberately and historically resolved.

    Does Russia really think so? Marvelous. Arrogance and chauvinism do the Russians a disservice.
    1. +5
      14 February 2023 11: 34
      And what about chauvinism? Is Lula da Silva in Brazil also a chauvinist? Why don't you call Biden a chauvinist?
  4. +3
    14 February 2023 06: 14
    Links between countries do not exist in declarations. They exist in the communication of peoples, scientists, cultural figures. If this is lost, then estrangement sets in. If there is no need for each other between countries, then there is nothing to talk about any unions at all. Everyone on their own. This was unimaginable forty years ago. Not the connection of the eggheads, but the peoples will fix everything.
    1. -2
      14 February 2023 14: 53
      Quote: Nikolay Malyugin
      Not the connection of the eggheads, but the peoples will fix everything.

      That's right on the topic of the article!
      The eggheads invented the EAEU and Russian goods flowed to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan like a turbulent river, washing away the goods of China and Turkey from the shelves of bazaars and shops. Before the decision of the eggheads, the people didn’t care whose goods they brought to their country, the main thing was the price!
      Here is an example of declarations for you!
  5. +8
    14 February 2023 06: 57
    The CIS is one of the projects of the Yeltsin gang. It would be foolish to make this project an exception, knowing that the rest of the projects of this gang have already fallen apart. By the way, even under Yeltsin's predecessor Gorbachev, in the republics of Central Asia, not like in the Baltic states, Georgia or Ukraine, the tendencies of the liberals about the withdrawal of the republics from the USSR for, say, independence did not advance. The leaders of the communist parties there did not ruin the USSR from the inside. So Gorbachev sent a mob led by Gdlyan and Ivanov there and removed these leaders of the Communist Parties of the Central Asian republics. Although in the same Baltic corruption and deception of Russia were horrendous. Here is just one
    example . In the same Baltic Sea, fishing the same sprat on the same vessels in the fishing collective farms of coastal fishing, fishermen in the Kaliningrad region received three hundred rubles a month, and the same fishermen in the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian SSRs received six hundred rubles a month.
    By the way, if we assume that at the beginning of the Second World War, the population from Moscow and St. Petersburg would have had to be evacuated by millions of families not to the republics of Central Asia, but to the Baltic Republics, then what do you think, how many families would have been slaughtered there by those who were waiting for the Germans and then served them? And Uzbekistan and Uzbeks accepted millions of families from Russia as their relatives and not a single hair fell from their heads.
    That's why Gorbachev had to remove the adherents of the USSR in the Republics of Central Asia, so that the adherents of the collapse of the USSR would raise their heads there. Well, then Yeltsin with his CIS finalized everything.
    1. +5
      14 February 2023 13: 09
      You don't remember those times well. The first riots to seize power from Moscow under the control of local elites in the USSR began just in Kazakhstan, in 1986. My friend served in the BB, he got a brick there when he dragged the platoon commander, he flew in earlier.
      1. 0
        14 February 2023 14: 55
        Quote from solar
        You don't remember those times well.

        You may remember them, but the essence of the matter is still not understood!
  6. +3
    14 February 2023 07: 00
    We are watching how the new is being created on the ruins of the old... The countries of the former USSR in the CA region are striving for independence in fact. The most important thing here is the stabilization of the region itself.
  7. +3
    14 February 2023 09: 16
    We can only be happy for our neighbors.
    For Russians, this is also a blessing, it is much more pleasant to border on stable, prosperous countries.
  8. +3
    14 February 2023 09: 40
    It is sad that all this, present-day Rus', does not unite the peoples, as it was sung in the anthem of the USSR, but on the contrary they repel it. A violinist is not needed (s) ..
    1. 0
      15 February 2023 20: 52
      Read the comments on this article, I think you will understand why this is happening https://topwar.ru/210866-cheljabinskij-incident-bej-svoih-chtoby-chuzhie-bojalis.html
  9. +6
    14 February 2023 10: 38
    Alas, alas.
    And people go where the money, logistics, technology (Goblin, literally)
    And Lavrov and the Foreign Ministry are by no means famous for their diplomatic victories ...
  10. +1
    14 February 2023 14: 03
    Quote: Doccor18
    Allies are drawn to the strong, rich, successful, having a clear development strategy and firmly following it ...

    It is worth adding that the strongest alliances are possible only with countries that protect their citizens.
    Yeltsin's Russia betrayed millions of Russians in Turkestan.
    The cowardly silence after the Russian genocide (whole families were slaughtered in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and piled side by side, near the houses), showed the Asian bai that you can wipe your feet on Russia.

    And now they do not even consider Putin, who nevertheless did a lot for our Motherland.
    But a turning point came in Turkestan. Russian athletes without an anthem and a flag at international competitions, hothouse conditions for migrants (social package, pension and eternal reservation from mobilization) are all clear signs of the government’s disdain for the people and national pride, confirmed the Asians that "Akella missed", and now you can kick the corpse of the "half-dead lion".

    Asians see how easily the interests of Russia and the Russian people move.
    Gas and oil are constantly going to the West, to the enemies, the special representative of the president (a citizen of Portugal or Israel) Jew Abramovich transfers 2,7 yards of dollars to help the Bandera Armed Forces, through the open ports of Odessa (and our Navy can easily block them) grain goes to the West , and shells and military equipment are coming non-stop from the West.

    What else should Turkestans do in such a situation?
    Take the side of the strong, of course.
    But almost the entire adult, male population of these Central Asian countries left to work not in the USA or Europe.

    Let's see if our leaders have the courage to show who is in charge of the situation.
    And are the Turkestan bai not mistaken, thinking over a bowl of tea that Akella missed.
  11. +5
    14 February 2023 15: 35
    small countries have practically no chance of becoming completely independent, they always cling to the strong (or the strong presses them to itself)), therefore they have one fate - to "sell out" more expensively to the strong (and therefore rich) and try to "enjoy" in his arms ((somehow I see
  12. +1
    14 February 2023 18: 10
    Quote from Aleprok
    sell out

    In the meantime, Kazakhstan will direct 50% of the income from its National Fund (an analogue of our NWF) to the formation of personal accounts for children.
    Upon reaching the age of 18, each account will have from $3000 to $3500.


    How will the venerable purgon-bearer, and the owner of a chic mustache, answer?
    1. +5
      14 February 2023 19: 10
      Well, not only is a fund being created there, they are also introducing a "luxury" tax, and a lot of interesting things
      1. +1
        14 February 2023 22: 18
        Dear author of the article. To try to better understand Uzbekistan's interest in predictable relations with Kyrgyzstan, one should remember something about the implementation of the Kosh-tepa project.
        This is more useful than mentioning a fictional mazar in terms of content. I think that the Turkmens grabbed their heads from this project.
        With best wishes.
        1. 0
          14 February 2023 22: 56
          If the mausoleum is fictional in content, then why do presidents go there with a certain frequency. The content is fictional.

          And about the Afghan channel. The project is not one year old. Even at conferences held under the patronage of the notorious USAID in 15-16, a growing shortage was predicted, since the Afghans would increase water intake. The fact that this project was pushed back is connected with the war and the withdrawal of the United States, then political battles. The Afghan government has not yet been recognized. And it would be strange if the Taliban did not use such a chance to bring themselves into a legitimate field, with a project not of a military, but of a purely civilian orientation. They need money and they will get it.
          Those. this channel did not suddenly appear on the horizon. But the consequences of this, rather, lie in the energy sector. We will have to re-regulate production volumes and establish proportions between generation and irrigation. Accordingly, the next stage of work in the region is the creation of an energy circuit, even an energy pool and common energy networks. Moreover, this winter has turned out to be very indicative.
          And here one of the real solutions to the problem, including the canal, are nuclear power plant projects. But these are already other topics. Here I trace the process of formation of an independent economic cluster between countries. Each article contains some part of this process. Not just "predictable relations" are being formed, but an economic bloc.
          1. +1
            15 February 2023 04: 20
            Good. I agree with the second paragraph of your comment. With the essence of the third - partially too.
            Especially at the expense of nuclear power plants. Who else would have built them ... solvent Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
            1. 0
              15 February 2023 04: 45
              Ours will be built) Well, like the Rogun hydroelectric power station)
              But in general, the topic of the energy circuit is interesting. It is necessary to make material, otherwise the review actually turns out without an important component.
              1. +3
                15 February 2023 14: 14
                Quote: nikolaevskiy78
                We (Russia) do not participate in these issues. And in vain, because the same economic cluster is being formed in the south, and in many respects on the shoulders of the EAEU, but without the EAEU.

                Quote: Humpty
                for the NPP. Who else would have built them ... solvent Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.

                Quote: nikolaevskiy78
                Ours will be built) Well, like the Rogun hydroelectric power station)

                what Or am I stupid, or the skis do not go .....?
                1. 0
                  15 February 2023 15: 55
                  About the hydroelectric power station, this is sarcasm, of course.
                  Skis go, it’s just that we will build the nuclear power plant, of course, but the nuclear power plant itself is a) a long process, which it would be desirable to launch 10 tons earlier, b) by itself it will not drag the region into its orbit. A necessary condition, but by no means sufficient. It would be much more interesting to participate in the development, financing and operation of the energy circuit as a whole. But...
                  1. +2
                    16 February 2023 08: 10
                    Quote: nikolaevskiy78
                    a long process, which would be desirable to start 10 tons earlier

                    10 years ago this nuclear power plant in Sr. Nobody needed Asia .... and now it is in question! As far as I know, even under Brezhnev, the Fergana industrial region was planned. It was for him that they began to build the Vashkh and Naryn energy cascades. With the coming to power of the father of Russian democracy, comrade Andropov, Ferghana was put an end to. It was in the 80s that the acute issue of excess electricity in this region arose! It got to the point that three-phase power supply was imposed on private homeowners, while reducing the tariff to 2 kopecks per kWh!
                    1. 0
                      16 February 2023 08: 25
                      Well, there wasn’t so much population - in Uzbekistan, the increase was 76% of the population. As for the nuclear power plant, the issue has been resolved. Another thing is that they do not need to talk about four blocks, but sign an agreement, given that such a construction is a long time, and they even officially plan a deficit of 2030% by 35. More real, I think.
  13. +1
    14 February 2023 18: 45
    Remember the riots in Kazakhstan, the Maidan coup in Ukraine. All these heads of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are nothing without the support of Russia. If Biden wants, all of them, like Yanukovych, will be removed from the posts of heads of the Central Asian countries in one day.
  14. +1
    18 February 2023 23: 56
    I suggest reading the news. In September 2022, a British citizen of Bengali origin became an economic adviser to the presidents of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Draw conclusions whose interests and whose "ears" are behind the changes in Central Asia.
  15. 0
    20 February 2023 19: 11
    Quote: nikolaevskiy78
    in Uzbekistan, an increase of 76% of the population.

    Something this increase is more visible in the Moscow region (Moskvabad).
    They just sighed after the flight of migrants in 2019-2020 due to the pandemic.
    In Moscow, the level of serious crimes fell sharply - murders, robberies, rapes (78% were committed by non-citizens of the Russian Federation!).

    But in Uzbekistan they howled, there is a jump of 34,7% (see data from the Uzbek newspaper below).

    It turns out that these rapists, murderers and robbers were raging in Russia, and at the call of our own, they called out officials who were crying about the lack of labor (and these lobbyists do not want to pay normal salaries to Russian citizens).


"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"