Reforms of Peter I before the start of the Northern War (1698–1700)

148
Reforms of Peter I before the start of the Northern War (1698–1700)
Forced shaving of beards and shortening of caftans


At the end of the XNUMXth century, Russia lagged far behind Europe, which was increasingly moving forward. In Europe, Russia was considered a country not only backward, but also wild. Rumors about her there were the most incredible and often false.



But what was Russia really like at the end of the XNUMXth century, before the start of the reforms of Peter the Great?

Let's start with society.

People were too religious: almost everything they did was closely related to religion. Russians hated and despised people of a different religion, and betrayal of faith was considered the worst sin. Foreigners were considered heretics. However, foreigners also reciprocated, calling all Orthodox "schismatics" (a hint that they are guilty of splitting Christianity).

More than 95% of the country's population lived in rural areas. The life of the peasants in the countryside was monotonous. They worked for themselves and the landowner, went to church, and often abused alcohol in their free time. There was even a proverb:

"If a person does not drink, then he is either sick or a scoundrel."

Most of the Russian peasants in that period were not as poor as they often say. In Europe at that time, for example, having a cow was considered a sign of prosperity, and in Russia, if a peasant did not have a cow, then he was considered poor.

Everyone in Russia had their own housing. But despite this, the streets were filled with beggars begging. And often these "beggars" made good money on this, because according to Orthodox traditions, not giving alms was considered a terrible sin.

All segments of the population had a beard cult, according to which shaving a beard was considered a sin. This cult was supported and spread by the church. The priests claimed: shaving the beard is the most vile and shameful deed. God created us in his own image and likeness, and to violate this likeness is a mortal sin.

Excess weight commanded respect and was a sign of beauty for both men and women. Therefore, Princess Sophia, who was full, was described by foreigners as terrible and unattractive, and Russians as a beauty. A fat man with a long beard and a long caftan was considered an ideal.

Wealthy nobles were not ashamed of luxury: a more or less wealthy nobleman traveled in an expensive carriage drawn by at least six horses.

As for the tsar, under Mikhail Fedorovich or Alexei Mikhailovich it was considered a matter of national importance if the tsar left the Kremlin to visit the Kolomna or Moscow region monasteries. Therefore, the behavior of Peter, who visited the Kremlin only in case of emergency, caused grumbling among the people. The people became even more indignant when Peter decided to go abroad with the great embassy, ​​and when he returned, he walked in German clothes.

shaving beards


But much more discontent was caused by another measure of Peter: after returning from a trip, the king began to shave the beards of his entourage.

On August 26, 1698, the very next day after returning from abroad, Peter in Preobrazhensky met the boyars welcoming his return. Unexpectedly, the tsar ordered the scissors to be brought in and was the first to cut off the beard of the boyar and generalissimo Shein. The second to lose his beard was Prince Romodanovsky, who ruled the country in the absence of Peter. Then the turn came to all the other boyars.

Some considered this incident to be the wrath of the king or just a joke. But a few days later, a decree was issued according to which everyone should shave their beards. At first, Peter wanted to shave the entire country, except for the clergy. But shaving beards immediately caused protests among the townspeople and peasants. The nobles met this reform more humbly and soon parted with their beards.

Many were forcibly shaved: at the end of the XNUMXth and at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, soldiers could often be found on the streets of Moscow and other cities who forcibly cut their beards and shortened their caftans. Some nobles who did not want to part with beards for anything, they pulled out with meat.

Soon, Peter realized that the peasants, townspeople and merchants would by no means want to part with their beards. Therefore, he introduced a special tax on them. Now, in order to get the right to wear a beard, the merchant had to pay 100 rubles a year, nobles and officials - 60 rubles. The amount at that time was more than significant: for 100 rubles you could buy a stone house in Moscow. From the peasants for each entry and exit from the city they took 1 kopeck. Those who paid the tax hung a special sign around their necks with the inscription: "Money taken."

From that time until the end of the reign of Nicholas I, only the clergy, peasantry and merchants were allowed to wear beards in Russia. The purpose of such a drastic measure is obvious: Peter wanted to make Russians at least outwardly similar to Europeans.

Apparel


In order to finally make the Russians look like Europeans, the tsar decided to introduce European clothes. Former Russian clothes were neither beautiful nor comfortable. On a shirt and trousers tucked into boots, the Russian nobleman put on first a zhupan, then a long caftan. The sleeves were long and wide. But it was home clothes.

For going out, a feryaz was also worn over the caftan, long and wide clothes made of velvet with the same wide sleeves. In the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, these clothes practically did not change for two centuries, such a thing as “fashion” did not exist at all before Peter.


Boyar clothes in the XNUMXth century

The new clothes introduced by Peter were fundamentally different from the old ones.

On January 4, 1699, the tsar signed a decree according to which boyars, courtiers and service people were forbidden to come to the Kremlin in ancient clothes. They were ordered to come in Hungarian caftans. By the summer, everyone was ordered to sew Saxon caftans for themselves.

A wig, introduced in Russia in 1700, was considered an indispensable attribute of a European costume. The wigs were of different shapes. At first they were tall, with long curls, but from 1715 their size gradually decreased.

Shoes have also been replaced. Instead of old boots, over the knee boots appeared, which were hard boots, in front they were above the knees, and in the back they had a deep cutout, which made it easy to bend the leg.

At the same time, the first ties appeared in the country - neckerchiefs. Women also began to wear European clothes - German dresses with corsets. Women's wigs were very different from men's, they were much more complicated, sometimes they even made a wig in the shape of a sailboat. They were smeared with bacon, powdered, and sometimes sprinkled with flour. It is clear that such wigs could not be comfortable, but they were still popular for a long time.

Having changed the appearance of the nobility and the service class, it was necessary to carry out deeper reforms. But even the change in appearance ran into fierce resistance from various segments of the population.

European fashion in the XNUMXth century
European fashion in the XNUMXth century

Calendar reform


Russia of the 5th century was very different from Europe. There was even its own reckoning from the so-called creation of the world. It was believed that the world was created 508 years before our era. Consequently, the year 1699 according to the Old Russian chronology was 7 years from the creation of the world. In addition, the New Year was celebrated on September 207st. All this was adopted from Byzantium.

On December 20, 1699, by decree of Peter, the New Year was ordered to be celebrated, as in Europe, on January 1, and the chronology should be from the Nativity of Christ. The ritual of celebrating the New Year was also prescribed: after prayers in churches, everyone had to congratulate each other; homeowners were ordered to put a new decoration in front of the gate - Christmas trees, which were supposed to stand until January 7th.

During the fireworks and cannon firing on Red Square, everyone had to shoot their guns or set off their own fireworks. So in Moscow they completed the old 7207th and began the new 1700.

First Order


In 1699, Peter established the first Russian order - St. Andrew the First-Called. On March 20, the secretary of the Austrian embassy, ​​Johann Korb, wrote in his diary:

"His Royal Majesty granted the boyar Golovin the first gentleman of this order and gave him the badge thereof."

The first Russian order had an enameled cross in the form of the letter "X". On such a cross, according to legend, the Apostle Andrew the First-Called was crucified. The knights of the order wore this cross on a wide blue ribbon over the right shoulder. The order included an eight-pointed star with a round central medallion, which also contained the image of the St. Andrew's Cross. There was an inscription around the circle - the motto of the order "For Faith and Loyalty". The first charter of the order, which was written with the direct participation of Peter, indicated to whom and for what he should be awarded:

“In retribution and rewarding for one for loyalty, courage and various services rendered to us and the Fatherland, and for others to encourage all noble and heroic virtues.”

Under Peter, 40 awards of this order took place, and at the same time no more than 12 Russians and 12 foreigners could be holders of the order. A candidate for the order had to have a princely or county title, be a general, minister, governor or foreign ambassador. The order could be given to governors for ten years of conscientious service. At the same time, all holders of the order must be at least 25 years old.


Peter himself was awarded this order only the seventh in 1703 for capturing two Swedish ships. Subsequently, until the revolution of 1917, the order remained the highest in Russia. It was awarded to great military leaders, statesmen, as well as members of the imperial family and foreign monarchs. This order was later awarded even to Napoleon.

It is surprising that until the end of the XNUMXth century Russia remained a country where there were no orders and insignia in general. In the army, the main reward for a soldier was money, for military leaders - estates, villages, serfs.

The fate of the reforms


The first reforms of Peter, as we see, were superficial, there were still many reforms to be carried out: military, administrative, political, monetary, and many others. But even these first superficial reforms were of great importance for the life of the country.

Yes, the peasants were little affected by the reforms, they, as before, continued to wear their old habitual clothes and not shave their beards. They resisted all the innovations of Peter I: from digging canals between rivers to introducing a new chronology. The people said that Peter's reforms were contrary to Orthodoxy. Even the transfer of the New Year to January 1 did not suit everyone, people said: “God could not have created the earth on January 1, in the middle of winter!” What can we say about sending nobles to study abroad "to the heretics." And shaving beards, European clothes - all the more blasphemy in the popular imagination.

But Peter's reforms are not the only example in storieswhen everything new caused the rejection of the masses.

Another example is the baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir. Then the pagans would never want to accept a new faith unknown to them, so Christianity was often planted by force, whether anyone wanted it or not. And for seven centuries, Russian princes and tsars tried so hard to make their people Orthodox that by the XNUMXth century, religion practically turned into superstition, and almost everything in people's lives was closely connected with it.
Nevertheless, all these and many other reforms were necessary for Russia, and the masses nevertheless eventually accepted them, albeit belatedly.

Quite justified criticism here can only be caused by the methods by which they were carried out. Sharp, fundamental innovations, changes in lifestyle have always provoked resistance from the population. But if the reformer was right, then in the end everyone accepted his changes. Time is the fairest judge, and in the end it showed Peter was right.
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  1. +25
    6 February 2023 04: 57
    People were too religious: almost everything they did was closely related to religion. Russians hated and despised people of a different religion, and betrayal of faith was considered the worst sin.

    All sailed.
    Where is this taken from, your observations or revelations from above?
    First, there were no other (non-religious) ones in the early 17th-18th century. Just the day before, the 30-year war died down. The theorists of "humanism" and "tolerance" in the era of Peter the Great were still blowing bubbles in cradles. The author of the term "tolerance" has not yet been born!!!
    Instead of “Russians”, you can safely put any nationality, by the way, there weren’t many modern ones either.
    In Russia, before Peter, under Peter and after Peter, representatives of three confessions lived in poverty. Only the Ottoman Porte, the Austrian Empire and the Commonwealth could boast of such.
    The relationship between religions in Russia was complex, but the Russians did not cut the Bashkirs and Kalmyks about the national question. Crusades against non-believers within the country were not organized.
    By the way, Peter canceled the decree of "Sophia" about the burning of the Old Believers. The latter were obliged to pay only an increased tax.
    The existence of "Kukuevskaya Sloboda" was determined by custom, and the rigidity of the rules was offset by the negligence of execution. By the way, many of them were abolished not by Peter, but by his heirs.
    Good day comrades!
    1. +2
      6 February 2023 05: 41
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Only the Ottoman Porte, the Austrian Empire and the Commonwealth could boast of such.

      I would exclude the Commonwealth from here and include Britain (Anglicans and Methodists) in your list
      1. +10
        6 February 2023 07: 21
        Quote: Luminman
        I would exclude the Commonwealth from here

        Why? Catholics, Protestants and Muslims got along quite peacefully. The Orthodox were not welcomed.
        Quote: Luminman
        put Britain on your list (Anglicans and Methodists)

        And those and other sectarians)))
        1. +2
          6 February 2023 08: 23
          Quote: Senior Sailor
          Catholics, Protestants and Muslims got along quite peacefully

          Muslims and Protestants in the Commonwealth could be counted on the fingers of one hand, they did not make any difference there ...

          Quote: Senior Sailor
          And those and other sectarians)))

          Except from a Catholic point of view...
          1. +3
            6 February 2023 09: 10
            Quote: Luminman
            Muslims and Protestants in the Commonwealth could be counted on the fingers of one hand

            You're wrong.
            Quote: Luminman
            they did not make any weather there ...

            Grand Chancellor of Lithuania Nikolai Radzivil looks at you with a feeling of deep bewilderment.
            Quote: Luminman
            Except from a Catholic point of view...

            Just the same from the point of view of the Orthodox.
            Catholicism for us, from the point of view of theology, although schismatic, is quite an apostolic church. But the Anglicans are pure sextants.
            1. 0
              6 February 2023 09: 58
              Quote: Senior Sailor
              Grand Chancellor of Lithuania Nikolai Radzivil looks at you with a feeling of deep bewilderment

              I wonder how he would look at me after the unification with Poland? wink

              Quote: Senior Sailor
              Catholicism for us, from the point of view of theology, although schismatic, is quite an apostolic church. But the Anglicans are pure sextants

              The main enemy of Orthodoxy has always been Catholicism, led by the Pope! But on the Episcopal Protestants - Anglicans and Lutherans, they looked quite tolerantly, considered them, if not allies against the Pope, then at least fellow travelers. At the same time, I leave the evangelists out of the brackets ...
              1. +3
                6 February 2023 10: 37
                Quote: Luminman
                I wonder how he would look at me after the unification with Poland?

                Similar. He was an opponent of the Union of Lublin (if you are talking about this), which did not affect either his influence or religion. Both his children and grandchildren remained ardent Calvinists.
                In general, the Radzivils could not afford such a thing)))
                Quote: Luminman
                But the Episcopal Protestants - Anglicans and Lutherans, looked quite tolerant

                Nevertheless, they do not stop being sectarians from this))
                As for the enemies / allies, from time to time, these categories changed places))))
                1. +1
                  6 February 2023 11: 35
                  Quote: Senior Sailor
                  He was an opponent of the Union of Lublin (if you mean it)

                  About it. Only he didn't make it...

                  Quote: Senior Sailor
                  Both his children and grandchildren remained ardent Calvinists.

                  Now I specifically looked, before that there were doubts, the children are all Catholics, and one even a bishop. Protestants and the Pope are incompatible... wink

                  Quote: Senior Sailor
                  However, they do not stop being sectarians)

                  Sectarians are those who have nothing to do with Christ or hide behind him. Protestantism is just one branch of the Church...
                  1. +7
                    6 February 2023 15: 00
                    Quote: Luminman
                    About it. Only he didn't make it...

                    Oh really?)))
                    Union of Lublin - 1569.
                    The years of life of Nikolai Radziwill (Red) 1512-1584.
                    Quote: Luminman
                    Now I specifically looked, before that there were doubts

                    They didn’t look there))) it was painfully branched.
                    the sons of the elder Nikolai and the younger Krzysztof Nikolai (Perun) are both ardent Calvinists.
                    Grandchildren - Nikolai, Janusz, Krzysztof - all Calvinists.
                    Great-grandchildren... By the way, if you watched the adaptation of Jerzy Hoffmann's "The Flood", you should remember them. These are the main antagonists of Kmitets - hetman Janusz and his cousin Bohuslav. Both of them were both political heavyweights and Calvinists until the end of their lives)))
                    Quote: Luminman
                    Protestants and the Pope are incompatible.

                    Is it possible without slogans?

                    Quote: Luminman
                    Sectarians are those who have nothing to do with Christ

                    You know, at one time I consulted with a priest when writing a book, but I’m sorry to tell you what exactly you are wrong)))
                    So let's get back to the topic of discussion.
                    You claimed that religious tolerance reigned in England. Now, this has nothing to do with reality. Catholics were outlawed there for a very long time and the suspicion of adherence to this religion cost the throne to several monarchs. This is the first.
                    The same can be said about Presbyterians. At one time they were allies of the Anglicans, but then they quarreled and after the restoration of the Stuarts they were expelled. This is the second.
                    In general, there was no smell of religious tolerance there ... request
                    1. +1
                      6 February 2023 16: 07
                      Quote: Senior Sailor
                      The years of life of Nikolai Radziwill (Red) 1512-1584.

                      I meant the one that is Black...

                      Quote: Senior Sailor
                      been illegal for a very long time

                      There is no mention of Catholics! They cleaned up really well...

                      Quote: Senior Sailor
                      The same can be said for Presbyterians.

                      Yah! All Scotland is Presbyterian! wink
                      And if we talk before unification, then remember the Puritans, Independents, Baptists, etc. Although they looked askance at them, however, unlike the Catholics, who were exterminated there as a class, they were still "socially close". Remember the Congregationalist Cromwell who ruled England...
                      1. +3
                        6 February 2023 20: 37
                        Quote: Luminman
                        I meant the one that is black..

                        And they were wrong)))
                        Quote: Luminman
                        Although they looked askance at them, however, unlike the Catholics, who were exterminated there, as a class

                        Somehow it does not pull on religious tolerance))
                        Quote: Luminman
                        And if we talk before unification, then remember the Puritans

                        The Levellers were also Puritans, but this did not stop Cromwell.
                        Quote: Luminman
                        Yah! All Scotland is Presbyterian!

                        Yes, yes, Scotland is exactly the place where the British did not work any miracles. request
                        By God, you have strange ideas about religious tolerance. Here, too, in the second half of the XNUMXth century, most of the millionaires belonged to various Old Believer sects, but it does not follow from this that two hundred years before that they were not burned in log cabins.
          2. +2
            6 February 2023 18: 49
            "count on fingers" and they were not Poles and did not live permanently
            1. +2
              6 February 2023 20: 39
              Quote from lisikat2
              "count on fingers" and they were not Poles and did not live permanently

              Not Poles - yes. But where do you think Pyatigorsk and Lithuanian Tatars lived?
    2. +5
      6 February 2023 08: 01
      [[quote] quote] Did all the revelations come from above?. [quote] But the bottom is still broken .. [/ quote]
    3. +6
      6 February 2023 12: 33
      I think posting such an article is a PR move by the site administration. Immediately the number of comments increases many times, interest in the ruble "History" increases. Everyone has something to say (correct) literally every paragraph. As a source of useful information, an article is nothing, as an informational occasion - everything.
      1. +4
        6 February 2023 17: 36
        Quote: balabol
        Everyone has something to say (correct) literally every paragraph.

        Got to that
        Everyone in Russia had their own housing. But despite this, the streets were filled with beggars begging.
        , I realized that the author Sarmatov did not read further.)))
        1. +4
          6 February 2023 17: 45
          Actually, Alexei, it's been worse. You may remember, a certain Zyryanov...
          1. +6
            6 February 2023 19: 15
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Actually, Alexei, it's been worse. You may remember, a certain Zyryanov...

            Well, worse than him was Kharluzhny. On VO, the term of the same name even began to roam, as a marker of a "mediocre article."
            1. +1
              6 February 2023 19: 38
              That's all right! On many public pages, he squeezes articles "a la" "the opinion (and even a cry!) of a Russian patriot in Kyiv."
              I think the location of this subject is limited to (maximum!) Kaluga.
          2. -2
            7 February 2023 11: 03
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Actually, Alexei, it's been worse. You may remember, a certain Zyryanov...

            No, I don’t remember such an author, but the fact that the level of material on the site has become incomparably worse over the past couple of years is a fact. And worst of all, this trend continues and does not give hope for improving the material.
    4. +8
      6 February 2023 16: 16
      The level of the writing brethren at VO fell almost into the abyss, what was a few years ago and now, heaven and earth. Samsonov does not bother, but plagiarizes articles from old magazines, like Technique of Youth. And the level of verification, especially historical articles, is beyond words. You can only see bans, they can do well here. "Olgovich" disappeared somewhere, he did not always agree with him, but it was also interesting to talk.
    5. +4
      6 February 2023 18: 34
      Namesake, welcome. Due to "family circumstances" I didn’t go, but here .....
      Otkel such a "historian" turned up?
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. +1
      7 February 2023 15: 41
      "Another example is the baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir. Then the pagans would never want to accept a new faith unknown to them, so Christianity was often planted by force, whether anyone wanted it or not. And for seven centuries, Russian princes and tsars tried so hard to make their Orthodox people that by the XNUMXth century religion had practically become a superstition, and almost everything in people's lives was closely connected with it.
      ************************************************** ****************************************
      In general you are right...

      The author, dealing with the time of the Ptrovsky reforms, and moving on to "final generalizations", simply did not look into the "deep centuries" ...

      Otherwise, I would have noticed that the so-called. "European Christianity", starting with the so-called. "Constantine the Great", planted "himself", as the MONOPOLIC and ONLY "correct" faith in the Empire, by an administrative-repressive force, precisely "from above". Moreover, by methods that are quite barbaric ... Confiscation of property, exile, arrests and executions ...

      And this is "quite" long before the St. Bartholomew's Night and the 30-year war ...
    8. TIR
      0
      April 7 2023 20: 58
      Even after the annexation of Siberia, the local population was not baptized by force. On the contrary, the transition from paganism to Islam was encouraged. And it's not a joke. They could baptize everyone, since only under Kuchum Islam came to Siberia along with immigrants from Central Asia. Until now, the Tatars here call a bad Tatar disparagingly an Uzbek. They did not like Kuchum and his inner circle here. And so far in Siberia there are no disagreements on faith and nationality. Even in the same Tatarstan is not the same. In the 90s, they wanted to create a republic or, at worst, Tatar autonomy, but the local Tatars did not support such a step themselves, as they understood what time it would take and what it would lead to
  2. +9
    6 February 2023 05: 00
    From that time until the end of the reign of Nicholas I, only the clergy, peasantry and merchants were allowed to wear beards in Russia. The purpose of such a drastic measure is obvious: Peter wanted to make Russians at least outwardly similar to Europeans.

    In fact, the decree "to shave the beard to have a smooth face" was canceled by Alexander II.
    1. 0
      7 February 2023 15: 47
      It must be assumed, not least, from the fact that new loyal subjects or foreigners should not be annoyed for nothing. The same inhabitants of the Caucasus - the Mohammedans, for whom the beard is a kind of cult male symbol ...

      And by that time, quite a lot of them appeared in the Russian Empire. Including in the service of the imperial ...
  3. +17
    6 February 2023 05: 08
    Former Russian clothes were neither beautiful nor comfortable.

    Uh-huh, I would dress the Author according to the latest French fashion of Louis XIV and see how he is in tights with bows on snowdrifts ... .. laughing
    1. +5
      6 February 2023 05: 41
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      pantyhose with bows

      In stockings! But with bows. laughing On this topic, I think, MorCat would throw more than one * illustration *.
      Good morning Vlad!
      *Religion turned into superstition...*That sounded good too. bully
      1. +2
        6 February 2023 09: 09
        On this topic, I think, MorCat would throw more than one * illustration *.

        Yes, well ... Without the Cat, life is not the same wassat )))
        Good morning, dear Sergey Vladimirovich! Good morning dear friends!
        I would like to note something else not mentioned by the Author.
        February 4, 1722 - Peter I introduces the "Table of Ranks"
        The issue of the ratio of ranks was the subject of attention of Peter I long before the establishment of the table of ranks. The note of Peter I dated December 29, 1713 stated: "Write out from the Swedish and other degrees of degrees of all ranks, except military."

        Peter personally took part in editing the decree, which was based on borrowings from the "schedules of ranks" of the French, Prussian, Swedish and Danish kingdoms. The decree was also considered in the Military and Admiralty Boards, where a number of comments were made on the placement of ranks by rank, on salaries, on the introduction of ancient Russian ranks into the report card and on the elimination of the clause on fines for occupying a place in the church above one's rank.

        Senators Golovkin and Bruce and Major Generals Matyushkin and Dmitriev-Mamonov took part in the work on the final version of the decree.
        1. Fat
          +6
          6 February 2023 10: 13
          hi Hello, Lyudmila.
          Quote: depressant
          I would like to note something else not mentioned by the Author.

          belay
          Of course, the "table of ranks" was not marked by the author. The author describes the innovations of Peter in the period from 1698 to 1700, the very end of the 17th century.
          1. +8
            6 February 2023 10: 52
            Good afternoon, Andrey Borisovich! )))
            It's true: Peter introduced the table of ranks in February 1722. But the author of the article, Mr. Sarmatov, did not indicate "To be continued." So I decided to supplement a number of Peter's transformations with a table of ranks. By the way, I remember that a certain table of official ranks was introduced in our country quite recently. But this is so, by the way.
            1. +2
              6 February 2023 11: 37
              Mr. Sarmatov, did not indicate "To be continued"
              Yes, even without this proposal, it is clear that a continuation will follow .. Yes, Mr. Sarmatov, does not bother writing this phrase, if you paid attention. smile
          2. +1
            7 February 2023 15: 52
            Note that Peter himself during this period was still, practically, a "kid" ...

            With all the features inherent in this age and its individual character. But even then, as a "manager" he was very intelligent. Even with "self-taught" ... In other words, he knew how to "recruit into the team" active and capable of implementing his intentions and plans, people ...
    2. +11
      6 February 2023 06: 38
      Reminds me of Malvolio from 12th Night!
      Yellow garter criss-cross...
  4. +13
    6 February 2023 05: 18
    It’s good that he hasn’t introduced Western fashion yet, don’t take a bath! :))
    1. +3
      6 February 2023 05: 35
      Quote: Aristarkh Pasechnik
      It’s good that he hasn’t introduced Western fashion yet, don’t take a bath! :))

      At the Author!
      "If a person does not drink, then he is either sick or a scoundrel."

      True saying from the 18th century, but quite accurate! drinks good
      1. +3
        6 February 2023 06: 23
        Vladislav, I don’t find in style that the saying is not from the 18th century. It appeared later. But it could exist, but it sounded different.
        1. +7
          6 February 2023 07: 23
          Quote: parusnik
          could exist, but sounded different.

          aha
          Yak sho lyudyna don’t drink, there’s either sickness, or filthy)))
    2. +9
      6 February 2023 09: 15
      It’s good that he hasn’t introduced Western fashion yet, don’t take a bath! :))
      Yes, they washed, washed ..

      Albrecht Dürer, "Women in the Bath"
      1. +5
        6 February 2023 13: 48
        By the way, that's the strangeness of Durer - I did not expect! Pay attention to the full lady on the left. She obviously has some kind of pan on her head. But at the same time, the side wall of the fireplace clearly rests with its base on this pan - how is this to be understood?))))
        1. +2
          6 February 2023 14: 10
          Quote: depressant
          She obviously has some kind of pan on her head.

          Probably some kind of bath * hat *. The neighbor on the right also has a headdress.
          Quote: depressant
          But at the same time, the side wall of the fireplace clearly rests with its base on this pan - how is this to be understood?))))

          No. I didn't see that. Even when engraving is enlarged. laughing
          Good day, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! hi
          1. +3
            6 February 2023 14: 29
            I had to enlarge the image.
            Found a pom-pom on the hat. The wall of the heating device - yes, behind it, behind the pompom, which, as it turned out, is not part of the wall. But I still do not agree with Durer. An artist should know the laws of visual perception of a flat image, a plane is not 3D! smile
            1. +2
              6 February 2023 14: 54
              Quote: depressant
              But I still do not agree with Durer.

              Boldly. laughing However, dearest Lyudmila Yakovlevna, we are not looking directly at the engraving, but only at a kind of screen. Isn't it? So that Durer is out of business here. Without a doubt. bully
              hi
              1. +5
                6 February 2023 16: 16
                Let it be as you say wassat )))
                Moreover, Dürer is a very pleasant person, handsome in face ...
                I'm actually watching an earthquake. Nothing more terrible can be imagined. The Japanese tsunami on March 11, 2011 visually fades. Although there are also scary episodes. But on the second floors of capital buildings it was possible to escape. Here I watch how nine- and twelve-story capital buildings are being formed, entire blocks on both sides of the streets, ancient fortresses and architectural monuments of the world heritage are dying, the entire south of Turkey has been destroyed, there are already more than a thousand victims, several cities in Syria have been wiped off the face of the earth ... And all one little green comet! One comet! They say that all this horror will last another month. And now - wandered somewhere for 53 thousand years, came, caused a war, then an earthquake.
                I wonder if any comet came in the time of Peter? Painfully unusual, he behaved.
                1. +5
                  6 February 2023 16: 36
                  Moreover, Dürer is a very pleasant person, handsome in face ...
                  Among other things, he was a good swordsman and even the author of fencing books.



                2. +3
                  6 February 2023 18: 18
                  nine- and twelve-story capital buildings are being built
                  Here questions to the Turkish building contractors.
                  1. +1
                    7 February 2023 02: 01
                    But they built a lot of facilities in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan.
          2. +4
            6 February 2023 17: 45
            Poor Durer, and he did not know that he had problems with perspective.

            This is actually a signature version of the work, which can be seen below. Woodcut, item for sale.
            Everything is fine with perspective and a cap. The above drawing is a draft, for some reason it is more common on the Internet, most likely this is a search for composition and details.
            An interesting detail - a man at the door. There is a variant of the man in the window.
            There is also the work "Men in the bath".
            1. +3
              6 February 2023 18: 07
              Poor Durer, and he did not know that he had problems with perspective.
              Actually - yes! The Limburg brothers began to work with the perspective of the image, about a century before Dürer.
              1. +5
                6 February 2023 18: 51
                Yes, in addition, in difficult cases, a camera obscura was used. The truth is not for chamber painting, but for architectural perspectives.
                1. +3
                  6 February 2023 19: 07
                  I think the Limburgs used it. By the way, I got the impression that Fouquet painted from nature.
                  1. +4
                    6 February 2023 19: 36
                    Probably all the same as a tool for studying this phenomenon - perspectives. There are suspicions that a number of portrait painters used obscura. This seems unlikely to me - there are no explicit descriptions in the literature of that time (I did not meet references).
                    At the same time, the obscura was later used, for example, in the production of panoramas in St. Petersburg. Read about this a long time ago in "Architecture and Construction of Leningrad". With names, turnout drawings. Skillful people from Europe were discharged. Then ours learned. The chamber-rooms were raised several meters above the water level - a tower was set up on the ice on the Neva, the chamber was large, a person worked inside.
                    1. +1
                      6 February 2023 19: 53
                      Skillful people from Europe were discharged.
                      It would be better if smart surveyors were discharged!
                      1. +6
                        6 February 2023 20: 16
                        And what is wrong? There were sappers. Channels were laid, the first punching of glades - prospects they carried out.
            2. +1
              7 February 2023 07: 33
              Quote: balabol
              An interesting detail - a man at the door. There is a variant of the man in the window.

              An irresistible craving for beauty?
        2. The comment was deleted.
  5. +3
    6 February 2023 05: 35
    “If a person does not drink, then he is either sick or a scoundrel”

    Strongly said! wink
    1. +7
      6 February 2023 05: 47
      Quote: Luminman
      Strongly said!

      Comrade Lelik sounded brighter bully The truth is a little different.
  6. +8
    6 February 2023 05: 47
    Where did this text come from? For the sake of interest, I followed the link, like Wikipedia, and this is what it says there regarding the religious policy of Peter:
    The age of Peter was marked by a trend towards greater religious tolerance. Peter terminated the “12 Articles” adopted by Sophia, according to which the Old Believers who refused to renounce the “schism” were to be burned at the stake. The “schismatics” were allowed to practice their faith on condition that the existing state order was recognized and taxes doubled[11]. Complete freedom of belief was granted to foreigners who came to Russia, restrictions were lifted on the communication of Orthodox Christians with Christians of other faiths (in particular, interfaith marriages were allowed).
    Not an article, "tales from the crypt."
    1. +4
      6 February 2023 06: 00
      Quote: parusnik
      Not an article, "tales from the crypt."

      The author * saddled * Peter's theme. What awaits us near Poltava? bully
      1. +5
        6 February 2023 07: 57
        What awaits us near Poltava?
        Wait a minute, you and Poltava, there were no Azov campaigns and Narva ...
    2. 0
      9 February 2023 20: 46
      There are nuances: Peter forbade Muslims to serve at court. In fact, their status approached the lackeys. During the time of Ivan the Terrible, there were no such restrictions. The Old Believers were not executed for their faith, but they were pushed far into the periphery of life.
  7. +9
    6 February 2023 06: 00
    Shoes have also been replaced. Instead of old boots, over the knee boots appeared, which were hard boots, in front they were above the knees, and in the back they had a deep cutout, which made it easy to bend the leg.
    Go nuts, I changed the peasants into over the knee boots. In shoes, for cavalrymen.
    1. +6
      6 February 2023 06: 03
      Quote: parusnik
      Go nuts, changed the peasants into over the knee boots

      * The old man Romualdych came out .... * (c) laughing laughing laughing
      1. +5
        6 February 2023 06: 25
        * Old man Romualdych came out .... *
        And the sun broke down and spread its rays across the white light. laughing
  8. +4
    6 February 2023 06: 28
    Shalom, Orthodox!
    I was personally surprised by the following passage in the material:
    "a more or less wealthy nobleman rode out in an expensive carriage drawn by at least six horses."
    Please explain how, with such an abundant horse population in the country, the state has eternal problems with the cavalry?
    1. +14
      6 February 2023 07: 15
      where, with such an abundant horse population in the country, the state has eternal problems with cavalry

      Firstly, the author has greatly exaggerated. The Russian nobility at that time, for the most part, was by no means distinguished by its wealth. Yes, and from where - if, according to the reforms of Grozny, the land was cut based on the number of exposed fighters. No more..
      Secondly, the horse under the carriage, and the horse in the regular cavalry were quite decently different. Not - of course you can saddle a donkey, only the result will be, to put it mildly, not ah. No wonder the old Russian local cavalry in a head-on collision almost always lost to the same Polish one - the quality of the horses was incomparable. The horse of the same armored hussar was simply unbearable for most of our nobles, and you can go broke to keep it. You won’t feed such an animal with straw in winter. Will die. And losing her is like smashing a Lamborghini on credit now ..
      1. +5
        6 February 2023 07: 29
        Thank you colleague! Did you not notice the irony in my question? This is how I understand the difference between a draft horse and a riding horse. And even familiar with the clever concept of "destrie".
        I just decided to reduce the degree of criticism or move the discussion to another plane.
    2. +9
      6 February 2023 07: 33
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Please explain where

      "author" took it?
      Sucked and well if from a finger.
      With carriages at that time, it was generally not very good. Even the boyars traveled on horseback, and in case of weakness on wagons.
      Again, horse horses are different. Every year, from the Nogai horde, herds with a total livestock of up to ten thousand heads and more were brought to market, but ... the horses were rather small and were poorly suited for a forged rati or a heavy cart. Therefore, our cavalry at that time was either equestrian riflemen (noble cavalry or reiters do not matter), or dragoons, that is, riding infantry. Well, all sorts of Cossacks, where would we be without them.
      We owe the appearance of a more or less heavy cavalry to Biron, who started stud farms in Russia and his worst enemy Minikh.
  9. +8
    6 February 2023 07: 19
    Yes, Peter did not grasp everything that people had to be taught. That’s what he thought of cutting beards, but he didn’t think of how to force and accustom the grass in the courtyards of houses in cities to cut and mow. Now it is called lawns, but three hundred years after Peter, this science is hardly given in Russia ... But in the villages ...! If in Russia a new farm and a new house were built in the countryside, then first of all they built a bathhouse, and in European villages they first of all built a barn. And under the same roof with cattle - only the inner wall separated the living quarters and the barn, in many European countries they lived in villages like this until the middle of the XNUMXth century. So not only European townspeople stank, but also villagers ... By the way, can we assume that bathing in a bathhouse was what was good for a Russian, but death for a German ...? Most likely, yes.
    1. -1
      6 February 2023 07: 59
      If in Russia a new farm and a new house were built in the countryside, then first of all they built a bathhouse, and in European villages they first of all built a barn.

      This is a tale that does not stand up to scrutiny. Where did you see village houses even in the XNUMXth century, so that there were baths all around? Especially in the XNUMXth century. or earlier. The house, more often a semi-dugout, was used as a bathhouse to keep warm. The animals lived there too.
      The Middle Ages, what is Russian, what is different, the time of stench. I washed in the bathhouse, and then put on the smelly outerwear that I had worn for years, that's the whole effect.
      In the Middle Ages, mass hygiene is nonsense, so clean, so that the insects do not get stuck. Pestilence and mass epidemics are evidence of this.
      And all the stories about clean and unclean in the Middle Ages are a perfect myth, nowhere in the sources you will find a division into clean and unclean according to ethnic principles, the watershed passed through a social watershed: seigneurs or boyars are clean, "rabble", stinks - smelly.
      1. +4
        6 February 2023 08: 26
        In the Middle Ages, mass hygiene is nonsense,
        Hello Edward! You are not right. Look at least "The Book of Crafts".
        1. +3
          6 February 2023 08: 59
          Anton, I'm probably wrong, I won't even argue.
          But then Mark Blok with his “Kings-miracle workers”, Jacques le Goff with “Civilization of the West” and to the heap, Yu.L. Immortal with Life and Death in the Middle Ages. Those authors who came to mind, the rest should be looked at)

          Threat However, here we know the acts of Peter I? hi
          1. +5
            6 February 2023 09: 13
            Threat However, here we know the acts of Peter I?
            Let's just say you mentioned one of the most common myths about the European Middle Ages, and I reacted.
            As for the aforementioned authors, everyone has the right to make mistakes. I do not think that Etienne Boileau skimped on his duties by registering the Parisian guild of bath attendants.
            1. +2
              6 February 2023 09: 55
              I do not think that Etienne Boileau skimped on his duties by registering the Parisian guild of bathhouse attendants.

              Here Anton Are you specifically trying to take me away from Peter's reforms to the Northern War?
              Ai is not good, did not expect this from you. laughing
              Away, to Paris in the thirteenth century? to the bathers?
              So you confirm with data from the legislation of Paris: the presence of baths in no way indicates mass hygiene, neither in medieval Moscow, nor in Paris of the XNUMXth century, nor even in Constantinople itself))))
              Threat But they shaved off the beard, where the cabbage gets stuck there, spaghetti, is it for hygiene or not? Approached Peter I mass hygiene. Here's what I thought...
              1. +5
                6 February 2023 10: 19
                Here Anton Are you specifically trying to take me away from Peter's reforms to the Northern War?
                And what can be seriously discussed under such quality texts?
                By the way, how are the sieges of Constantinople?
                1. +6
                  6 February 2023 10: 26
                  And what can be seriously discussed under such quality texts? By the way, how are the sieges of Constantinople?

                  Here you can't argue with you.
                  The question is legitimate, something was hellishly loaded + got sick.
                  I'm back in line. soldier
          2. +4
            6 February 2023 19: 22
            Threat However, here we know the acts of Peter I? hi

            That is, not only we, but people who have connected themselves with history, also received a portion of revelations from this work !!!
            Good evening Edward.
    2. +14
      6 February 2023 08: 24
      In the northern part of Russia, houses were also built, united by one roof with outbuildings. Even driving along the roads of the Leningrad or Novgorod region, in some villages you can still see such houses.
      1. Fat
        +15
        6 February 2023 11: 07
        hi Hello Yuri. From the 16th century, wealthy peasants in the north began to build huts on the basement. Formally, the log house was "two-story" on the first floor, household affairs, livestock, supplies, and on the second - housing (room) and, yes, there could be more than 3 cages (log cabins) under one roof.
    3. 0
      9 February 2023 21: 11
      My dacha is a rebuilt peasant house built in 1917. The barn is separated from the residential part by one wall
  10. +5
    6 February 2023 07: 41
    In short - very, very bad, superficial and schematic!
    1. +4
      6 February 2023 07: 54
      In short - very, very bad, superficial and schematic!
      But what a heated discussion .. laughing
  11. +12
    6 February 2023 07: 53
    "He is mocking us" (c) It seems that the author writes articles for the sake of comments, the more comments, the better ..
    1. +10
      6 February 2023 08: 21
      This is true! The more comments, the higher the clickbait! Basics of internet journalism.
      1. +6
        6 February 2023 08: 50
        On Tricolor there were channels Histori and Histori -2, not bad in general, now they were closed. They sometimes showed films from the history of Russia, but rarely. .
      2. Fat
        +9
        6 February 2023 11: 18
        hi Greetings, Anton.
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        This is true! The more comments, the higher the clickbait! Basics of internet journalism.

        Well it's like yes smile But sometimes it starts to look like outright trolling. Throw in a crude imperfection and let the dear reader emotionally break the keyboard. An article, a good article should not look like an "attempt to manipulate" consciousness, it should be that same manipulation ... smile
      3. +14
        6 February 2023 12: 14
        And there is!
        I think that you greatly overestimate the power of the "life-giving commentary": now "views are our everything." For the aforementioned online journalism, an article with thousands of views and several comments for a media resource is much more valuable than an article with a hundred views and a thousand comments to it. Such is the selyavi, forgive me my bad German. He's good so-and-so, the pronunciation is just a little lame.
        1. +7
          6 February 2023 15: 02
          Quote: not the one
          articles with a hundred views and a thousand comments to it.

          Excuse me, how is this?
          To make a comment, you must enter the page and the counter will click ....
          1. +9
            6 February 2023 18: 21
            Excuse me, how is this?
            A dozen of those who entered furiously gnaw in the comments Yes .
            1. +6
              6 February 2023 18: 42
              A dozen of those who entered furiously gnaw in the comments
              "Friends, our union is beautiful!" (WITH)
              )))
              In principle, the clickbait system is not much different from the capitalization of securities.
              1. +6
                6 February 2023 18: 59
                is not much different from the capitalization of securities.
                More like a cryptocurrency market.
            2. +4
              6 February 2023 20: 52
              Quote: Bolt Cutter
              A dozen of those who entered furiously gnaw in the comments

              At least you won’t be able to enter the topvar once. Well, if you do not discuss with yourself)))
    2. +13
      6 February 2023 08: 24
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      "He's mocking us"

      He, the bastard, mocked us ... V. Vysotsky.
      ))))
  12. +13
    6 February 2023 08: 00
    There was such a Tsar Fedor Alekseevich. During the five years of his reign, he carried out the following reforms: tax, military district, boundary, judicial, construction. Under him there were regiments of a foreign system, those that were called Preobrazhensky under Petka. Under him, the boyars voluntarily shaved their beards in order to resemble the royal court. The calendar was not canceled, the archers were not executed
    The fact that Petya is a reformer, so the analogy with the blue bore is suggested, he also reformed everything endlessly and also opened a window to the West. According to the results of the reign, he executed a third of the population. Yes, and the analogy is rotten perestroika, we had a bad time in Rus', petka turned to the West and everyone healed.
  13. +14
    6 February 2023 08: 54
    But even these first superficial reforms were of great importance for the life of the country.

    Dear Author!
    Let's speak Russian. I understand the reason for the errors in the comments - the working day, people are in a hurry, but the authors have the opportunity to work on the text.
    It should be:
    "reforms were of great importance for the life of the country";
    "The reforms had a huge impact on the life of the country."
    Either - either, but not like you.
    I disagree with some of your comments. Perhaps, from a European point of view, Russian clothing was indeed not very aesthetic, but in our harsh climate it was more than rational.
    1. +7
      6 February 2023 09: 17
      Lyudmila, have you seen at least one answer from this scribbler?
      As well as Samsonova, Frolova and others like them?
      I generally consider it bad form to comment on such "authors"
      And if everyone did this, then there would be less such verbiage on the resource.
      No clickbait - goodbye author.
      1. +6
        6 February 2023 11: 32
        Lyudmila, have you seen at least one answer from this scribbler?
        Yes, there were answers, in the very first articles .. And then, apparently, I did not consider it necessary to answer .. laughing Not royal, this is business.
      2. +15
        6 February 2023 11: 45
        No clickbait - goodbye author.

        Yes, you see, what's the matter ... So we will be left without authors at all. All authors admit inaccuracies, but many write briefly, on top. Well, it needs to be corrected, supplemented - we have here whole maniples of connoisseurs of this or that era.
        So let's be patient.
        But clickbait? But there is an opportunity to speak to everyone wassat )))
      3. +8
        6 February 2023 13: 33
        I generally consider it bad form to comment on such "authors"
        And if everyone did this, then there would be less such verbiage on the resource.
        No clickbait - goodbye author.

        It is necessary to ask or demand, from the site administration, to indicate the author in the title of the article, so that it would be possible NOT CLICKING to determine whether it is worth spending time reading such opuses. Empty authors will not give authority to the site then even in clickbait.
    2. +6
      6 February 2023 09: 25
      The author distorts, but the Decree "On wearing a dress in the manner of the Hungarian" was. According to which nobles, boyars, merchants and servants of all ranks were ordered to wear European costumes. Ordinary people, he did not particularly touch
      1. +7
        6 February 2023 10: 41
        In general, the Hungarian and Polish dress was worn quite calmly even before that.
        In short, you can put it this way. Feryaz is clothing for official ceremonies and meetings in the Duma, something like the current strict suit. And the Polish kuntush or Hungarian is a fashionable leather jacket.
        Yes
        1. Fat
          +5
          6 February 2023 20: 10
          hi Greetings, Ivan.
          There are a number of interesting points here. Pyotr Alekseevich, was not the first in the "struggle for functional clothing"...
          The royal decree of 1679 defined ferezis as ceremonial clothes of especially noble persons: “The Great Sovereign instructed boyars and roundabouts and neighbors in the Muscovite state to walk in colored ferezis, people of all ranks - in all kinds of caftans.” In a letter of 1681, one of the Muscovites writes to his friend: “Yes, you wrote to me about ferezis, they are not worn in Moscow and they are not ordered to be made.” The fact is that in 1681 the ban on ferezis was repeated even more strictly, as the chronicler reports: “The same year, by order of the Tsar and Grand Duke Feodor Alekseevich of All Russia, the autocrat of the Muscovite state of all ranks, Russian people wear an old single-row dress and no one should wear ferezy is not indicated, then the dress is left, and everyone is ordered to wear a service dress, which God has attached to whom.

          “In the summer of October 7188, on the 23rd day, the great sovereign, in his tsar’s prudent merciful consideration, indicated to his tsar’s synclite the boyars and roundabouts, and duma, and neighbors, and servicemen, and clerks in Moscow and in the cities to wear service clothes, and the former old-fashioned policemen put aside clothes and single-row clothes so that those clothes are decent for a woman’s dress and for service and travel time it was indecent and much unprofitable "

          The fate of clothing, mentioned in written sources since 1489, was decided by the royal decree of 1679...
          he commanded in the Muscovite state not to walk in hats and in single rows. “And from many people in the Kremlin, the city, at the gates, from the nobles and from the clerks of the hunt and the one-row tore.” Since that time, single rows have remained only with commoners, and in the national period they gradually pass into the category of peasant dress.

          This is how Fyodor Alekseevich paved the way for his brother Peter laughing
          1. 0
            9 February 2023 21: 28
            Fedor Alekseevich paved the way for his brother Peter

            The path was trodden by Mikhail Fedorovich: at court it was required to appear in a Polish dress
  14. +11
    6 February 2023 09: 17
    The first reforms of Peter, as we see, were superficial
    In modern Russia, and not so long ago, there was a reformer with superficial reforms (D.A. Medvedev), but no luck ... laughing
    1. +5
      6 February 2023 09: 47
      not long ago there was a reformer with superficial reforms
      He spoiled the furrow and raised such layers .. Yes, there is nothing to sow .. They only plant .. smile
      1. +11
        6 February 2023 11: 53
        Brilliantly!
        However ... be careful - even in the language of Aesop. We have no encouraging laws, only prohibitive ones. Bloggers are already being attracted, and when they run out, the watchful eye of the hungry law can turn to lovers of ancient literature)))
        1. +10
          6 February 2023 12: 10
          watchful eye
          Eye of Sauron? Or is Big Brother always watching you.? smile
          1. +12
            6 February 2023 12: 17
            I would replace "or" with "and". Two in one, like in that ad.
            1. +10
              6 February 2023 12: 54
              Yes, it doesn’t matter .. Ok, enough is enough .. On the roads, in shops, offices, government places. Remove your “eyes”, the people will start to become hysterical. Today is a holiday. A day without a mobile .. smile
              1. +15
                6 February 2023 14: 30
                I congratulate the citizens of our entire vast country on this bright holiday! Without a mobile, life will sparkle with new colors, because it is his fault
                We lost the spirit of adventurism, we stopped climbing into the windows of our beloved women, we stopped doing big good stupid things.
                So I consider the Decree of Peter 1 on the complete ban on mobile phones and the Internet in the Russian Empire to be correct and very reasonable.
                1. +7
                  6 February 2023 15: 04
                  Quote: not the one
                  So I consider the Decree of Peter 1 on the complete ban on mobile phones and the Internet in the Russian Empire to be correct and very reasonable.

                  Is there life without the Internet and a smartphone? laughing Who will give an answer?
                  Joke, joke, joke.
                  1. +8
                    6 February 2023 16: 48
                    . Is there life without the Internet and a smartphone?
                    Once newspapers came into life, over time, all people began to read them. Life without newspapers, radio and television began to seem flawed.
                    Man cannot live without information.
                    A person cannot live without information about what is happening on planet Earth.
                    And he absolutely cannot live, no matter where he is, without information about what the familiar name is doing at the moment, as well as other acquaintances and relatives.
                    And he cannot live without the opinion of some scrap blogger about this or that event, important or insignificant.
                    And the ruling person catches every word.
                    From this point of view, the era of Peter... No, I don't want to go there. Nothing was caught there, the earth fed on rumors.
                    1. +2
                      6 February 2023 18: 41
                      Quote: depressant
                      And he cannot live without the opinion of some scrap blogger about this or that event, important or insignificant.
                      And the ruling person catches every word.
                      From this point of view, the era of Peter... No, I don't want to go there. Nothing was caught there, the earth fed on rumors.

                      In addition to everything you said, I also changed interpersonal communication quite a bit. However, it cannot be said that this is very annoying.
  15. +8
    6 February 2023 13: 19
    But if the reformer was right, then in the end everyone accepted his changes. Time is the fairest judge, and in the end it showed Peter was right.


    controversial thesis. Since Peter's "modernization" in many respects affected only the top. And this top, the westernized aristocracy, will be demolished after a couple of centuries. Alas, Peter led the country in the wrong direction. Russia does not want to squeeze into European standards, even crack.
    And those who have been imbued with the European spirit feel like strangers among their own. And they consider their own such "Europeans" to be rotten ... before the nobles, at the present time - the so-called. intelligentsia.
    1. +5
      6 February 2023 19: 54
      controversial thesis. Since Peter's "modernization" in many respects affected only the top.

      It's a little more complicated. Peter built a regular state in which almost ace was regulated. From building wooden boats to assemblies. The number of by-laws prepared by him is simply amazing.
      Among them were both stupid and sensible. For example, asking the bride's consent to marriage.
      In fact, Peter is a bundle of contradictions.
      1. -1
        7 February 2023 12: 59
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        For example, asking the bride's consent to marriage.

        really asked? belay
        1. 0
          7 February 2023 18: 45
          Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          For example, asking the bride's consent to marriage.

          really asked? belay

          Lively girls, guided by this decree, successfully bombarded the mayors and governors with their complaints from the second quarter of the 18th century. He also limited the age of the bride and groom.
          1. -2
            7 February 2023 21: 23
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            He also limited the age of the bride and groom.

            recall how it all ended?
  16. +6
    6 February 2023 13: 29
    People were too religious: almost everything they did was closely related to religion. Russians hated and despised people of a different religion,

    It seems that the author switched from a presentation on the topic "Peter I" from A. Tolstoy and his screen adaptations to a presentation based on the works of foreign diplomats and merchants, a feature of which was pouring shit and writing fables about Russia and its population.
    1. +4
      6 February 2023 14: 56
      If it were "an exposition based on the works of foreign diplomats and merchants," then this would be at least original material, albeit biased. And so it is "copy-past", pulled from Wikipedia and Zen, well, from somewhere else. I checked several excerpts from the author's previous articles - seamless phrases from mass and non-professional sources, some words are really rearranged.
    2. 0
      6 February 2023 15: 07
      Quote: Amateur
      switched to a presentation based on the works of foreign diplomats and merchants,

      Do you think that the author's next step will be the monograph *I and Peter the Great.* bully
      1. +7
        6 February 2023 17: 07
        This article is of interest not from the point of view of history (tell me, did anyone learn something new?), but as an example of a hacky compilation of superficial judgments, unsubstantiated assertions and well-known facts. A frivolous attitude to fundamental concepts such as religion and faith does not do credit to the author.
        1. +2
          6 February 2023 18: 32
          Quote: balabol
          This article is of interest not from the point of view of history (tell me, did anyone learn something new?)

          Vladimir! Sorry, but I was just joking in my comment. Unsuccessful? Maybe.
          With all due respect to you. hi
          1. +5
            6 February 2023 19: 44
            Come on Phil, what to apologize for.
            I just put a few notes in an article about the Great Embassy in England in order to somehow dilute the material with details. And then he got really upset. This topic has failed.
  17. +6
    6 February 2023 15: 19
    What was the mistake of Tsar Peter?
    Western Europe was entering the era of a fierce struggle between capitalism, which was gradually taking shape as the main political force, and obsolete, but still very strong, monarchical forms of labor organization and the state. Peter, perhaps, saw this, but he began with a "cosmetic repair", which was superimposed on the former state form. It's like a pre-sale renovation of a home with cracked walls. Covered up, and you can deceive the buyer.
    But it was necessary to make the subjects themselves want to shave their beards and put on foreign clothes, if this is more convenient in new production relations and gives a person more confidence in relations with the state. And also in order not to feel awkward when communicating with foreign "partners". Everything had to happen in a natural way due to the multiple increase in useful economic ties with the West at the level of the broadest masses of the population. But Peter knew something else: a human life is short! I wanted to be on time. At least at the expense of cosmetics imposed on the Russian monarchy.
    1. +6
      6 February 2023 16: 56
      "Everything had to happen in a natural way due to the multiple increase in useful economic ties with the West at the level of the broadest masses of the population."
      Never in history has this happened. At the turning points of history, changes in formations, etc., one, the victorious power group, broke the other on its knee. The broadest masses of the population were driven under the bench so that they would sit quietly and not rustle.
      “But it was necessary to make the subjects themselves want to shave their beards and put on foreign clothes, if this is more convenient in new production relations and gives a person more confidence in relations with the state.” - Seriously? Is that allowed? Who could do it before Peter? Maybe after there is an example of how everyone moved together towards such happiness?
      1. +5
        6 February 2023 18: 46
        There is an example. For a long time she lived in the Caucasus, in Abkhazia. The local population, without losing their strange customs (the younger generations belonged to this --- some with a sigh, some with chuckles), diligently fit into the economy of the Union, settling wherever possible, but mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, and converted all places of their new stay for their own benefit - some legally, some criminally, in general, people actively fit in. Sami. Visiting their native penates, they carried with them the assimilated, let's say, European way of life, accustomed their ancestors to a new one - a two-story house with many rooms grew up not only in the city, but also in a remote village, Bulgarian furniture, German sets and so on. Vacationers were pleased in such an environment - they poured millions. At the same time, the republican authorities did nothing for this. Just like the allies. There were several health resorts eking out an unrepaired existence due to corruption, and that's all, but the republic prospered, not so much because of subsidies, but thanks to private commercial and partly criminal initiative of citizens. From these generations of young people, over time, zealous owners of their territory should have grown up, who would have developed the existing frail industry (tea factory, tobacco, winery, farm, meat processing plant), transferring it to a much higher level and expanding the range of products. And then the local government would take up the initiative of the population, but ... But the trend has already been different. From the Union side. For decay. Now there are ruins of what was industrial. Out of 120 thousand Abkhazians, 70 remained.
        1. +5
          6 February 2023 20: 34
          Yes you that, this history has no relation to a subject of conversation.
          In the country of victorious socialism, with the full consensus of the elites, a program was carried out to raise the standard of living of the national outskirts. The Soviet government poured huge funds into the Caucasus (to the detriment of the regions of the RSFSR), a new culture and history was written to the national outskirts. Quotas for studying at universities, places in creative unions, full support for national personnel.
          And of course, this is a direct copy of the relations between Russia and Europe in 1700.
          I realized that Peter the Great's mistake was that he did not wait for the program to support "a multiple increase in useful economic ties with the West at the level of the broadest masses of the population" of Russia from Holland, England, France and friends from Sweden.
          It turns out that we live in parallel universes. Today they just crossed, touched.
  18. +3
    6 February 2023 18: 42
    "there was money" in fact, our ancestors were practical people: with money there is a tangible benefit, but with orders, what is tangible?
    1. +3
      6 February 2023 20: 30
      Quote: vladcub
      with orders, what is tangible?

      I don’t think that * the nestlings of the GDP nest * awarded with all sorts of titles and orders of considerable weight will agree with you, Svyatoslav. I don’t think so. bully
  19. +4
    6 February 2023 19: 30
    If we talk about the activities of Tsar Peter at the very end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries, then it is impossible to get around the issue of potatoes.
    Until the end of the 1698th century, almost nothing was known about potatoes in Russia. They ate mainly cereals, as well as radishes, carrots, turnips and other vegetables. For the first time, Peter I tried potatoes, being in Holland in XNUMX. The tsar appreciated the dish and sent a bag of tubers to Count Sheremetyev so that he would take care of the cultivation of potatoes in Russia. However, the emperor's plan was not successful.

    Because the peasants had to be taught how to grow and cook potatoes! Yes, who would do that?
    1. +4
      6 February 2023 20: 51
      Quote: depressant
      If we talk about the activities of Tsar Peter at the very end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries, then it is impossible to get around the issue of potatoes.

      There is a version that it was Jerusalem artichoke)))
      The real spread began under Catherine II, but even under Nicholas I, potato riots broke out. Nevertheless, it was under him (Nicholas) that potatoes firmly entered the peasant diet.
    2. -2
      7 February 2023 12: 57
      Quote: depressant
      then it is impossible to get around the question of potatoes.

      of course it’s not possible, parsley is not to him in any way
  20. 0
    6 February 2023 23: 50
    We often hear that Peter turned the wrong way, but where should he have turned? Russia was then a country without industry, without access to the seas (Arkhangelsk does not count), with an army that could only fight nomads, and even then, the Crimean Tatars plundered southern Rus' until the second half of the 18th century. To follow the path of China, which was almost torn apart?
    1. -2
      7 February 2023 12: 57
      Quote: Reader
      Russia was then a country without industry, without access to the seas
      well, yes, the Finnish puddle is such a way out
      Quote: Reader
      with an army that could only fight nomads, and even then, the Crimean Tatars plundered southern Rus' until the second half of the 18th century.

      you will be surprised, but he started reforms in the army before Peter, all Peter’s military leaders were also not nurtured by him, but you wrote great about the 18th century, it turns out that all of his reforms are PSHIK
  21. +1
    7 February 2023 10: 59
    Most of the material is taken from the "yellow" press and cannot be reliable.
  22. -2
    7 February 2023 12: 46
    They worked for themselves and the landowner, went to church, and often abused alcohol in their free time. There was even a proverb:

    in 1652, the Zemsky Sobor was convened, which received the historical name "cathedral about taverns." The result was a decree on limiting the number of drinking outlets in Russia and the definition of prohibited days for the sale of alcohol. I must say that there were quite a few of them, as many as 180. The tsar also forbade selling vodka on credit. The prices for this product have been raised three times. One person could buy only one glass of vodka, which then had a volume of 143,5 grams.
    Patriarch Nikon, who has a great influence on the tsar, insisted on a ban on the sale of alcohol to "priests and monastics". Sermons were intensively read in churches that drunkenness is a sin and harm to health. This had a positive effect, a negative attitude began to form towards drunkards, and not as tolerant as before.
  23. -1
    7 February 2023 12: 54
    In order to finally make the Russians look like Europeans, the tsar decided to introduce European clothes. Former Russian clothes were neither beautiful nor comfortable.
    well, yes, pants are bad in a thirty-degree frost, and stockings and shoes are just right, are you out of your mind?!

    what a crazy article!
  24. +1
    7 February 2023 13: 42
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    It's a little more complicated. Peter built a regular state in which almost ace was regulated. From building wooden boats to assemblies. The number of by-laws prepared by him is simply amazing.


    So Western. With a mechanistic approach to social processes, it was then fashionable in Europe. But it's still the outside.
    The main flaw of Peter's modernization is that it actually divided a single nation into two: with a different culture and mentality. Even the languages ​​are different.
    Russia has become a chimera with a European head and an "Asiatic body". Tops and bottoms have forgotten how to understand each other. The result is quite predictable.
    By the way, to some extent, we currently have a similar situation ...
    1. 0
      9 February 2023 21: 40
      Peter just completed the process of dividing the people. The first and decisive step is the church schism.
  25. +1
    7 February 2023 13: 51
    In order to finally make the Russians look like Europeans, the tsar decided to introduce European clothes. Former Russian clothes were neither beautiful nor comfortable.


    Beauty is a subjective concept. And the convenience ... if the author of this article was dressed up (or rather forced to wear it himself) in the then European clothes, he would, perhaps, take his words back.

    I believe the author is aware that the Red Army in the Civil War wore a uniform written off from the archers. A long overcoat with "conversations", Budyonovka ... originally it was prepared for the Russian army parade in Berlin after the victory over the Kaiser. And what prevented this "inconvenient" form from smashing the whites?

    Peasants in pre-Petrine times (and later) wore Russian bast shoes ... fu, what a primitive. And what did the common people in Europe wear during the era of the Enlightenment Revival? In wooden shoes, leather shoes were not affordable for everyone. In Holland, such shoes were called "klomps". I would like to see how comfortable it would be to wear wooden blocks on your feet ... hard and corns to the point of blood.

    So, the author is clearly biased and does not suffer from objectivity.
  26. +1
    7 February 2023 14: 02
    Quote: Reader
    We often hear that Peter turned the wrong way, but where should he have turned?


    Nowhere. Develop what you need, without social shocks. Moreover, Peter's reforms, having provided access for the upper classes to the benefits of European civilization, on the contrary, strengthened the "Asiaticism" for the bulk of the population. Serfdom took its final form under Peter. At the first factories in the Urals, not civilian workers worked, but serfs, who were chained to the workplace with leg irons.
    Often Peter borrowed from the West not what was really needed, but what was needed - he just ignored it. And the European reforms were carried out by completely Asian methods.
    China ... and there was also Japan, which carried out its "Meiji transformation" much faster and more successfully, and at a much lower cost. Despite the fact that the starting conditions for Japan were much worse: up to their necks in feudalism with their shoguns. Russia, before Peter, was not so backward, reforms (including military ones) were already underway.
    1. 0
      9 February 2023 21: 48
      . Serfdom took its final form precisely under Peter

      This is true, but the foundation was laid by Alexei Mikhailovich: the final cancellation of St. George's Day, the indefinite search for fugitive serfs, the ban on peasants to engage in industrial activities
  27. 0
    7 February 2023 21: 15
    The beard in Rus' for the military and nobles was returned by Alexander 3
    hi

  28. +1
    8 February 2023 09: 40
    Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
    this had a positive effect, a negative attitude began to form towards drunkards, and not as tolerant as before


    It is very significant, especially when compared with what happened in "Europe".
    To reproach the Russians for drunkenness ... after all, Min Herz Peter himself was such a teetotaler, especially at "symposiums" with his henchmen ... well, yes, he is a sailor, as it were, he created the fleet for us and all that.

    "Bordeaux is a drink for boys,
    and porter is for men,
    but who wants to become a sailor,
    he should only drink gin."
  29. +1
    9 February 2023 03: 36
    What nonsense, author. Retelling the fatness. Ege victim apparently. Illiteracy is rampant.
  30. +1
    14 February 2023 01: 54
    This is not an article, this is an essay by a 6th grade student. He knows the dates, he knows the events, but the interpretation is at the level of a C student. And the presentation ... (hand-face)))
  31. 0
    14 February 2023 12: 42
    There was even a proverb:

    "If a person does not drink, then he is either sick or a scoundrel."
    Nonsense) Who wants to be closer to the truth, read about "Russian drunken riots." Historians in Russia have traditionally been prone to betrayal of the Motherland, ever since the days when it was mostly the Germans...

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