Great Embassy of Peter I in Germany and Holland

42
Great Embassy of Peter I in Germany and Holland

At the end of the XNUMXth century, Russia needed allies in the war with powerful Turkey. But will European countries want to fight the Turks? And how can Russia fight the Turks if it has a catastrophic shortage of officers, both land and sea?

And where does Peter get generals and admirals? Hiring them in Europe was practiced, but, as subsequent events showed, it was their own commanders who were more reliable. Craftsmen were also needed to build ships. To this end, Peter sends 50 young nobles to Europe to study military and naval affairs. This, like many other transformations of Peter, caused the strongest murmur in society.



Even, it would seem, a useful thing - digging a canal between two rivers - also caused strong grumbling and indignation. Most Russians considered this not a charitable deed, because, as they thought, it is impossible to turn the streams in the other direction, when God has already turned them to the right place. Sending nobles abroad is all the more not a charitable thing, they said, because they go to heretics!

Peter had almost no supporters of the transformations, so everything was carried out only thanks to the iron will of the king. Peter knew perfectly well that 100 years before him, Boris Godunov had already made attempts to send nobles abroad for training, but most of those nobles remained abroad, not wanting to go back. Therefore, Peter assigned a soldier to every person traveling to Europe.

The goals of the embassy


In December 1696, Peter decided to go abroad himself.

For the tsar to leave the borders of Russia - this has never happened before. Not only kings, but also ordinary subjects did not travel abroad. If one of the Russian nobles in the pre-Petrine era arbitrarily traveled to another country, then he was considered a traitor to the Motherland, and if he returned, he was threatened with execution. For example, during the reign of Peter's grandfather, Mikhail Fedorovich, Prince Khvorostinin was subjected to severe persecution only because, in the presence of friends, he started talking about traveling to Poland and Rome.

Despite this, Peter did not refuse to travel to Europe, but nevertheless decided to go not under his own name, but under the name of a simple officer Pyotr Mikhailov. An embassy is being equipped, which will later be called great. The purpose of this embassy was to visit in turn the emperor of Austria, the king of England and Denmark, the pope, Holland - all of Europe, excluding France and Spain -

"to express there the desire to renew the ancient bonds of friendship, bearing in mind the weakening of the enemies of the Christian race."

That is, the purpose of the embassy was to draw European countries into a war with Turkey. There were only three envoys: Lefort, who was considered the first envoy, as well as Golovin and Voznitsyn.

All members of the embassy were strictly forbidden to say that the tsar was traveling with them. All letters that were addressed to the sovereign from Russia should have only had the inscription: "hand over to Pyotr Mikhailov." Peter himself then signed his letters: “scorer Piter”.

But for Russian society, as later for European society, it was no secret that the Russian tsar was going to Europe. Most Russians thought that the tsar was only traveling for entertainment.


The situation in Russia on the eve of departure


At the beginning of 1697, Peter was handed a message, the author of which was the monk of the Andreevsky Monastery Abraham. In this message, the monk reproached the tsar for his behavior, which was considered unworthy of the tsar, for his passion for "indecent fun", he called shipbuilding fun, and also reproached Peter for all his undertakings, which, according to Avraamy, absolutely do not need Russia.

At the end of the message, the monk did a great stupidity: he signed the letter with his name and asked for a meeting with the king. The meeting took place, but not in the palace, but in the dungeons of the Preobrazhensky Prikaz. Under torture, the monk confessed that many dissatisfied with the actions of Peter gathered in his cell. Some of them were arrested, but since they did not intend to kill or overthrow Peter, they got off with light punishments.

In February, a more serious plot was uncovered, the purpose of which was to kill Peter. The leader of the conspiracy was the Streltsy Colonel Ivan Tsikler. In 1682, he took an active part in the Streltsy uprising on the side of Sophia and the Miloslavskys. But in 1689 he betrayed Sophia and went over to the side of Peter. He hoped to kill Peter with the help of archers, who also hated him.

Many nobles also joined the conspiracy, in particular Alexei Sokovnin and Fyodor Pushkin, the ancestor of the famous poet.

After the disclosure of the conspiracy, Peter himself interrogated its participants, who were tortured. The leaders of the conspiracy were sentenced to death, which was soon carried out.

Departure of the embassy


It would seem that after two conspiracies, Peter had to abandon the trip, but the preparations for the embassy continued. Peter left Prince Romodanovsky as ruler instead of himself in Moscow. Contemporaries said about him:

“By looking like a monster, by the nature of an evil tyrant, a great undesirer of good for anyone, drunk for all days.”

But, despite this characterization, no one could accuse Romodanovsky of embezzlement or bribery. He was an honest and disinterested man, albeit a cruel one.

Finally, the preparation of the embassy was completed, and on March 10, 1697, it left Moscow. The embassy consisted of 250 people, among whom were 30 volunteers intended to study maritime affairs and shipbuilding in Europe.

The first foreign city where the embassy stopped was Swedish Riga. In this city, many knew that the tsar himself was present at the embassy, ​​but the governor of Riga, Dalberg, pretended to know nothing about this. When Peter wanted to inspect the fortifications of the city through a telescope and put them on paper, this was strictly forbidden to him. Dahlberg remarked to Lefort that the people of his retinue allow themselves such liberties. In Riga, they well remembered that Peter's father, Alexei Mikhailovich, besieged the city, his son could repeat the same thing in the future (and eventually did it again). Peter harbored a grudge against the Swedes, and the embassy immediately left the city.

The next city visited by the Russian embassy was Mitava, the capital of the Duchy of Courland. The Duke gave the Russians a more hospitable welcome than in Riga.
In early May, the embassy arrived in Königsberg, where he was met by the Elector of Brandenburg Frederick, the future first king of Prussia. The reception was solemn. In Königsberg, Peter stayed with the embassy for more than a month, until June 10. All this time, the tsar closely followed the events in Poland.

In Poland, after the death of Jan III Sobieski, the election of a new king took place. The state structure of this country was a mixture of a monarchy and a republic, and the Commonwealth took the worst from each of them. In fact, it was ruled by a king, elected by the Sejm for life. But he could not make a single important decision if at least one person in the Sejm was against it.

There were two contenders for the empty Polish throne: the French protege Prince de Condé and the protege of Russia, Elector Friedrich August.

In early July, when Peter had already left Königsberg, he received the good news about the election of Frederick Augustus as the Polish king, who ruled under the name of Augustus II. His election as king of Poland is the most important event in stories Russia's relations with the Commonwealth, since, starting from his election as king, Russia will more and more, until the fall of the Commonwealth, will interfere in its internal and external affairs.

Augustus was elected king of Poland mainly because the Russian resident in Warsaw, Nikitin, threatened the Poles that if they elected Prince de Condé, Russia would put itself in hostile relations with Poland, that is, threatened with war.

But back to Peter. Leaving Koenigsberg, he went to Holland. In Berlin, the future capital of Prussia, Peter did not stop without considering it necessary. But he made a stop in the small town of Konnenburg, where he was met by the Elector of Hanover Sophia and her daughter, Sophia Charlotte, Elector of Brandenburg. Peter, having learned that many courtiers had gathered in the palace, did not immediately decide to go out to them. Then a solemn dinner took place in the palace. At the table, Peter, according to Russian custom, forced all the courtiers to drink wine by glasses.

Peter's meeting with the Electors in Connenburg lasted only a few hours, but they managed to form an idea of ​​their new acquaintance. Sofia later wrote:

“The king is very tall, his face is very beautiful, he is very slender. But along with all the outstanding qualities that nature endowed him with, one should wish that his tastes were less rude ... he told us that he himself was working on the construction of ships, showed his hands and forced him to touch the calluses formed on them from work " .

In another letter, the Elector noted:

“If he had received a better education, he would have been an excellent person, because he has many virtues and an infinite amount of natural intelligence.”

Everyone also drew attention to the convulsions that changed the face of the tsar, as well as to his inability to eat neatly and use napkins, which were then unknown in Russia. The general opinion of the electors about Peter was this:

“This sovereign is very kind and very evil, he has a character - absolutely the character of his country.”

Holland


Then Peter went to Holland. Both in Germany and in Holland, the presence of Peter in the embassy was not a secret to anyone; Peter himself did not sacredly keep a secret.

On August 7, Peter with six volunteers, including Alexander Menshikov, arrived in the Dutch town of Saardam before the embassy. There he met the blacksmith Gerrit Kist, whom he knew back in Moscow, and stayed at his house. This house later became a museum. Peter himself slept in the closet there, as it was then fashionable in Holland. Paul I, Alexander I, Alexander II will later visit this house. Napoleon, who also visited this house, said about Peter's small locker:

"For a great man, nothing is small."


I. Moucheron, P. Berger "The Great Embassy in the Netherlands", ca. 1697

In Saardam, Piotr works at a shipyard disguised as an ordinary Dutch carpenter. But his demeanor made it clear to those around him that he was no ordinary carpenter. Yes, and Kista's wife let slip that the Russian Tsar himself lives in their house.

Crowds of onlookers begin to follow Peter on the streets, haunting him. Somehow a crowd of children stuck to him, begging for plums. He gave a drain to some children, but didn’t give it to others, for which they began to throw mud at Peter. After this incident, the burgomaster of Saardam ordered to place guards on the bridge, near Peter's dwelling. But that didn't help either. As soon as Peter was noticed on the street, crowds of curious people immediately ran. Therefore, already on August 15, having stayed in Saardam for only 8 days, Peter leaves for Amsterdam.

Saardam, now Zandam, is still proud of the fact that Peter once lived here. A monument was erected to the king on one of the squares of the city. Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Peter, bought all the furniture that served her father. Alexander I, having visited the Tsar's house in 1814, ordered to install a memorial plaque on it.


"Conversation of Peter I in Holland". Unknown Dutch artist. 1690s

So, Peter arrives in Amsterdam, where the embassy soon arrived. The king gets a job in the East India Company. And still building ships. For four whole months Peter stayed with the embassy in Amsterdam.

Peter especially liked the exemplary naval battle, which was given by the authorities of Amsterdam on the occasion of the visit of the Russian Tsar. Many sailing ships lined up in two battle lines. Peter, along with burgomasters and ambassadors, arrived on a richly decorated yacht of the East India Company. The fleet saluted the king with a salvo from all the guns, and then a mock battle began. Peter was so fascinated by this that he could not sit still and remain a spectator, he moved from the yacht to the warship and controlled it himself, as in a real battle.

Then all day long he worked for a shipbuilder at the shipyard. On September 9, Peter himself laid down the frigate.

Working at the shipyard, Peter tried not to impersonate anything, he worked, following all the orders of his master. And still, the news of who he was spread far beyond Amsterdam. Once, a noble Englishman specially came to Amsterdam to look at the famous carpenter. He asked the master where he could find the king. He pointed to a tall carpenter who was sitting on a log and resting. At this time, several workers were carrying a heavy log. The master shouted: “Peter, the carpenter of Saardam! Your comrades are having a hard time, so help them!” Peter immediately jumped up and put his shoulder under the log.


Peter I in Holland

Then the workers at the shipyard decades later told their children and grandchildren how they communicated with the king. Peter often talked with ordinary workers, told interesting stories, after work he drank beer with them in taverns.

But, despite the fact that he spent the whole day working at the shipyard, Peter still managed to be aware of the affairs of Russia, Turkey and Poland. In letters, he wrote orders to the boyars in Moscow, answered their letters. He was forced to do this at night, giving sleep for three to four hours.

Peter was very inquisitive. He constantly asked knowledgeable people everything that he did not understand. The king even hired a teacher who taught him the theory of shipbuilding. But soon even he admitted to Peter that he did not understand everything in ship drawings, explaining that the Dutch mostly built out of habit, by eye, without drawings.

Peter was interested in Holland not only in shipbuilding, but also visited hospitals, educational homes, factories, factories, which were not in Russia at that time. And always the young king had a hand in everything, he wanted to try everything himself. He learned how to make paper, engravings, and also became interested in anatomy.

Peter also met many of the then famous scientists in Holland. Often the king visited the anatomy professor Ruysch. This professor had his own anatomical theater, similar to modern theaters, but in the middle of it there was a table on which corpses were processed. Once Ruysch dissected the corpse of a baby, who after that smiled as if in a dream. The king, who visited the professor, did not believe that the child was dead, then Ruysch opened the glass lid. And only by touching Peter was convinced that there was a corpse in front of him.


Peter I works at a shipyard in Holland

Subsequently, Ruysch became a true friend of the king. Peter attended the lectures of the professor, constantly asked him about everything that he did not understand, they visited hospitals together, where Ruysch treated the sick.

In Leiden, Peter met the professor of medicine Burgav and also examined his anatomical study. He stared at the embalmed corpse for a long time. Seeing that the members of the retinue accompanying him contemptuously frown and turn away, Peter forced them to tear the muscles of the corpse with their teeth.

In Utrecht, Peter met the English king and Dutch stadtholder William III, who received the king hospitably and presented him with a yacht.

The tsar also recruited officers for the Russian service. Among the officers who then entered the service was the future Admiral Cornelius Kruys, who a few years later would command the Baltic fleet. The question may arise why the Dutch officers so easily agreed to transfer to the Russian service? The fact is that they knew well that even a simple sailor could become an admiral there, a teacher an academician, and a soldier a field marshal. And the example of Kruys is just one of many. In addition to this, foreigners were well paid.

However, another task of the embassy - to persuade Holland to go to war with Turkey - was not successful. Not a single European country then wanted to fight with the strong and huge Ottoman Empire, whose possessions were on three continents, from the Balkans to Baghdad, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula.

They did not want to fight the Turks for another reason - everyone expected the death of the sick Spanish king Charles II, who had no heirs. The possessions of Spain were then in North, South America, Asia, Africa and occupied a much larger territory than the possessions of Turkey. A new war was brewing for the Spanish inheritance, which England, Holland and the Austrian Habsburgs, relatives of the Spanish king, were ready to share. Everyone expected his death, but Charles II would die only two years later.

But at the same time, Peter realized that countries such as Prussia, Saxony and the Commonwealth would not mind fighting with another powerful country - with Sweden, where King Charles XI had recently died, and the throne passed to his fifteen-year-old son Charles XII.

Once Peter visited the house of the merchant Jan Tessing. At dinner, the king expressed the idea that the knowledge of shipbuilding acquired at the shipyard did not satisfy him. An Englishman was sitting at the table, who declared that in England shipbuilding had reached the highest degree of perfection, and that its theoretical course could be completed in a short time.

To be continued ...
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42 comments
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  1. +7
    January 28 2023
    Let us assume that allies are needed not only during the time of Peter the Great. Peter's greatness lay in the fact that he was often interested in those matters that are still considered trifles. And then he introduced them. Neither before nor after did the leaders of the countries pay attention to the details of industrial production. The author is five. We are waiting for the continuation.
    1. +5
      January 28 2023
      Good morning!
      Let's assume that allies are needed not only in the time of Peter the Great.

      If "on the shelves." Peter became great two decades after the “First Great Embassy.” By the way, there was also the “Second Great Embassy”.
      However, Russia's allies in the Northern War were catastrophically unlucky. Saxony, Poland and Denmark betrayed the interests of the anti-Swedish alliance more than once or twice. Including several times it reached the "separate peace". Depending on the "successes" on both sides, a dozen small German lands and even Britain occasionally took part in the conflict on both sides. The biggest beneficiary turned out to be the Prussian confust - who became king.
      At the same time, Russia pulled out all the hardships of the 20-year war. However (my personal opinion) thanks to the personality of Peter Alekseevich.
      The greatness of Peter lay in the fact that he was often interested in those matters that are now considered trifles. And then he introduced them. Neither before nor after did the leaders of the countries pay attention to the details of industrial production.

      A "regular state" is not good, alas, it comes from "hopelessness". By the way, "Peter's decree on the ban on wearing a beard" was finally canceled only by Alexander II.
      I idolize Peter - a carpenter, a shipbuilder and a bombardier, but as a manager he raises many questions.
      However, sometimes I envy him, as an anointed one, he could beat his subjects with a “birch scorch”! Alas, today such methods are not possible.
      I will quote Alexander II. When asked by his mother why, unlike the father, he surrounds himself with ordinary people. A descendant of Peter replied - “Nicholas I was a genius and could afford to be surrounded by “mediocrity”, but I am “mediocrity” therefore I have to rely on geniuses.
      Elizabeth, Catherine II and all three Alexanders had the best “smell” for the associates of our sovereigns (my personal opinion).
      The author is five. We are waiting for the continuation.

      Alas, the Author - "satisfactory." At the very least, we need to go beyond the Soviet school curriculum!
  2. +14
    January 28 2023
    After reading this opus, I was pleasantly surprised that the author read "Peter I" by A.N. Tolstoy and was even able to write a presentation on this topic. good
    1. +8
      January 28 2023
      Drum roll tail. Taken off the tongue!
    2. +2
      January 28 2023
      It felt like I was reading a novel translated into an article.
  3. +11
    January 28 2023
    Very, very superficially .. "It'll do with beer," as they say .. I don’t even want to disassemble the article, or rather the presentation. But still .. One such moment.
    Peter himself slept in the closet there, as it was then fashionable in Holland.
    It was fashionable throughout Europe, as it was believed that sleeping reclining was good for health. And special sleeping wardrobes were made. Peter also had a sleeping wardrobe, he constantly carried it with him.
    1. +5
      January 28 2023
      Quote: parusnik
      "It'll do with beer"

      Since morning? No.
      Quote: parusnik
      Very, very superficial.

      Very, very softly said!
      1. +8
        January 28 2023
        Since morning?
        Still, especially after reading .. laughing The impression that the article is designed for schoolchildren .. The second part will probably be written in the spirit: "oh, if only, oh, if only .." (c) smile
  4. +4
    January 28 2023
    Peter himself slept in the closet there, as it was then fashionable in Holland.
    The fact that Peter suffered from agoraphobia is not a secret, but the fact that it was fashionable in Holland, in my opinion, is too much.
    1. +9
      January 28 2023
      it was fashionable in Holland, in my opinion too much.
      Of course, bust, did not sleep en masse in closets smile It was a hobby, the Medina luminaries of that time thought so .. It is useful to sleep reclining .. smile
      1. +3
        January 28 2023
        For a long time, this was considered, at least until the end of the first quarter of the XNUMXth century.
      2. +2
        January 28 2023
        The Japanese practice such a dream to this day - they have tatami cabinets of traditional design that are convenient for such a dream.
    2. +2
      January 28 2023
      It's hard to say about Holland. But more than once there was a mention of the then accepted semi-lying posture for sleeping, on high pillows.
      Peter, on the other hand, in Holland apparently slept wherever he could. You can talk about Peter's addictions when he himself chose the conditions. It is not difficult to notice that in Peter's house the bedroom is small, but not a closet. In the Summer Palace, it is quite a normal size. However, the length of the bed is 201 cm with a height of 204. Those following the recommendations of the doctors slept half-sitting. In the Winter Palace (the First, now defunct) no closet for sleeping is known.
  5. +1
    January 28 2023
    So many oddities with this Grand Embassy! Starting with the question why did Peter not visit England and France - the most advanced countries of that time. So, I ran through the backyards. After all, if you learn, then from the masters! Then what is this training? What can you learn in 4 months? Now the university requires 4 years, and that is of little use. And then, how many details and tales about the adventures of Peter! Yes, if you just put them together in time, then it will take several years.
    1. +10
      January 28 2023
      Why didn't Peter visit England?

      Peter just visited England. Read the original sources, not a presentation on their topic.
    2. +6
      January 28 2023
      On the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, and in search of allies in the fight against the Ottoman Porte, arriving in Paris, even incognito, would be an unreasonable decision. However, some members of the embassy in France studied and traveled.
      Personally, Peter the Great will visit Paris during the second Great Embassy! She will even hold the French king in her arms and leave a good impression of him.
    3. +3
      January 29 2023
      Michael, please listen to good advice. Before writing about an article, read it carefully first. For better or worse, there is a map there indicating the time of Peter's stay in England.
      And read fairy tales on history as much as you like, but there are many materials about the Great Embassy in authoritative publications. If this does not suit you, then the daily notes of the embassy can also be found. Everything is recorded there, you can read it.
  6. +1
    January 28 2023
    Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Peter, bought all the furniture that served her father.

    Including a closet in which the future emperor slept.
  7. +4
    January 28 2023
    And always the young king had a hand in everything, he wanted to try everything himself. He learned how to make paper, engravings, and also became interested in anatomy.

    Historians are still arguing about the exact number of competencies that Peter I possessed.
    The most curious is the dentist. The king loved to "tear his subjects' teeth." However, according to eyewitnesses, sometimes "swindlers and bribe-takers" - this was abused, since the sovereign "always calmed down when he was told about the suffering dental sickness awaiting his attention." By the way, the teeth of the monarch's patients have been preserved in the Kunstkamera collection, and two-thirds of them are affected by various diseases, which indicates the sufficient qualifications of the latter.
    However, there is a historical anecdote, the year the king tore out a healthy tooth to a recalcitrant young wife, so that she would be afraid of her husband as a god. drinks
    .
    1. +7
      January 28 2023
      However, there is a historical anecdote, the year the king tore out a healthy tooth to an obstinate young wife
      This anecdote was reflected in a slightly different form in the film "Tobacco Captain". smile
    2. Fat
      +2
      January 28 2023
      hi Greetings, Vladislav!
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Historians are still arguing about the exact number of competencies that Peter I possessed.
      The most curious is the dentist.

      Yeah. A universal person, an encyclopedist, a polymath ... "A person can do anything if he wants" (c) Leon Battista Alberti .... Especially the king smile
      1. +3
        January 28 2023
        Good day Andrew!
        My personal opinion Peter was not a generalist, he was just an inquisitive and hardworking person.
  8. +1
    January 28 2023
    It is strange that the famous theory of the substitution of Peter was not mentioned). I know a lot of quite serious people who believe in it.
  9. +4
    January 28 2023
    Quote: Dummy
    So many oddities with this Grand Embassy! Starting with the question why did Peter not visit England and France - the most advanced countries of that time. So, I ran through the backyards. After all, if you learn, then from the masters! Then what is this training? What can you learn in 4 months? Now the university requires 4 years, and that is of little use. And then, how many details and tales about the adventures of Peter! Yes, if you just put them together in time, then it will take several years.
    After all, Peter visited England. And he was going to visit Rome and Venice, but he had to urgently return to Russia because of the conspiracy of archers.
    A beautiful version that Peter during the Great Embassy was mainly engaged in carpentry, this is a version for a circle of skillful hands. In reality . Lefort, Golovin, Voznitsyn were included in the Embassy as people loyal to Peter and skillful diplomats for the main purpose of the Embassy - to search for allies in the Russian war against Turkey. Since they could not be found in Holland and England. then for future generations, in order to hide the failure of the main goal of the Embassy, ​​a version from the "skillful hands" circle was invented and presented. And since Lefort in Russia under Peter rolled around like cheese in butter, he seduced and seduced European masters, merchants, and even those who were engaged in science in Europe with the same prospects in Russia.
    That is why in Russia, after the Great Embassy, ​​they realized that the lagging behind Europe, which is strangling Russia, especially in the field of science, can be overcome with the help of foreign masters and teachers, but the fact that Russia is suffocating without access to the Baltic Sea, this will have to be overcome by Russia itself, and lead the coalition in the fight against the Swedes. Therefore, upon returning from the Great Embassy, ​​Peter actually waged the Twenty Years' War until the end of his days, so that Russia would go to the Baltic Sea. And Peter achieved it.
    1. 0
      January 28 2023
      "what you can learn in 4 months" Peter 1 was arrogant, + geography: in order to get to Holland, and even more so to England, he had to travel through Courland, Prussia, etc. I explain this: why I didn’t start from England
      1. +1
        January 28 2023
        Quote from lisikat2
        "what you can learn in 4 months" Peter 1 was arrogant, + geography: in order to get to Holland, and even more so to England, he had to travel through Courland, Prussia, etc. I explain this: why I didn’t start from England

        In vain you are. With basic competencies, 72 academic hours are enough for short-term advanced training courses. If translated into human language - two weeks.
        Peter was an exceptionally hyperactive person. Couldn't sit idle. Even on the road, he managed to write decrees. By the way, he did not have a front door, he borrowed from his subjects. Until the end of his life, he made things with his own hands (canes, tables, chairs) and gave them to his close associates.
        In fact, Peter is a tangle of contradictions, for everyone he is his own!
        1. 0
          February 5 2023
          IMHO, such a short-term study of everything a little later made it easier for Peter to catch embezzlers, since he at least understood something in ship and other crafts.
    2. +5
      January 28 2023
      After all, Peter visited England.
      And even communicated with Newton (Newton was the head of the mint). And Menshikov even asked for the title of academician for himself, he had a complex.
      1. +2
        January 28 2023
        Quote: Aviator_
        After all, Peter visited England.
        And even communicated with Newton (Newton was the head of the mint). And Menshikov even asked for the title of academician for himself, he had a complex.

        Considering that historians are still arguing - "whether Menshikov knew how to write" !!! what
        By the way, His Serene Highness all de recognized the “sham” of his membership in the academy, therefore, with all the vanity, he asked not to mention him even with the full announcement of his title.
  10. 0
    January 28 2023
    If one of the Russian nobles in the pre-Petrine era arbitrarily traveled to another country, then he was considered a traitor to the Motherland, and if he returned, he was threatened with execution.



    In those days, advanced thought had not yet thought of soft "quarantines" instead of executions: quite a bit later, there would be long-term quarantines for those who returned to the Siberian prisons ("Kyukhlya") or at the outposts of the southern borders.
    Although among Asians, like the Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, isolation generally reached prohibitive degrees of strength and was maintained - for centuries.
  11. +3
    January 28 2023
    Quote: Amateur
    After reading this opus, I was pleasantly surprised that the author read "Peter I" by A.N. Tolstoy and was even able to write a presentation on this topic. good

    Really! drinks
  12. +3
    January 28 2023
    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Drum roll tail. Taken off the tongue!

    And there is! drinks
    1. +3
      January 28 2023
      And there is!
      "They will recruit soldiers into the army, then suffer with them" (c) smile drinks
      1. +3
        January 28 2023
        Quote: parusnik
        And there is!
        "They will recruit soldiers into the army, then suffer with them" (c) smile drinks

        You don’t know Alexey - “where you don’t kiss a soldier - everywhere your ass”! laughing
  13. +3
    January 28 2023
    Quote: parusnik
    Very, very superficially .. "It'll do with beer," as they say .. I don’t even want to disassemble the article, or rather the presentation. But still .. One such moment.
    Peter himself slept in the closet there, as it was then fashionable in Holland.
    It was fashionable throughout Europe, as it was believed that sleeping reclining was good for health. And special sleeping wardrobes were made. Peter also had a sleeping wardrobe, he constantly carried it with him.

    Exactly! drinks
  14. +2
    January 28 2023
    Good day everyone. When I read it, I could not get rid of the thought that this was familiar to me.
    It can be seen that Alexei Tolstoy carefully studied the materials
    1. +2
      January 28 2023
      It can be seen that Alexei Tolstoy carefully studied the materials
      Especially the "History of Peter", the preparatory texts of A.S. Pushkin
    2. +2
      January 28 2023
      An interesting fact, in addition to Alexei Tolstoy, his more venerable relative and namesake Lev Nikolaevich sat down for the story of Peter I.
      The idea was the following. Describe the life of your ancestor and associate Peter. But having plunged into the topic, Lev Nikolaevich refused to write a novel. When asked why, Tolstoy replied that he could not understand Peter.
  15. -1
    January 28 2023
    Well, yes, gentlemen, don't you like Peter the Great? write about your idols like Khrushchev Gorbachev and Benya Yeltsman
  16. 0
    January 29 2023
    Brief retelling of the book by Alexei Tolstoy "Peter I". This book is amazing, I recommend it to everyone!
  17. +2
    January 29 2023
    The next article will be about Lenin, who traveled abroad under the name Nikolai and yearned for logs.
    Or about Constantine who lived over the hill and for whose sake the Masons wanted to make a state. donation coup in 1825. And you can't list all such examples.
  18. 0
    March 20 2023
    Thanks for the engraving photo!
    For the text - no thanks!
    Simplifying words and sentences is good up to a certain limit and for a certain age of readers.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"