Armor of two kings and one emperor

152
Armor of two kings and one emperor
One of the knights' halls of the Army Museum in Paris. It’s impressive, it’s convenient to look at them, but because of the location of the windows, it’s almost impossible to take pictures, the shop windows glare so much


Tell him:
"The warrior who puts on the armor,
shouldn't brag like the one
who takes them off after the victory.

Third Book of Kings 20:11

Museum Artifacts. Previous materials about meetings weapons and armor of a number of world-famous museums aroused the keen interest of VO readers. But ... as always, questions arose: “Why didn’t you give that, but where is it? “In a word, you get used to good things very quickly, and then you want even better, and so on without end. In any case, the desire of the readership is the law for the author, and if so, then this topic will be continued.



By the way, we have already talked about the knightly armor of individual famous personalities, both from the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Royal Arsenal in Leeds, as well as from some other museums, and in particular, the Dresden Armory. Some readers were interested in the armor of the King of France Francis I * from the Army Museum in Paris and ...

Now we will tell you about them.

Armor of King Francis I



Here he is - Francis I in his armor from the Paris Army Museum

So what can be said about them?

Let's start with the fact that they were made in 1539-1540. by master Jörg Zausenhofer, a representative of a well-known dynasty of gunsmiths from Augsburg. The armor is exceptionally large in size: 2 mm high, 020 mm wide, and weighs 830 kg. They were planned as a gift to Francis I from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in honor of the next "eternal" peace concluded by them between him and Francis in 20,6 in Nice. The armor was ordered to Jörg Sausenhofer by the brother of Emperor Charles V, Archduke Ferdinand von Habsburg (future Emperor Ferdinand I) in 1538.


The same armor, side view

In 1539, Jorg traveled to Paris to measure the King of France. But it was not possible to make this armor quickly; it took almost two years to work on them. So, when they were ready by November 1540, relations between the empire and France deteriorated again, so the Habsburgs never sent their gift to Francis.


Rear view

As a result, the armor was created, but at first it never got to France. According to the fashion of those years, it was a complex set, which at the same time served as ceremonial armor, and combat, and tournament. It is clear that this armor was of the highest quality and with the richest decor.


Front view

In the end, the armor came to the famous collector of armor and weapons, Duke Ferdinand of Tyrol, who kept them in his castle of Ambras in Innsbruck. There they were kept until February 1806, when the French took this set to Paris.

Thus, after 270 years, justice was restored, and the headset finally reached its destination.


And this is a breastplate!

But the French, firstly, forgot to pick up additional elements of armor (in particular, the grandguard of the cuirass and the left shoulder pad, as well as removable elements of the helmet), and they remained in Innsbruck.

Secondly, along with the armor of Francis, they took away the armor of a war horse, which seemed to the French general who led this "operation", "suitable in style." But the horse armor turned out to be from a completely different armor, although the work of the same Jörg Zauzenhofer, who in 1547 made it for the future Emperor Ferdinand I.


Nakrupnik

These are the adventures of the armor, just the real Indian cinema with substitute twins.

Well, in 1807, the armor of King Francis I, together with a set of horse armor for the horse of Ferdinand I, was exhibited as a “trophy” in the Louvre, after which it was transferred first to the Artillery Museum, and then to the Army Museum, where they are still on display.


And this unusual detail is a tail. It was on the krupnik just above the very place where the horse's tail was sticking out!

By the way, when the tomb of Francis I was opened in 1979, an anthropological study of his remains showed that his height was 1,92–1,98 meters, that is, at that time he was a real giant!

Armor of King Henry VIII



Armor of King Henry VIII from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York

Everything is known in comparison, so the next armor will also be the armor of the king, and the very well-known king - Henry VIII ** (1509-1547).

These armors are made in England in the famous Royal workshops in Greenwich. Sketches for jewelry are attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger (1497–1543). Made around 1527. It is also the earliest surviving Greenwich armor, having a number of additional details with which it could be adapted for use in combat and in various types of tournaments, that is, it was one of the first knightly sets.


Spearheads for the tournament on sharp spears

In addition, the engraving and gilding make it one of the most ornate of all Greenwich armor. Replaceable elements of this armor have been preserved - a breastplate (granguard) reinforcing the cuirass with an emphasis for a spear for use in the field or in an equestrian tournament; reinforced left hand glove or manifer, also used in the tournament; and a right lockable glove for an equestrian tournament with swords.

A very unusual and innovative feature of this armor is the abdominal plate, which was worn tied to the chest under the cuirass to reduce the weight of the armor falling on the shoulders. The same plate is only on one more armor made in Greenwich for Henry VIII in 1540.


Tip for the "tournament of the world"

It is believed that this armor was made for Henry VIII, but presented by him to the French ambassador Francois de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne, who headed the diplomatic mission in London in 1527.

After the death of the viscount in 1532, the armor passed to his friend Galio de Genouillac, the great master of artillery and the great ecuyère (master of riding) of France, from whose descendants he came to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Dimensions: total height - 185,4 cm; weight: 28,45 kg. Donation by William H. Riggs and the Rogers Foundation 1919

Armor of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I



Knight's spur of the time of Henry VIII

And finally, the last armor, and also from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Full plate armor designed for the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564) in 1549. Armor height 1 mm; weight 702 kg. That is, unlike Francis, this emperor looked like a dwarf, and together, or rather, side by side, they looked like a clown couple Pat and Patachon.

This armor was made by the famous Nuremberg armorer Kunz Lochner (1510-1567). Lochner created several sets of plate armor for Emperor Ferdinand and his son Archduke Maximilian (1527–1576) in 1546–1550. and these armors are some of the best.


Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I. Front view


The same armor - rear view

The armor consists of a bourguignot-type helmet, gorget, cuirass (breastplate and backplate), shoulder pads, armpit protection disks (rondels), "pipes" for hands complete with elbow pads and combat gloves, codpiece, tassets (gaiters), knee pads and leggings with sabatons.

The helmet originally belonged to a different set.


Cuirass depicting the Mother of God with the baby Jesus in her arms


Cuirass - rear view

The entire armor is richly decorated with engravings containing religious motifs. On the cuirass in front in full chest - the image of the Mother of God with Jesus the baby in her arms, framed by tongues of flame, floral patterns and images of angels. On the back are engraved images of crossed branches and flames, which is a reference to the Order of the Golden Fleece. And in its upper part, St. Peter (with keys) and the Apostle Paul (with a sword) are depicted framed by floral patterns, again, with angels.


Ichthyocentaur. That's because the masters of that time had a truly unbridled fantasy!

All other parts of the armor are also engraved in a vegetable style. On the back of the shoulder pads, images of two ichthyocentaurs are embossed and supplemented with engraving. On the toes of the sabatons, imperial double-headed eagles under a crown are depicted. On one of the slats of the armored skirt, the date of manufacture is engraved - "1549".


Removable spear hook of a very complex design ...


Elbow with a harp on the border

The belonging of this armor to Ferdinand I (1503-1564) is indicated, first of all, by the heraldic emblems on the socks: the imperial double-headed eagle topped with a royal crown, which indicates the status of Ferdinand. The butt plate is decorated with insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece, an elite knightly society, of which Ferdinand was a member.

The armor was received as a gift from George D. Pratt in 1933.


Sabaton toe with coat of arms

*Francis I - King of France from January 1, 1515, son of Count Charles of Angouleme, cousin of King Louis XII and Louise of Savoy. Founder of the Angouleme branch of the Valois dynasty. His reign was marked by long wars with Charles V of Habsburg and the flourishing of the French Renaissance.

**Henry VIII - King of England from 22 April 1509, best known for his six marriages and conflict with Pope Clement VII, which led Henry to start the English Reformation, which separated the Anglican Church from papal authority.

***Ferdinand I (1503-1564) - Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Archduke of Austria, younger brother of Charles V. Born in Alcala de Henares (Spain) on March 10, 1503. In 1521, Charles V appointed Ferdinand as his viceroy in Germany. In 1526, after the death of King Lajos II of Bohemia and Hungary in a battle with the Turks at Mohacs, Ferdinand, being married to his sister, was elected king of the Czech Republic and Hungary, and from 1556 (formally from 1558) became emperor.
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152 comments
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  1. +11
    11 February 2023 04: 36
    Dear Vyacheslav, thank you very much for continuing the cycle!
    Forgive me generously for an off-topic comment, but if you are in the know, could you briefly describe how you looked after all this splendor at that time, with what and how did you clean it?
    How much I admire photographs of armor, so much does not leave the thought that there are no traces of rust on them, and there are also no traces of abrasive processing. With antique bronze helmets, everything is clear, they were not threatened by rust, but then steel?
    And yes, if you know, then please tell us what kind of steel was usually used there?
    Well, if you have enough material for a whole article on such topics, then sincere gratitude in advance if you write it. I hope that not only I am interested in such practical issues, and many will be interested.
    1. +18
      11 February 2023 06: 36
      Hello, Comrade! Sorry, I can say hello to you again, I really liked it - it reminds me of the good old days:
      Hello Comrade!
      But what about the problems with storing the collection? Have you tried them (almost said: with dust) with wax (preferably bees)? Well, in those days there were many ways, let the authors tell you - they will do better, we will not take away bread from them. And in general, the best way to keep the armor intact and intact is a good, hardworking and conscientious squire. wink
      1. +7
        11 February 2023 07: 00
        Quote: not the one
        In general, the best way to keep the armor safe and sound is a good, hardworking and conscientious squire

        !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
      2. +14
        11 February 2023 08: 43
        Hi all!
        Hello, Comrade! Sorry, I can say hello to you again, I really liked it - it reminds me of the good old days:

        I understand the nostalgia of Kamradov, and I consider this the norm. 28 years in uniform and do not recognize any other treatment, only by name and patronymic or by rank. Although pearls like, "comrade lieutenant" periodically hear.
        However, the appeal "comrade" has a much longer history in our patronymic.

        1. +6
          11 February 2023 09: 09
          However, the appeal "comrade" has a much longer history in our patronymic.
          In the late Republic of Ingushetia, there was a position - "comrade minister"
        2. +5
          11 February 2023 12: 45
          However, the appeal "comrade" has a much longer history in our patronymic.

          Hello everyone, and you, Vladislav, hello! drinks
          Explain about the photo of "comrades", please. Is this a kind of domestic lancer?
          1. +9
            11 February 2023 13: 35
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Is this a kind of domestic lancer?

            In the lancers regiments, cavalrymen until 1808 were divided into * comrades * with peaks, and "rank" with carbines. bully
          2. +8
            11 February 2023 13: 47
            ,,,

            In 1797, it was decided to form a ten-squadron Pinsk regiment. of this,
            however, it was not fulfilled, but in the same year the formation of the Lithuanian-Tatar cavalry regiment was announced, the staff of which was approved by the Highest on June 9, 1797. August of the same year was announced
            the science of the formation of the Polish cavalry regiment "on the exact basis of the newly established Tatar". Both regiments had a 10-squadron composition, with a total number of combatant non-combatant ranks of 1168 people each. The recruitment took place by free people on
            on a voluntary basis, by capitulations (i.e. conditions) that were signed for 5,10, 15 or XNUMX years. Lithuanian-Ta-
            the Tara regiment was taken by
            container Poles, Polish - mostly Poles but no restrictions on
            nationality or place
            there was no birth.
            When forming regiments, they tried to maximize
            adhere to the traditions of the old Polish states in order to create familiar conditions for immigrants from Poland
            services. The lower combat ranks had Polish names:
            sergeants were called governors, quartermasters -
            sub-deputies rank and file
            - comrades rank. In the ranks, the comrades made up the first line, there were about the peaks of the choir-
            evkami (weather vanes), ranks made up the second
            the ranks were armed
            guns (besides those
            others had pistols). The uniforms of the equestrian regiments were similar to the Polish ones.
            When accepted for service, the squadron commander issued a comrade
            for uniforming himself as a rank, 75 rubles, another 60 for horses.

            Upon the formation of the Lithuanian-Tatar Polish cavalry regiments
            were located on the western borders of Russia, where they carried outpost service.
            1. +7
              11 February 2023 14: 06
              Quote: bubalik
              where they carried outpost service.

              Good extended answer. hi
            2. +7
              11 February 2023 14: 19
              3x3zsave (Anton):
              However, the appeal "comrade" has a much longer history.

              Companion (Pol. Towarzysz Pol. [tɔˈvaʐɨʂ] (listen)), plural: towarzysze) was a junior cavalry officer or knight officer in the army of the Commonwealth from the 16th century until its collapse in 1794.
          3. +8
            11 February 2023 16: 06
            It’s bad that there is no “bell”, the guys have already given an answer in an order of magnitude expanded than I could! Thank you Sergey, Dmitry and Phil!!!
            1. +5
              11 February 2023 16: 38
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              Phil thanks!!!

              Vladislav!
              I wrote from work, therefore it was short. They filled up with work, devils! laughing
              And the guys are really great! good
          4. +7
            11 February 2023 20: 10
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Is this a kind of domestic lancer?

            Not exactly domestic
            When, after the division of the Commonwealth, they began to attach the Lithuanian gentry to the cause, specifically for them, they brought in uhlan regiments with traditional ranks for those places.
            In general, a "comrade" is a young nobleman (gentleman) who entered the service in the lancer regiment as a lower rank, until he reaches the officer rank.
            In the rest of the regiments of the RIA, the analogue of this title was "junker", and later "volunteer".
            By the way, the famous cavalry girl Nadezhda Durova, while serving in the Horse-Polish Lancers Regiment, was just a "comrade".
    2. +9
      11 February 2023 06: 59
      Interesting questions! Thank you! There is something right now... You have to look for something. I am afraid, however, that the terms "low-carbon steel" or "low-carbon iron" will not be very clear (and informative) to you either, and I understand this poorly. That is, you have to write a literal translation, and this is always a little dangerous. But I'll try. And they are not rusty because they were rubbed ... with linseed oil with a soft suede cloth.
      1. +10
        11 February 2023 09: 00
        One of the ways to preserve armor is bluing. The simplest and most common piece of brick, followed by lubrication with linseed or olive oil or fat. Of the curious (although this applies only to chain mail) - the use of barrels of sand. The reenactors said that the barrel was filled by a third with river sand, a metal part or chain mail was added. They closed the lid and rolled the barrel. Sometimes with the help of a rope on inclined logs.
        With copper and bronze armor, there were also troubles. To give shades from gold to silver and polishing, beets, onions (bulbs) and carrots were used.
        The topic is quite extensive and interesting!
        1. +7
          11 February 2023 09: 07
          With linen - the best option. It dries quickly and gives a wear-resistant film.
          1. +5
            11 February 2023 12: 05
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            With linen - the best option. It dries quickly and gives a wear-resistant film.

            Geography specific! For example, why should a native of Sicily use woolen and felt balaclavas if there is a “sea” of sponges in the sea. The Chuvash, Mordovians, and Zyrians did the same, using available moss in burlap.
        2. +12
          11 February 2023 09: 14
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          One of the ways to preserve armor is burnishing.

          In my opinion, metal bluing began to be used later than the period described in the article. Tinning - covering steel with a thin layer of tin - this method of protection has been known since ancient times. The best way to protect metal from corrosion is to often scour it, as a male dog scours a cychky ... wink
          1. +5
            11 February 2023 12: 11
            Thermal appeared, just at the turn of the 15-16 centuries. A number of metallurgy historians believe that this was originally a side effect of gilding.
        3. +5
          11 February 2023 14: 43
          Good day to all
          Directly inspired smile
          Why do you cyst Saska? Yakhshi shines. Boiling lamb fat? (With)
        4. +5
          11 February 2023 21: 45
          You will not envy the reenactors. It is hard work to roll a barrel of sand.
          But seriously, this method has survived to this day. It is used for abrasive processing of parts of complex shape. Tumbling drum -

          the simplest type of equipment, which is a cylindrical drum connected to an electric motor that turns it.
          For processing, the abrasive and the product are loaded into the drum. Processing of materials occurs due to the constant movement of workpieces in an abrasive medium during the rotation of the container. Usually castings are deburred. Or, as an example for the site, they wash the shells when reluding at home. Naturally much smaller.
          1. +1
            11 February 2023 22: 35
            It's easier to take a concrete mixer - the result is the same.
      2. +4
        11 February 2023 09: 14
        ... I understand this badly. That is, you have to write a literal translation ...

        A "literal translation" of highly specialized technical material by a non-specialist usually leads to the most unpredictable results, which are far from positive.
        In addition, it must be taken into account that in order to understand the issue, at least a brief digression into the technology of steel production used at the time and place in question, in this case the XV - XVI centuries, is very desirable. And all this, taking into account the fact that the article is not written for metallurgists, should be "popularized" and presented in an understandable language.
        As for me, if the author decides to write such an article, then, firstly, it is necessary to acquire an appropriate dictionary, for example, "The English-Russian Metallurgical Dictionary", authors Perlov N.I., Isteev A.Ts., Tyurin V.A. , and secondly, to look for a qualified reviewer who would "evaluate and correct". Given the popularity of this author's publications, it is possible that even one of the readers will agree to this role.
        1. +3
          11 February 2023 09: 30
          Given the popularity of this author's publications, it is possible that even one of the readers will agree to this role.
          Take it
          1. +3
            11 February 2023 09: 38
            I am not qualified to be a reviewer. In addition, I have too radical requirements for the quality of publications.
            1. +3
              11 February 2023 09: 44
              It's a pity. Few people know how to talk simply about complex things.
              1. +5
                11 February 2023 09: 54
                Few people know how to talk simply about complex things.

                That's for sure. For me, in this regard, an example is Sergey Petrovich Kapitsa.
        2. +5
          11 February 2023 10: 41
          Quote: Ruyter-57
          Given the popularity of this author's publications, it is possible that even one of the readers will agree to this role.

          Totally agree". It remains a little: write and find a reviewer.
          1. +3
            11 February 2023 11: 13
            write and find a reviewer
            The second is the main thing. For any potential reviewer can quite rightly ask: what "buns" will I have?
            1. +2
              11 February 2023 13: 41
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              And what "buns" will I have?

              Legal 50%
            2. +5
              11 February 2023 14: 20
              and what "buns" will I have

              Authority, honor and respect. Not everything is measured by despicable metal. By the way, local "authorities" are not eager to become famous yet.
          2. +3
            11 February 2023 14: 18
            Not much left: write and find a reviewer

            Write. It is unlikely that this process will be fast, if taken seriously. Maybe during this time the reviewer will mature. The road will be mastered by the walking one. I can say with confidence that there are practically no Russian-language worthy articles on the materials of medieval armor. Therefore, if you are lucky, you can "go down in history."
            1. +2
              11 February 2023 16: 57
              Quote: Ruyter-57
              there is practically no information about the materials of medieval armor.

              I personally know only one book (!) about the metallography of Western armor. Those that are in the arsenal of La Valletta in Malta. Wanted to get it, didn't get it...
      3. +2
        12 February 2023 02: 29
        Quote: kalibr
        Interesting questions! Thank you! There is something right now... You have to look for something.

        We'll wait as long as it takes.
        Quote: kalibr
        I'm afraid, however, that the terms "low-carbon steel" or "low-carbon iron" will not be very clear to you (and informative)

        I am familiar with these terms firsthand, at the institute I studied materials science and several other disciplines, one way or another connected with the properties of metals, in addition.
        Quote: kalibr
        I'm bad at this. That is, you have to write a literal translation, and this is always a little dangerous. But I'll try

        Mail for the honor to provide disinterested all possible assistance.
        Quote: kalibr
        they are not rusty because they were rubbed ... with linseed oil with a soft chamois cloth.

        Understood thanks.
  2. +10
    11 February 2023 05: 12
    A question for experts: are there any traces of damage on tournament armor? Combat? Or was it all restored at local service stations in different years?
    1. +15
      11 February 2023 06: 23
      Question to experts
      Not an expert, rather from the team of "viewers", but I'll try to answer.
      Are there any signs of damage?
      Why not, "I have them", and in a wide range:
      Foreign

      Domestic production
      And there are plenty of replicas, you need to look at the signs, everything should be written there in theory ..
      1. +10
        11 February 2023 07: 24
        Well, it's a firearm. And tournament dents, scratches remained?
        1. +14
          11 February 2023 08: 16
          Ah, then excuse me, I don’t have this available. Well, after all these tournaments, I personally would hand over the armor for repair, well, don’t go rumpled, after all .. How do you like the version? and damaged tournament armor. Why should grandchildren boast: "But this dent was left to me by the king himself, and this was how they slapped me in Orleans, I remember, already sparks from my eyes."
          1. +11
            11 February 2023 09: 19
            Well, after all these tournaments, I personally would hand over the armor for repairs,
            In general, it was so, because the armor, it costs money! And a lot...
    2. +17
      11 February 2023 06: 23
      Or was it all restored at local service stations in different years?
      "Bodywork on armor, of any complexity. 10 grotrois / element. Members of the royal court and veterans of the crusades - a discount!
      Address: Paris, emb. Templars, house with a turret, entrance from the yard.")))
      1. +5
        11 February 2023 12: 15
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Or was it all restored at local service stations in different years?
        "Bodywork on armor, of any complexity. 10 grotrois / element. Members of the royal court and veterans of the crusades - a discount!
        Address: Paris, emb. Templars, house with a turret, entrance from the yard.")))

        Yeah, "Moors and other Saracens, please do not disturb"! laughing
        My friend, you are beautiful, though bearded, but you can do it anyway !! Unfortunately, I can’t count it expensive in “cows” or vice versa.
        1. +6
          11 February 2023 16: 32
          "Bodywork on armor, of any complexity.

  3. +12
    11 February 2023 06: 08
    After the death of the Viscount in 1532, the armor passed to his friend Galio de Genouillac, Grand Master of Artillery and Grand Écuyère (master of horsemanship) of France.
    And again the difficulties of translation ...
    The Great Ecuer is not a "master of riding", it is a "great stableman", that is, a person in charge of the royal stables throughout the kingdom (but not the king's court). The position of grand ecuér was part of the institution of senior officers of the crown, the foundation of which was laid by Louis VIII in the first half of the XNUMXth century. In addition to managing the royal stables, the position implied some other duties, which included carrying the royal sword during ceremonies, in connection with which the title of the position is sometimes referred to as "great squire", which, in principle, is etymologically justified.
    Referring directly to Galio de Genouillac, it can be noted that he really held the position of Grand Ecuer from 1526 to 1546.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. +8
      11 February 2023 07: 02
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      "master of riding", this is "great stableman",

      Thank you!
      1. +7
        11 February 2023 07: 28
        Please!
        It is not difficult to get confused with historical terms that have the root "ecu". Moreover, in modern French "écuyer" is really "rider".
  4. +15
    11 February 2023 06: 35
    Cuirass depicting the Mother of God with the baby Jesus in her arms

    Cuirass - rear view

    Something reminded me of it ... smile


    smile
    1. +16
      11 February 2023 06: 46
      Super association! There is also the question of which of these cuirasses best protected its owner laughing
      1. +5
        11 February 2023 18: 11
        Quote: not the one
        better protect its owner

        * And on the left chest is the profile of Stalin, and on the right Marinka in full face .... * (c) bully
        1. +6
          11 February 2023 22: 13
          Agsburg gunsmiths in those days sang a little differently:
          And on the left chest is the profile of Habsburg, and on the right Malvinka in full face. smile
          1. +5
            11 February 2023 22: 37
            Quote: Richard
            full face

            There was such a belief among the convicts of those years, it was. * And on the black bench, and on the dock of the defendants .... * (c).
            Dima, Hello! Good to see you, right!
          2. +4
            11 February 2023 22: 41
            Quote: Richard
            Habsburg Profile,

            Order: do not shoot at Habsburg! Regardless of the faces and where these are located. This order is extended to female persons.
  5. +14
    11 February 2023 06: 38
    Dear Vyacheslav, thank you very much for continuing the cycle!
    Let me
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    join!
    1. +11
      11 February 2023 07: 04
      Quote: not the one
      join!

      Last time, people wanted to see the armor of Louis - so they saw them ... + plus a couple more for comparison.
  6. +15
    11 February 2023 06: 59


    Why does the chanfron have a sharp pin? Is it a horse weapon so that the horse can "butt" or just a design element? Thank you
    1. +14
      11 February 2023 08: 07
      It was always interesting, too. ) For beauty, though, “I think so” ©
    2. +13
      11 February 2023 09: 08
      Horse weapons - hooves and teeth, are almost useless in such battles. And this pin - obviously skewed under a unicorn - a very revered animal in those days.
    3. +12
      11 February 2023 09: 19
      Why does the chanfron have a sharp pin? Is it a horse weapon so that the horse can "butt" or just a design element? Thank you

      An element of decoration, however psychologically such a pseudo-unicorn, could be the last straw in the emotional stability of an infantryman.
      By the way, horses were trained to fight, but not with horns, but with hooves (with combat horseshoes) and bite.

      1. +7
        11 February 2023 09: 28
        Buddy! The photos you provided are nothing more than "studded tires"!
        1. +7
          11 February 2023 10: 55
          I know Anton. Sadly, I could not find drawings and photographs of combat knightly horseshoes on the Internet. Cut off from his library for the time being, in the city.
          1. +6
            11 February 2023 15: 38
            fighting knight horseshoes

            Good afternoon. Doubtful No. that was a separate category, combat knight horseshoes
    4. +6
      11 February 2023 09: 31
      Why does the chanfron have a sharp pin? Is it a horse weapon so that the horse can "butt" or just a design element?

      This purely decorative element is called a rondel. Allegory for a unicorn.
      1. +4
        11 February 2023 14: 46
        Rondelle (French rondelle "round") is a shield covering the armpits of a man-at-arms.
        1. +2
          11 February 2023 14: 56
          Ivan Ivanovich, before you write, you should make it a habit to read. At least the Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry. There you will find a lot of new things for yourself, including the fact that the term "rondel" has several meanings. In addition, it is also a dagger.
          1. +5
            11 February 2023 17: 51
            Oh, sorry, I didn't know, that is, I wrote something wrong?
            1. +1
              12 February 2023 14: 09
              So I didn't wait for an answer. Why then such a bunch of mentor snobbery? Is it possible to write comments here only after receiving a doctorate degree and having previously read the library of monographs in the original language? Or did I dare to comment on the comment? I did not know that there is a caste of untouchable (crossed out) infallible commentators.
        2. +1
          12 February 2023 21: 47
          Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
          this is a shield covering the armpits of a man-at-arms.

          Actually, this shield was called besagyu. A rondel only when it was round. But it wasn't always round. The rondel is also a popular dagger.
          1. 0
            13 February 2023 08: 45
            Thanks for the addition. It turns out that rondel is more of a descriptive term. Then the horn on the forehead of horse armor should also have its own name if its shape is different from a round section? There are also polyhedrons and a twisted form occurs.
    5. +2
      11 February 2023 10: 21
      I think this is butting at the level of "what is a tank," a "cart for a cannon", or something more?"
      1. +7
        11 February 2023 11: 16
        ...or something more?

        Anton, good morning!
        A little off topic. I'm talking about the earthquake of 1348. You asked me what I know about this earthquake, I answered, but from your reaction I realized that it was out of place.
        Yes, not only in the Gobi, but also in Europe there was a catastrophic earthquake in those years, as the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani testified. His chronicles accurately mark the beginning of what historians will call the New Dark Age in Europe, and it feels as if the beginning of these events - an early response to the coming natural disasters - a response in the form of bankruptcy of the Florentine bankers that launched the global financial crisis, followed the political crisis in Florence, the Hundred Years War broke out ... Meanwhile, natural disasters gave rise to an epidemic of the plague, as a result of which Villani himself died.
        In fact, as follows from private letters, the European earthquake began in February 1347, but, apparently, it gained real strength in 1348.
        1. +2
          11 February 2023 14: 33
          the European earthquake began in February 1347, but, apparently, it gained real strength in 1348.

          In 1347 there were no earthquakes in Europe. The earthquake of 1348 is one of the most "documented". More than 100 sources contemporary to the event.
          1. +6
            11 February 2023 16: 08
            Chronicler Villani:
            ... in order not to deviate from the truth in our presentation, we will include in it a copy of a letter sent from Udine by our trustworthy Florentine merchants. The letter is dated February 1347...

            The following is an excerpt from the letter quoted by Villani:
            “You have probably heard about the numerous dangerous earthquakes that occurred in these parts and caused great harm. January 25, 1348 of our Lord, according to the reckoning of the Roman church, and according to ours, from the Annunciation of the Ever-Virgin of 1347, on the day of the conversion of St. Paul, on Friday , at eight and a quarter hours after evening or at five o'clock in the morning, there was a strong earthquake ... "

            Well, that's how they calculated the years.
            And the comet appeared before that, passed and brought with it all subsequent innumerable misfortunes. That's how it is now. Only ours, the current one, is special, green.
            1. +3
              11 February 2023 17: 18
              Quote: depressant
              Only ours, the current one, is special, green.

              Lyudmila Yakovlevna! It's almost a good evening! It's already getting dark in Moscow. And what kind of comet is the current one? Yes, even green? It is possible in more detail, otherwise you know with these factory chores, somehow by .... whistled. recourse
              1. +3
                11 February 2023 17: 52
                And what kind of comet is the current one? Yes, even green?

                Good evening, Sergey Vladimirovich!
                In the first days of February, a small green (which is unusual) comet passed by us. And somehow in the press it was quickly hushed up. Apparently, in order not to lead people to bad associations. And by a sinful deed I succumbed to the general mood, and then as it hit - a comet! Comet! This means cataclysms and wars... The approach of the space guest has already brought war, and the passage at the minimum distance from the Earth has brought an earthquake. And that's all the guesswork is. Well, the plague - of course it will, as it grows. There will also be reports of outbreaks and heroic struggle against them.
                Here is a superficial reference to the comet:
                On the night of February 1, a rare green comet officially named C/2022 E3 made its closest approach to Earth for the first time in 50 years. It was located approximately 000 million km from our planet.
                1. +3
                  11 February 2023 18: 03
                  Quote: depressant
                  And somehow in the press it was quickly hushed up. Apparently, in order not to lead people to bad associations.

                  Dear Lyudmila Yakovlevna! I’m afraid that it’s not green and various comets that are to blame for the troubles of earthlings. And not even aliens / green /, but themselves ... whispering and unpredictable inhabitants of our beautiful planet. .And whose level is even falling every year. Who can be called not only the Great, but the normal leader of his state? Who?
            2. +3
              11 February 2023 17: 21
              Only ours, the current one, is special, green.
              And flat?
              1. +3
                11 February 2023 17: 41
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                flat

                Lyudmila Yakovlevna is preparing for an answer.
                Greetings Anton!
                What kind of comet is it? I don’t know at all.
                * Whistled. And fell on the table .... * (c)
                1. +3
                  11 February 2023 17: 56
                  Hello, Sergey!
                  The question "past the cash register", Lyudmila Yakovlevna is responsible for astrology, alchemy and cryptozoology and other Moomits.
                  "Recently I heard somewhere,
                  That a comet is coming soon
                  And that then we will all die "(c)
                  1. +3
                    11 February 2023 18: 06
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Lyudmila Yakovlevna.

                    Dearest Lyudmila Yakovlevna creates a background for friendly communication. But? Sergey began to appear! Which "Bubalik *.
              2. +3
                11 February 2023 17: 52
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                flat?


                *And what to hear in Moscow?.....*
              3. +3
                11 February 2023 17: 58
                And flat?

                Have fun, Anton? )))
                You can, of course, discuss its shape using a variety of stereometric figures, but the meaning of this baby is not in the form, but in the appearance of the people.
                1. +3
                  11 February 2023 18: 07
                  Have fun, Anton? )))
                  Ottozh!!! Conspiracy theory in your, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, performance is sparkling!
                2. +2
                  11 February 2023 18: 21
                  Quote: depressant
                  Have fun, Anton? )))

                  Let's have fun. For? Rather, against the gloomy background of reality, we are trying not to fall completely into the abyss of despondency. Shall we fall? Kranty and kirdyk.
                3. +2
                  11 February 2023 19: 33
                  Quote: depressant
                  appearance to the people.

                  You know? Now * Mosfilm. The Golden Collection. * There is * Irony of Fate. *, I look / I don’t specify! /, but? Lord! Well, what and what did we Soviet people lack, huh? What? 91st year?!?! In fucking August? What did we take in return? What did we get? What did we get, it’s clear. But?
                  One thing is clear. We lost cool hockey, and gained * holders of the Order of Honor *, with a small letter in principle !!! Roma Rotenberg. Head coach !!!! St. Petersburg * SKA * and supposedly the creator of the * Red Machine *!?!? And who is it? What is it for? Yes, to the fact that this is the PERSON of the current government. Not what you are, but WHO created you. Question to the author? To an advertising specialist?
                  1. +2
                    11 February 2023 20: 22
                    Quote: ArchiPhil
                    Question to the author? To an advertising specialist?

                    I got plenty of avocados, bananas, tangerines, pineapples, homemade sausages, pastries, buckwheat, salmon, halibut ... plus the opportunity to go wherever I want. I don't care what others got.
                    1. +4
                      11 February 2023 20: 45
                      Quote: kalibr
                      I got plenty of avocados, bananas, tangerines, pineapples, homemade sausages, pastries, buckwheat, salmon, halibut ... plus the opportunity to go wherever I want.

                      Didn't that really happen? Under the Union? With the exception of the exotic avocado fruit.
                      Quote: kalibr
                      homemade sausage,

                      Who wanted to do it. No?
                      Quote: kalibr
                      go wherever you want.

                      With this question, of course, it is certainly more interesting. But? You have money for this business. And eighty percent of the population? Pareto Law?
                      Quote: kalibr
                      I don't care what others got.

                      You can’t argue with that. How is it written there? * To each his own. *?
                      1. +3
                        11 February 2023 20: 51
                        Quote: ArchiPhil
                        “You have money for this business. And eighty percent

                        And? It’s very likely that soon they won’t be either. laughing
                      2. +1
                        12 February 2023 09: 24
                        Quote: ArchiPhil
                        What about eighty percent of the population?

                        And they need to stop drinking and smoking and the money will appear!
                      3. 0
                        12 February 2023 21: 43
                        Quote: ArchiPhil
                        buckwheat,

                        It wasn't exactly! And everything else. And tangerines are only on the market for the new year ... Heck was - "a friend of the workers." Even the herring was called "Obkomovsky ...."
                    2. +3
                      11 February 2023 21: 48
                      Well, the author would have received all this, and then he would have been in a special distributor for party activists, such people always got along well under any government.
                      1. +3
                        11 February 2023 21: 52
                        Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
                        such under any power has always been well arranged.

                        But this is not a question for the author, but for the authorities. For?
                      2. +2
                        12 February 2023 09: 25
                        Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
                        Well, the author would have received all this, and then he would have been in a special distributor for party activists, such people always got along well under any government.

                        This did not concern teachers of the history of the CPSU and freelance lecturers of the OK and the RK !!! Staff only! And we figs, although we bore the brunt of the work.!
                  2. +3
                    11 February 2023 20: 47
                    To briefly summarize your comment, it turns out that, except in the USSR, they did not live normally anywhere else, and life ended without him.
                    I myself lived in the USSR half of my life, not the worst. But I will tell you that all these sufferings in the past are not because nothing can be better than the USSR, but because primitive capitalism still flourishes on its ruins, moreover, with local characteristics. Therefore, the minority "fitting into the market" is not nostalgic for the USSR. This is the lot of the "not fit into the market" majority, which "there" was better. Or easier. Rather easier.
                    A vivid example of what happens when a whole country tries to live in the past.
                    1. +2
                      11 February 2023 21: 10
                      Quote: Ruyter-57
                      To briefly summarize your comment, it turns out that, except in the USSR, they did not live normally anywhere else, and life ended without him.

                      In short, we have lost a lot more than we have gained. So? What have we lost. Pretty good medical care. No? Pretty good free education, no?
                      Quote: Ruyter-57
                      I myself lived in the USSR half of my life, not the worst. But I will tell you that all these sufferings in the past are not because nothing can be better than the USSR, but because primitive capitalism still flourishes on its ruins, moreover, with local characteristics.

                      Question. And when will the phase * of primitive capitalism in the Russian Federation * end ??
                      Quote: Ruyter-57
                      A vivid example of what happens when a whole country tries to live in the past.

                      This is because there is a question. Is there a future for our country with such a .... regime? bully
                      Regarding hockey, we can ... exchange opinions. Why not? hi
                      I forgot to mention *social programs*.
                      1. +2
                        11 February 2023 22: 15
                        So? What have we lost. Pretty good medical care. No? Pretty good free education, no?

                        Do you think that normal medical care is possible only in the conditions of the USSR? I will disappoint you, and twice. Firstly, not only in the USSR. Secondly, in the USSR, the only advantage of medical care "for the people" was its free of charge. The motto "we treat for nothing - we treat for nothing" was born just in the USSR. I understood this for the first time when I got treatment at LSU - a medical and sanatorium institution for the best sons of the country. For all other "losses" the same is true. All this can be had without the USSR. And much better, and with such resources that the country has - many times better. But - traditions do not order! What are you going to do here?
                      2. +3
                        11 February 2023 22: 28
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        Do you think that normal medical care is possible only in the conditions of the USSR?

                        Yes. In the conditions of the USSR. Why? It was a socially oriented state. My God, well, you lived in this power for half your life? .Not worth it, right. She was not bad.
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        For all other "losses" the same is true. All this can be had without the USSR. AND

                        What do you have without the USSR? Without money? I am not * Tatra *, but I am not the Author of the article either. I stand and walk on the ground.
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        . And much better, and with such resources that the country has - many times better. But - traditions do not order! What are you going to do here?

                        Here, yes. I agree!
                      3. +3
                        11 February 2023 22: 50
                        What do you have without the USSR? Without money?

                        Have you heard of health insurance? I'm not Tatra either, but I'm not from the church choir either. Free cheese - it only happens in a mousetrap. And high-quality and affordable medical services exist outside the USSR. The fact that for the majority there are none in today's Russia is not to return to the USSR, where anesthesia was not used even in pediatric dentistry, but to move forward. And it is desirable for everyone. And there is no need to hope for a good king. There were no good kings and never will be.
                      4. +1
                        12 February 2023 00: 02
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        Have you heard of health insurance? I

                        Oh, well!?!? I didn’t even know! And I didn’t hear about MGFMOMS. Oops! Have you heard that it doesn’t give a damn thing? , okay? No shit, it doesn’t GIVE anything !!!!
                      5. +3
                        12 February 2023 00: 46
                        It doesn't give a damn, it doesn't give anything!!!!

                        I don’t tell stories to my grandson anymore. Increased. Imagine that outside the country where you are, there is also life. So I'm talking about her.
                      6. -2
                        12 February 2023 14: 02
                        Well, in the states, even such free universal health insurance cannot be introduced. How much did Obama try? niasilil
                      7. +2
                        12 February 2023 00: 04
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        Free cheese

                        Well, why so? Did you live in the Union? You know, huh? Why?
                      8. +2
                        12 February 2023 00: 10
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        anesthesia was not used even in pediatric dentistry, but move forward. And preferably

                        What? Where and when was it not used? Facts! To the studio!
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        There were no good kings and never will be.

                        Who believes in them? Just don't distort, really.
                      9. +2
                        12 February 2023 09: 32
                        Quote: ArchiPhil
                        What? Where and when was it not used? Facts! To the studio!

                        I personally, even as a student, had teeth drilled with pulpitis without anesthesia. With anesthesia only removed. Now they treat me like this: first they anesthetize the injection site, then they give an injection ... Why was it not possible in the USSR?
                      10. -2
                        12 February 2023 13: 57
                        So this is where such an attitude towards the USSR comes from. Drilling teeth without anesthesia, they say, was also practiced in the Gestapo. And what prevented you from unofficially paying extra for the special treatment of the doctor? As some did. And painkillers would be found immediately.
                      11. +1
                        12 February 2023 21: 37
                        Quote: Ivan Ivanych Ivanov
                        And what prevented you from unofficially paying extra for the special treatment of the doctor?

                        You don't have to take me for a fool. How many offered - did not take! And then ... what kind of way is it to pay unofficially, what kind of country is this, where you pay unofficially for treatment without pain with free medicine. Why am I getting all this for free now?
                      12. 0
                        13 February 2023 08: 48
                        God forbid. Nobody takes you for a fool. So you're out of luck. The Union collapsed because the declarative statements did not coincide with real life. It turned out to be unviable.
                      13. +2
                        12 February 2023 09: 29
                        Quote: ArchiPhil
                        She was good.

                        Compared to today, this is a rural dispensary next to the hospital of the Central Committee.
                      14. +1
                        12 February 2023 10: 04
                        Everything is developing. You still compare the coverage of mobile communications and the Internet then, under the USSR and now
                    2. +3
                      11 February 2023 22: 04
                      General recipe: "Don't whine about the past, think about the future."
                      1. +2
                        11 February 2023 22: 16
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        General recipe: "Don't whine about the past, think about the future."

                        Anton! It was the past. And the future ... is it? Will it be the future?
                    3. +4
                      11 February 2023 22: 30
                      Quote: Ruyter-57
                      Therefore, the minority "fitting into the market" is not nostalgic for the USSR. This is the lot of the "not fit into the market" majority, which "there" was better. Or easier. Rather easier.
                      A vivid example of what happens when an entire country tries to live in the past.

                      It's not worth it.
                      1. +1
                        11 February 2023 22: 55
                        And what is the "chubaischina" here? In a statement of fact?
                      2. +2
                        11 February 2023 23: 41
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        ? In a statement of fact?
                        Reply

                        So after all, these are his words !!! Regarding those who did not fit into the market !!! Fit in? What is the percentage of the population?
                      3. +2
                        11 February 2023 23: 42
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        In a statement of fact?

                        Let me state the facts
                      4. +1
                        12 February 2023 00: 25
                        Let me state the facts

                        Why state them, they are outside your window. Can be observed with the naked eye.
                        As the saying goes, "Here are Lermontov's poems copied from the original" in all its glory. I can hardly add anything.
                      5. +3
                        12 February 2023 00: 06
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        And what is the "chubaischina"

                        Viknik, is that you?
                    4. +2
                      12 February 2023 09: 27
                      Quote: Ruyter-57
                      Rather easier.

                      ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
            3. +4
              11 February 2023 18: 55
              Well, that's how they counted the years

              This is the Florentine calendar, stylus Florentinus. In it, the day does not begin at midnight, but after sunset, and the New Year begins on March 25. In Italy, it was used until 1582, although it was finally abandoned only by the middle of the XNUMXth century.
        2. +2
          11 February 2023 16: 46
          historians will call the New Dark Age in Europe,
          Here it is - a highly spiritual Renaissance!)))
          You make me happy, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
          1. +3
            11 February 2023 18: 05
            You make me happy, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!

            Well, at least it made you happy. Himself, it doesn't work. This is if without irony on your part and mine. And about the earthquake in the Middle Ages - the same one .. I read a description of it in the area of ​​​​the Drava River. The water was red with blood. Looks like a surge wave from the shock splashed onto the destroyed buildings.
            1. +2
              11 February 2023 18: 37
              Quote: depressant
              Well, at least it made you happy. Himself - it doesn't work.

              Lyudmila Yakovlevna! Believe me! You please many with your presence. Believe me, right. Your comments are not always indisputable, but always interesting! And I am not alone in this opinion. What is happening now? Nothing more than a friendly *joke*.No more!!! love
            2. +2
              11 February 2023 19: 23
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I am pleased with your personal achievements in the field of studying history. But the logical calculations are shocking!
              Comet - earthquake - financial crisis - Hundred Years War...
              It remains to declare the discovery of the "Turin Shroud" a sign of purification and the transition of society to a new level.
              1. +2
                11 February 2023 20: 16
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                But the logical calculations are shocking!

                It's okay. It's interesting.
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                It remains to declare the discovery of the "Turin Shroud" a sign of purification

                Scientists come to a consensus? There are different versions all the time.
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                the transition of society to a new level.

                Ooooh.*Houston!We're in trouble!*
                We are falling. Not all, but? We are falling. Alas and ah.
            3. +2
              11 February 2023 19: 33
              Looks like a surge wave from the shock splashed onto the destroyed buildings.

              There were no surge waves there. There was a flood. The landslide blocked the channel of the Gail River, a tributary of the Drava. A lake 13 kilometers long and about 15 meters deep was formed. And when this mass of water broke through the dam formed by the landslide, then naturally there was a flood in the valley. But about the blood-red Drava - this, of course, is a legend.
              1. +4
                11 February 2023 20: 02
                But about the blood-red Drava - this, of course, is a legend.
                From blood, yes. For the rest, you need to look at information about the soils at the mouth of the Gail.
                1. +3
                  11 February 2023 20: 33
                  Gail is a mountain river.


                  This is just not far from the confluence of the Drava. Beautiful places. Harris is well caught.



                  And this is Drava in those places. The origin of the legend is immediately clear.
                  1. +2
                    11 February 2023 21: 07
                    The origin of the legend is immediately clear.
                    To be honest, I don't understand. Did the flood reveal red loam deposits?
                    1. +2
                      11 February 2023 22: 36
                      There were earthquakes in Rus' too. One of them at the end of the 10th century destroys the Assumption Cathedral under construction in Moscow. And in the XII century, as many as XNUMX earthquakes were recorded! Of course, this is out of the ordinary seismic activity, but the actual earthquakes were known in Rus' and were not always harmless.
                      1. +7
                        11 February 2023 22: 45
                        Among other things, the old Russian chronicles contain information about a strong earthquake in Rus' (!), which occurred on May 3, 1230. The earthquake was observed on a very vast territory from Novgorod to Kyiv.
                        The largest annalistic and chronographic work of ancient Rus' and all of medieval Europe, the Front Chronicle, created in the XNUMXth century in Alexander Sloboda, tells about these events:
                        About the shaking of the earth. On the 3rd day of May, during the Holy Liturgy, when the Holy Gospel was read in the Church of the Most Holy Theotokos in Vladimir, the earth shook; and the church, and the throne, and the icons moved on the walls; and a chandelier with candles, and the candlesticks shook; the people were amazed and thought that each of them was dizzy; and they began to tell each other what had happened to them, and they wondered what it was. Was it in…
                        ... many churches and in the houses of masters; and in other cities it was.
                        In Kyiv, the city was even more so, the biggest shock was. In the Pechersky monastery, the stone church of the Most Holy Theotokos broke into 4 parts; there were Metropolitan Kirill, and Prince Vladimir (Rurikovich - Yu.F.), and the boyars, and a lot of people came together; for the holiday was on that day, the day of memory of Father Theodosius. “The stone throne also shook, when Food and Drink were already brought on it; and all this was crushed by stones, falling from above; but the whole throne did not fall, nor the top of it.
                        In Pereslavl, the Russian Church of St. Michael split in two; the vault of three arches with a roof also fell; and suppressed icons, and chandeliers with candles, and candlesticks; but it happened on one day and at one hour, throughout the whole earth, during the Liturgy.”
                        We meet the same descriptions of the earthquake throughout Rus' in the Novgorod annals, in the Lavrentiev and others. Thus, the fact of a powerful earthquake can be considered unambiguous. Its peculiarity is such that it affected many lands of Ancient Rus': from Novgorod to Kyiv and Pereyaslavl, Vladimir, Smolensk. Note that in Kyiv (in the south) it was stronger, which even led to the destruction of stone churches in Kyiv itself and in Pereyaslavl. What could be the cause of such a cataclysm, which engulfed a fairly stable seismically region? Let's try to figure it out below.
                        However, the tests for Rus' have not yet ended. A few days later, anomalous atmospheric phenomena occurred, which were also recorded in different parts of Rus' from Novgorod to Kyiv, but the most amazing occurred in Kyiv. Same month on the 14th day. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon the sun began to disappear before the eyes of all people; and a little of it remained, and it was like a three-day month; and began to grow again. Many thought that this was a month moving across the sky, since there was a full moon then; others thought that it was the sun going back, because small patches of clouds from the north side quickly moved towards the sun to the south. “On the same day and hour it was the same, and even worse, in Kyiv; before everyone's eyes the sun became a month; and there appeared on both sides of it pillars red, green, blue; fire also descended from the sky, like a large cloud, on the Lybid stream; people all said goodbye to their lives and thought that the end had already come; and began to kiss each other and ask for forgiveness; and wept bitterly, and all cried out to God with tears.
                        The merciful God carried that terrible fire through the whole city without harm; and he fell into the Dnieper river; disappeared there. This was told to us by eyewitnesses who were there at the time.”

                        All these events together paint a picture that is associated with some kind of space incidents that took place on our planet. As it turned out, in scientific historiography it is customary to associate this large-scale cataclysm with the probable eruption of a large volcano in the Iceland region. According to this theory, the ash ejected by the volcano caused the effect of "volcanic winter" - pollution of the atmosphere with ash, which entails cooling due to the anti-greenhouse effect. However, supporters of this theory lose sight of a number of annalistic facts that do not fit into this explanation. Firstly, the epicenter of the earthquake recorded in the annals on the territory of ancient Rus' could not possibly be in Iceland. Otherwise, Western Europe should have been completely in ruins. Secondly, the effect of a volcanic winter should have been accompanied by a long period of dense cloudiness with characteristic precipitation - ash fall, which was not noted by the chroniclers. On the contrary, written sources clearly indicate an anomalous amount of cold, incessant rain. Thirdly, let's pay attention and fix for further disclosure of the topic an important chronological fact reflected in the sources: heavy rains and cooling begin "from the day of the Annunciation", that is, more than a month before the earthquake (May 3). And fourthly, there are a number of recorded anomalous atmospheric phenomena, which are extremely difficult to link with a volcanic eruption or its consequences.
                        The second hypothesis connects these events with a comet, through the tail of which our planet passed and which fell to the ground, breaking into fragments. Personally, I am somehow cautious about this theory. Apparently, in 1230, the Earth passed through the tail of an unknown comet, the orbit of which lay between the Sun and our planet. As you know, the main substances in the composition of comets are ice, gas and fine dust. Approaching the Sun, the comet heats up and forms a tail - a cloud of matter directed away from the Sun under the influence of solar wind pressure. In March 1230, the substance of the comet's tail begins to penetrate the earth's atmosphere, filling it with ice crystals, which gives rise to prolonged cold rains. A month and a half later, the comet approaches the point of closest approach to the earth. Apparently, a relatively large fragment of the comet falls to Earth on May 3rd somewhere in the Russian Plain, generating a powerful earthquake in a geologically inactive region from Novgorod to Kiev. On May 10, Vladimir residents observe a “false sunrise” in an atmosphere saturated with ice crystals. May 14 - the day of closest approach to the Earth - the nucleus of a comet eclipses the solar disk. The eclipse is observed over a wide area. In the Kyiv region, the fall of a second, relatively small fragment is recorded, which burns up in the atmosphere and falls into the Dnieper. By the end of July, freezing rains stop. The comet is moving away from the earth.
                        Ris.1The front chronicle, created in the XNUMXth century in the Alexander Sloboda - this is how it tells about these events
                    2. +4
                      11 February 2023 22: 40
                      No, just this river, which is the Drava, flows through the Gailtal Alps, the main rock is dolomite. It's either gray or brown. Here is the water of the corresponding color. Blood can be poured into it in tanks, this will not be noticeable.
                      1. +3
                        11 February 2023 23: 06
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        Blood can be poured into it in tanks, this will not be noticeable.

                        Hmmm. Well, you're right. Modern forensics will not agree with you ....
                      2. +3
                        11 February 2023 23: 12
                        At the time of the fact under discussion, modern forensic science was approximately 700 years old.
                      3. +1
                        11 February 2023 23: 23
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        modern forensic science was about 700 years old.

                        Looks like. * -Who are you?
                        Musician.Yura.*
                        I'm actually talking about blood ... in tanks. laughing
                      4. +4
                        11 February 2023 23: 32
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        about

                        Mikhail. Are you really Mikhail? It is interesting to talk with you!
                      5. +3
                        11 February 2023 23: 45
                        Are you really Michael?


                        EX UNGUE LEONEM

                        Recently I somehow whistled with verses
                        And gave them out without my signature;
                        The magazine jester wrote an article about them,
                        Letting her go without a signature, villain.
                        But what? Neither me nor the public jester
                        Failed to cover up their leprosy:
                        He recognized me by claws in a minute,
                        I recognized him by ear
                        .
                      6. +2
                        12 February 2023 00: 14
                        Quote: Ruyter-57
                        I recognized him by ear

                        * I recognize the sweetheart by his gait .... * (c)
                        bully
            4. +2
              11 February 2023 23: 03
              Quote: depressant
              Well, at least it made you happy.

              Golden pen site! Without durakovOne of. Right! love
      2. +1
        11 February 2023 19: 22
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        cannon wagon" or something more?"

        Worse, Anton, worse!
        A stick for a puck, or a puck for a stick?
        When will the BELL be returned??? laughing Right?
        1. +5
          11 February 2023 19: 49
          When will the BELL be returned???
          Seryoga, don't wake Herzen!)))
          1. +3
            11 February 2023 19: 57
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Seryoga, don't wake Herzen!)))

            I'm talking about a small one. About * VOshnoy *, about notifications. *
            *-Freud? Who is this Freud? Passenger? * (c) laughing
            1. +5
              11 February 2023 20: 12
              small.

              laughing
              1. +5
                11 February 2023 20: 25
                Bravo, Sergey!!! Haven't cried like this in a long time!
            2. +4
              11 February 2023 20: 13
              So here you can arrange a small personal "herzen". It already happened, didn't it?
              1. +3
                11 February 2023 20: 30
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                So here you can arrange a small personal "herzen". It already happened, didn't it?

                Actually, I'm talking about notifications about the answer. No more. Crime? Kysmet. But it would be nice to fix this shortcoming. Again crime? Kysmet.
                1. +4
                  11 February 2023 20: 39
                  Seryoga, criticism of the administration of the resource is fraught with an "asymmetric response" to the critic who uses the services thereof. Don't you understand yet?
                  1. +3
                    11 February 2023 20: 59
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Seryoga, criticism of the administration of the resource is fraught with an "asymmetric response" to the critic who uses the services thereof. Don't you understand yet?

                    What kind of criticism? If this is YET a flaw in one IP address. bully
  7. +11
    11 February 2023 10: 40
    questions arose: “Why didn’t you give that, but where is it? “In a word, you get used to good things very quickly, and then you want even better, and so on without end. In any case, the desire of the readership is the law for the author, and if so, then this topic will be continued.

    hi
    Indeed a good article!

    For a leisurely morning on a day off, but for coffee with a soufflé ... "I went well" ... Yes

    For those who drink coffee for a long time in the morning, two hours of video on the topic of European armor.
    Description: "Andrey Bogdanov tells why plate armor is an accident, not a pattern, and what factors allowed a Western European knight to overcome the path from a chain mail warrior to a sculpture in metal in 300 years.
    Andrey is a weapons expert, curator of the Hermitage's armor fund, has been studying and reconstructing armor for 20 years. "


    Of course, the VO forum has "its own people in the Hermitage", but the video only has this ... feel


    1. +6
      11 February 2023 10: 58
      Thank you for the video!
      Must see during lunch!
    2. +4
      11 February 2023 19: 36
      How the stars align! Watched these vids a day ago.
      What can I say ... Bogdanov is very controversial in many places, he is also a "gunsmith Tarasyuk."
      As for the author and presenter, Max Yun, who promotes historical fencing in St. Petersburg in every possible way - he did a great job!
    3. +3
      11 February 2023 19: 49
      Quote: Wildcat
      For a leisurely morning on a day off, but with coffee and a soufflé

      For an evening *drink*? Yes, after the working day? Quite right! I agree. bully
  8. +4
    11 February 2023 15: 20
    - "Crossed branches", depicted on the back of the armor, is nothing more than the "Burgundian Cross" - a symbol very common in Europe of those years ...
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. +3
    12 February 2023 00: 45
    I read it with great pleasure and eagerly peered into each photo. I would like to read about our armor)
    1. +3
      12 February 2023 01: 00
      Hello Anton
      in 2013, at VO, in my opinion, a series of articles by Samsonov about what you are asking about was not bad:
      link: https://topwar.ru/25740-russkie-druzhiny-v-boyu-chast-5.html
      Best regards
      Richard

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