The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York: all sorts of weapons stuff in an incredible amount

63
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York: all sorts of weapons stuff in an incredible amount
Cavalcade of knights-gendarmes in the main hall of the department weapons and armor of the Metropolitan Museum invariably attracts the attention of everyone who goes there!


“... but to remember the Lord your God,
for He gives you power to acquire wealth.”

Deuteronomy 18: 8

Military museums of the world. So, today we are directing our steps to the museum, whose collections we have used here on the VO website many, many times. But even a small part of them were not seen. Because as soon as on its website there are more than 14 thousand exhibits, the photos of which are in public use (belong to the category "public domain"). It’s just hard to watch them all, and digging into them is downright “like death.” But this museum has almost everything. And maybe he suffers from some eclecticism, but on the other hand, he exhaustively covers the same genesis of knightly weapons. But today we have a different purpose of his visit.



We will see ... “everything that comes to hand”, and the main attention will be paid to where this or that exhibit came from in this museum. And then last time, when we visited the museum in Philadelphia, some of our readers had questions about where the royal armor came from across the ocean, and whether the treacherous Americans stole them from Germany after 1945.

Today we will kill two birds with one stone: we will meet the artifacts themselves (and they are worth it!), and at the same time we will learn about their origin. To begin with, let's get acquainted with history collections of weapons and armor of this museum.

It turns out that the Arms and Armor Department was established at the museum in 1912, thanks in large part to the efforts of its founding curator, Dr. Bashford Dean (1867–1928). Even before that time, however, the museum's trustees had made valuable acquisitions of weapons and armor, and most notably bought the collection of European arms and armor assembled in France by Maurice de Tallirand-Périgord, duc de Dino (1843–1917), in 1904.

In 1913, the museum received a gift of an outstanding collection of European weapons and armor, collected over fifty years by the American William H. Riggs (1827–1924), who lived most of his life in Europe and was engaged in the search for historical monuments and artistic weapons.

Between the First and Second World Wars, a number of ancestral, dynastic and private collections were partially or completely sold out, which led to a significant replenishment of the museum's funds. In 1919, most of the art collections formed by J. Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913) were also transferred to the museum.

This included a magnificent parade helmet made by Filippo Negroli of Milan in 1543. A valuable gift, consisting of more than 350 European small swords, hunting swords and daggers, was made in 1926 by the Parisian collector Jean Jacques Rubel (1851-1933), and not just like that, but ... in memory of his wife and mother, natives of New York. York.

In the years that followed, the volume and importance of the collections continued to grow steadily, in particular with the acquisition of items from the estate of Bashford Dean and the unique collections of Clarence Mackay (1874–1938) and William Randolph Hurstom (1863–1863).

More recently, the Met's collection has grown even larger with gifts from collectors in honor of the museum's 150th anniversary, most notably a generous gift from Ronald S. Lauder, who donated his collection of European arms and armor to the museum. That is - no matter how strange it may seem to our people, who are used to the fact that we have all the museum relics of the state, there - they were all private property, donated to the museum ...

We also had collectors in Russia. But they were bred clean after 1917. Hence the misunderstanding of our readers, why is it there in such a way, and not like ours. And there was no total expropriation of an entire class, that's all. But it's all like this: "thinking at the front door."

And now we will “go inside” and look or just admire “all kinds of weapons stuff” ... So ...

Let's start with the most ancient ... Greek helmets and from the island of Crete, dating back to the end of the XNUMXth century. BC e. In the photo you see one such helmet, a Cretan one, which is the best example among the large number of armor found in south central Crete, where they were made.


Here is the helmet. On both sides of it is a pair of winged youths clutching intertwined snakes. Below them are two panthers with one common head. On the helmet is the inscription "Neopolis". Donation by Norbert Schimmel, 1989


A very interesting artifact: Japanese tanko armor made of iron bands of the 3th-884th centuries. Front view. Weight 1914 Donation by Bashford Dean, XNUMX


The same armor - rear view


The well-known spandenhelm, also VI-VII centuries. Most likely Byzantium. Iron plates on a bronze frame. The places where such helmets have been found are scattered all over the world, from Sweden to Germany and from the Balkans to Libya. A helmet from the Metropolitan Museum of Art was found in the Saone River near Trevou, France. The quality of the helmets and their varied locations suggest that they were made as diplomatic gifts to foreign rulers and may have been sent from Byzantium or the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy. All helmets originally had metal cheek pads, chain mail neck protection, and often a built-in nose. As on this helmet, the decoration usually consists of embossed patterns and birds among a wavy vine embossed on the browband. Some examples include the image of the cross and other Christian symbols. Helmet weight 907 Donation by Stephen W. Granxay, 1942


Knight's spur of the XII century. Weight 62,4 g. Again, a gift from Stephen W. Granxay, 1942.


Hoshi-kabuto, helmet from Japan, 1936th century Howard Mansfield Collection, Gift of Howard Mansfield, XNUMX


Japanese arrowhead. Weight 62,4 g. Collection of Giovanni P. Morosini donated to the museum by his daughter Giulia, 1932


The museum was very lucky in that it got this armor from the beginning to the middle of the 1400th century. These are Italian armor approx. 1450–1920, collected and restored in the 1470s using individual elements found in the ruins of the Venetian fortress of Chalkis on the Greek island of Euboea, captured by the Turks in 1400. The aim was to represent a full body armor worn around 168,9, a period from which no full body armor survives. Its distinctive feature is the early form of the shell (brigandin) with two large chest halves and brass borders along the edges of the protruding plates. Helmet, bascinet with visor, Bundhugel type. The velvet covering of the shell dates back to the beginning of the 18,6th century. Armor height - 1929 cm, weight - XNUMX kg. Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, a gift from Helen Fanestok Hubbard, in memory of her father, Harris S. Fanestok, XNUMX


And he's in the back


A very simple helmet (we saw this in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum) 1440 Milan. Weight 4 196 Donation by Stephen W. Grancsay, 1942


But this is a very recent gift: a tool from 1550. Weight 1 kg. Purchased by Ronald S. Lauder and Alejandro Santo Domingo. And the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Mark Fish, 209


Sallet in the shape of a lion's head, ca. 1475–1480 This helmet is the earliest surviving Renaissance (antique style) armor. The lion's head is an outer shell of embossed and gilded copper that is worn over a simple steel helmet. It represents the head of the Nemean lion, whose skin was worn as a headdress and cloak by the mythological hero Hercules. He was often depicted in Renaissance art as a symbol of indomitable strength, courage and perseverance. Weight 3 donated by the Harris Brisbane Dick Foundation, 574.


Tournament Armor 1585. Bashford Dean Estate Memorial Collection, Bequeathed by Bashford Dean, 1928


Ceremonial shield depicting St. George slaying the dragon. OK. 1560–1570 Milan. Diameter 59,1 cm. Weight 3. Gift of William H. Riggs, 810.


Armor of Henry II, King of France (1547–1559). Front view


The same armor. Back view

The work of design masters Jean Cousin the Elder, nicknamed "Frenchman" and Baptiste Pellerin, also ... "Frenchman", ca. 1555. It is one of the most elaborate and complete French dress armor, retaining much of its original coloration. The surfaces are covered with dense whorls of leaves inhabited by human figures and a variety of fairy-tale creatures derived from the Italian grotesque.

In the center of the chest is a Roman warrior, to whom two kneeling women offer swords. On the shoulder pads are the figures of Apollo chasing the nymph Daphne (in front) and Apollo with the killed monster Python (behind). The crescent, one of the heraldic signs of Henry II (I remember we had a reader in VO who seriously convinced that this was a sign of the Muslim faith of this person!), Is depicted in several places.

Twenty original sketches of this armor have been preserved. One belongs to Jean Cousin the Elder; the rest - to Etienne Delon or Baptiste Pellerin. All three are outstanding Parisian artists of the mid-187,96th century. Material: steel, gold, silver, leather, fabric. Height - 24,20 cm; weight - 1939 kg. A donation from the Harris Brisbane Dick Foundation, XNUMX.


This armor's helmet

Interestingly, in his 1583 book The Anatomy of Abuses, the English moralist Phillip Stubbs attacked the growing trend to wear weapons as a stylish accessory, condemning upstart dandies who sported "swords, daggers and rapiers, decorated with expensive engravings." Stubbs's main concern was that men of all classes were succumbing to the whims of fashion and began to wear weapons daily as decoration, giving way to vanity and pride, and at the same time erasing the boundaries of their social position.

The tradition of decorating weapons and armor according to the latest trends and styles was not new in Stubbs' time, but is as old as the existence of military items in cultures around the world. It flourished and became especially prominent in Europe from the XNUMXth century, and this is what Stubbs really, really disliked.


Figures on the helmet

He believed that it was shameful to impress others and convey some meaning with the help of personalized images and ornaments on armor. And just the armor of King Henry in this regard is very indicative. After all, you can see the letter “H” on it, that is, the emblem of his mistress Diane de Poitiers, woven into a thick web of antennae and grotesques, and even with small figures taken from classical Greek mythology.

That is, gunsmiths, blacksmiths, manufacturers of swords and weapons had to take care of the form and functionality of their products, but also be aware of the latest trends, both in ornaments and in technology.

As fashionable status symbols, guns, armor, and swords not only spoke of the wearer's willingness and ability to fight, but also demonstrated their awareness of cosmopolitan trends in artistic fashion and innovation in armor decoration. Therefore, by the way, starting from the XNUMXth century, ornamental etchings and engravings with patterns on armor became an important auxiliary tool in the production of fashionable and complex weapons. And ... they bring help to today's scientists, helping to attribute and date it.


Cuirass of the Armor of King Henry II

Field armor of King Henry VIII of England (1509–1547). Italian work, Milan or Brescia. OK. 1544 This impressive armor was made for Henry VIII at the end of his life, when he was overweight and suffering from gout.

Probably worn by the PRC king during his last military campaign, the siege of Boulogne in 1544, in which he personally commanded the troops, despite all his ailments. Initially, it was equipped with a removable reinforcing breastplate, to which a spear rest was attached, and reinforcement for the left shoulder pad. A pair of bracers remains in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle.

In a posthumous inventory of royal property, compiled in 1547, the armor is described as "Italian". They may have been supplied by a Milanese merchant known in England as Francis Albert, who received a license from Henry to import luxury items, including armor, into England for sale.

Subsequently, the armor was transferred to William Herbert (c. 1507-1570), the first Earl of Pembroke, Henry's squire and executor of his will. They were recorded at Wilton House, the residence of the Pembroke family, from 1558 until sold in the 1920s.

The armor is an early example of "anime" armor, that is, armor in which the breastplate and pauldrons consist of horizontal, overlapping plates connected by movable rivets and internal leather straps.

The decoration of the armor consists of foliage, putti figurines, running dogs, renaissance candelabra and grotesque ornamentation, i.e. typically Italian. Dimensions: height 184,2 cm; width 83,8 cm; weight 22,91 kg. Harris Brisbane Dick Foundation donation, 1932.


Cuirass of light cavalry armor alla Tedesca (in the German style). Milan. OK. 1510 This is a rare example of Italian armor, decorated with corrugated surfaces in the German style. Its engraved and richly gilded decor is inspired by Christian symbolism and the Bible. The strip at the top of the breastplate depicts the Virgin and Child in the center, St. Paul on the right and St. George on the left. The Latin inscription below reads: CRISTVS RES VENIT IN PACE ET DEVS HOMO FACTVS ES (Christ the King came in peace and God became man). Another inscription at the top of the back plate reads: IESVS AVTEM TRANSIENS PERMEDIVM ILORVM IBAT (But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went his way [Luke 4:30]). The Trinity - Father, Son and Holy Spirit - depicted on the obverse side of the gorget 1510. Weight 8. Gift of William H. Riggs, 987.

So, as you can clearly see, all the artifacts shown here are donations. In total, of course, there are more than 14, and among them you can find purchases. But the most valuable exhibits of the Metropolitan Museum of Art are donations!

PS


Photographs (public domain) from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York were used for the design of the material.
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63 comments
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  1. +10
    27 January 2023 04: 51
    Nice! Thanks Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    Regarding patronage, I will say one thing - as museums treat visitors, so do people treat institutions.
    Are there many photos of the exhibits of the Armory in the public domain?
    In this matter, most private museums and collections in Russia are much more “loyal” to people. You can even sometimes beg to hold or touch something, take a picture without any problems. In the treasury of weapons of the fatherland - the Armory (sorry for the tautology) only for a decent "price tag" with three or four zeros.
    Although in principle it should be the other way around.
    1. +4
      27 January 2023 05: 43
      I will subscribe to every word!
      Hello, Vlad!
    2. +5
      27 January 2023 06: 38
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Are there many photos of the exhibits of the Armory in the public domain?

      Funny question!
  2. +6
    27 January 2023 05: 39
    Shalom, Orthodox!
    The image of the armor of Henry VIII from the museum's collection was not included in the material for some technical reason. I'll fill in the gap.

    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  3. +8
    27 January 2023 07: 26
    Dear friends, good morning!
    Haven't read the article yet.
    I have an unusual request: each of those present go to the "Opinions" section on the article "We are not the last of the Russian Mohicans" and evaluate Belisarius' comment. Please do it...
    And I, of course, will read the article by Vyacheslav Olegovich and, to the extent of my weak strength and capabilities, I will comment during the day)))
    1. +3
      27 January 2023 08: 12
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna, before recommending something to read, even a commentary, it makes sense to indicate the author of the main material. The creative credo of Mrs. Kozyreva can be characterized by the words of another "all-proper" Renata Litvinova: "How terrible it is to live!"
      1. +7
        27 January 2023 08: 32
        Anton, there are times when the Author is completely unimportant. Comments are important. For example, I did not dare to comment on Kozyreva's article. To not get banned. But I wanted to support that brave and smart one who found such words for which they would not be banned. I already beat myself on the hands, so as not to comment - decent words have dried up! For I highly appreciate the opportunity to be in the same company with you and other friends.
        I hope Vyacheslav Olegovich will forgive me for digressing from his article. I just couldn't control my emotions. Will not happen again.
        1. +5
          27 January 2023 11: 09
          Quote: depressant
          forgive me

          What a woman wants is what God wants!
    2. +7
      27 January 2023 09: 15
      Good morning, Lyudmila Yakovlevna.
      Quote: depressant
      I have an unusual request: each of those present go to the "Opinions" section

      The situation is approaching a revolutionary one - the intelligentsia is trying to organize itself. smile
      In my memory, this already happened at VO once, in 2018, or something, a year ... But then a riot was brewing against the site administration and as a result, many of us had new call signs ... smile
      I'm not saying that now it's scary to comment - no, it's not scary. This I mean that attempts to organize our interesting company for some kind of joint actions (shares) are obviously impossible. But the very fact of such an attempt deserves all-round attention - once this kind of fermentation begins among the intelligentsia, then the matter begins to smell of well-known petroleum products.
      As for the said comment, I was not impressed. Half angry philippics to capitalism, half sentimental elegies against the USSR, and if I am partially ready to agree with the first, then the second, as for me, is just another act of masturbation.
      1. +3
        27 January 2023 10: 51
        and as a result, many of us have new callsigns...
        Agnomens.)))
        1. Fat
          +4
          27 January 2023 11: 09
          hi Greetings, Anton.
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          and as a result, many of us have new callsigns...
          Agnomens.)))

          Well, I turned it down. Well, if Publius Cornelius Scipio is African, then this is for a long time .... laughing Then it's better - the avatar (well, like Krishna's, for example) - can change ....
          1. +2
            27 January 2023 15: 51
            Hello Borisych!
            I borrowed this from Ryzhov.
      2. +2
        27 January 2023 11: 10
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        another act of masturbation.

        + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
      3. +4
        27 January 2023 13: 23
        This I mean that attempts to organize our interesting company for some kind of joint actions (shares) are obviously impossible.

        Sorry to interfere in your discussion, it just interested me. It is possible, of course, to organize a joint action, but this is a completely unpromising business.
        1. +2
          27 January 2023 13: 55
          A conversation in a public space, anyone can intervene, so you don't have to apologize. smile
          I don't agree with the joint action. If the action takes an organized and, most importantly, mass character, then those against whom it is directed will have to reckon with the opinion of the "shareholders". The only question is the degree of organization and mass character.
      4. +4
        27 January 2023 13: 41
        ... sentimental elegies to the USSR ... as for me, just another act of masturbation.

        Just like the dreams of a certain part of the audience about
        "restoration of public ownership of the means of production."
        1. +3
          27 January 2023 14: 10
          Quote: Ruyter-57
          Just like dreams

          From what?
          The Soviet Union, of course, cannot be restored, yes, in my opinion, attempts of this kind would be stupid, and moaning about this reminds me more of what I wrote about.
          But at the same time, the very construction of a new, I emphasize, new, fundamentally different from the long-dead USSR, state based on state ownership of the means of production does not seem to me a utopia. Even in Russia.
      5. 0
        27 January 2023 17: 18
        This I mean that attempts to organize our interesting company for some kind of joint actions (shares) are obviously impossible.
        But can I do it?!
      6. +4
        27 January 2023 17: 54
        Half angry philippics to capitalism, half sentimental elegies against the USSR, and if I am partially ready to agree with the first, then the second, as for me, is just another act of masturbation.

        It even raises questions, especially the hysteria in the style of "no work", "it is impossible to buy housing" and so on. But the second is given an absolutely accurate, though not entirely decent definition. Vashchenko there still happily picked up this lesson, which is expected, in principle.
        1. +2
          27 January 2023 18: 14
          Vashchenko there still happily picked up this lesson, which is expected, in principle.
          Expected, but all the same, unpleasant. When Ph.D. begins to scatter agitation telegraphic style, this is a sign of unsuitability.
      7. +2
        27 January 2023 20: 24
        This I mean that attempts to organize our interesting company for some kind of joint actions (shares) are obviously impossible.

        I will write a banality, but perhaps this is the essence of our company: "we are different, but we are together."
  4. Fat
    +4
    27 January 2023 07: 57
    hi Hello. What a pity that there is no photo
    Field armor of King Henry VIII of England (1509–1547). Italian work, Milan or Brescia. OK. 1544 This impressive armor was made for Henry VIII at the end of his life, when he was overweight and suffering from gout.

    However, it is a sin to complain, and the available selection of illustrations is magnificent.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich
    1. +2
      27 January 2023 11: 12
      Quote: Thick
      However, it is a sin to complain, and the available selection of illustrations is magnificent.

      It was planned to insert this photo, but then I remembered that it would be more appropriate in another material, so I removed it, and forgot to replace the text. Now in that, new, next material, it will have to be replaced by another. Well, it’s nothing, Anton couldn’t penetrate the space with his thought and in a transcendental way find out my plans for each photo ... It’s good that he added, let’s say so!
      1. +3
        27 January 2023 14: 33
        I especially liked the knight in orange slippers wassat )))
  5. +1
    27 January 2023 10: 43
    And there was no total expropriation of an entire class, that's all.

    It's good that this happened to us.
    1. +2
      27 January 2023 11: 13
      Quote: Mihaylov
      It's good that this happened to us.

      How bad! Because if it were really good, we, "comrade Mikhailov", would still be living in SeSeSeEre today. But we do not live, so the cat had eggs for sin! And how easy it is to imagine...
  6. +4
    27 January 2023 11: 37
    Huge, thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich for a stunningly interesting article!
  7. +3
    27 January 2023 13: 05
    Gifts, shopping.
    What a splendor...
    Are there any exhibits taken out of the "reserves" and other "sticks" of TR there?
    1. +2
      27 January 2023 15: 38
      Quote: hohol95
      Are there any exhibits taken out of the "reserves" and other "sticks" of TR there?

      You know, Alexey, I looked through all 14000 exhibits that are on their website. It is clear that I did not read the descriptions of all. But very many. I did not find what you are interested in, But you yourself can search, type Met ... "Armor and weapons" and ... forward. You might be lucky to find something "illegal"...
      1. +2
        27 January 2023 18: 21
        I will answer you with the words of the character of the series "The investigation is being conducted by ZnatoKi" Feropontikov - "If only I knew, but I was sick and did not know anything ..."
        If I had on my hands lists of those museums from Teutonia that were plundered by the hands of nimble YANKS, I WOULD compare and calculate the stolen goods.
        Or "expropriated"!
        I read that only 3 works of art were returned to the GDR from the USA!
        And the Lviv collection of Dürer's drawings forever "dissolved" on the lands of the USA...
        The Yankees are good at hiding "expropriated" valuables!
        1. +5
          27 January 2023 19: 08
          I note - by the way, where is our Scythian gold from the museums of the Crimea? am
          1. +3
            27 January 2023 20: 24
            One of these days or earlier, but not earlier than on the Days of the Netherlanders, to raise a question with Zlat Scythian!
            And I give my rotten tooth as a pledge that they will give that Gold to the "clean Paws" of the Light-faced Elves ...
            This week this news "ran through".
        2. +4
          27 January 2023 20: 21
          Quote: hohol95
          The Yankees are good at hiding "expropriated" valuables!

          Have you seen the movie How to Steal a Million? But we are talking about MUSEUMS. Where all the exhibits are RECORDED AND DESCRIBED AND SUPPLIED WITH A PASSPORT. And not a single museum now "there" will contact a stolen artifact. And private traders ... that's another story. But - once again - we are talking about MUSEUMS.
          1. +3
            27 January 2023 22: 15
            Now or there...
            In 1944, 1945 and so on...
            How many museum papers of Teutonia survived during these years?
            Or lists of what was buried in the adits of the Alps?
            Did the Great British Museums decide to donate a lot of goodness?
            Of the goodness that the red uniforms poked around the Mediterranean ...
        3. +4
          27 January 2023 20: 23
          Quote: hohol95
          And the Lviv collection of Dürer's drawings forever "dissolved" on the lands of the USA...

          And Schliemann's gold is exhibited in the Pushkin Museum...
          1. Fat
            +3
            27 January 2023 21: 47
            Quote: kalibr
            And Schliemann's gold is exhibited in the Pushkin Museum...

            It seems to me that under the present circumstances, the items from the "Priam Treasure" cannot be returned to Germany, to Berlin, from where they were taken out in 1945. This requires more favorable conditions.
            So the Germans can be content for now with the sacred Cuban word - "manana" smile
            1. +5
              27 January 2023 22: 23
              Did the Teutons return a lot to us?
              From the loot from 1918 to 1944.
          2. +6
            27 January 2023 22: 19
            Do you have a list for returning to all museums and private collections of the USSR dated June 22, 1941?
            What did the Germans take out of the USA?
            And why did the brave YANKS return nothing to the rightful owners or their heirs?
            So, let's not "grind water in a mortar"!
            The USSR and the Russian Federation gave away museum valuables many times more than the USA and Great Britain combined!
            Or do you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, disagree with this?
            And Schliemann was a swindler and a rogue. Cashed in on the Crimean War.
            But Troy, of course, he dug up.
        4. +3
          27 January 2023 21: 34
          And the Lviv collection of Dürer's drawings forever "dissolved" on the lands of the USA...

          In 1950, the United States returned Dürer's drawings, seized from the Lviv Scientific Library, to one of the descendants of Prince Henryk Lubomirsky - Georg Lubomirsky. As you know, Henryk Lubomirsky in 1823 donated a collection of drawings to the Lviv Library. The unlucky descendant of the prince immediately sold the drawings at auction, seriously improving his well-being. Now Dürer's drawings from Lvov are spread all over the world. They are in several private collections, at the Art Institute of Chicago, at the Barber Institute at the University of Birmingham, at the British Museum, at the Boston Art Museum, at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, at the National Gallery of Canada, at the Nelson-Atkins Museum in Kansas City, in the Morgan Library in Pierpont, at the Curtold Institute, and two works - "Horse" and "Madonna" are in the Rotterdam Museum Boijmans-van Beiningen.
  8. +5
    27 January 2023 13: 10
    This is a rare example of Italian armor, decorated with corrugated surfaces in the German style.

    The question arises about the rarity of Italian armor in the alla tedesca style, because Italian craftsmen widely practiced the manufacture of armor, taking into account regional characteristics. In addition to alla tedesca, alla francese were popular.
    By the way, the website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art has a fairly informative article on this issue Fashion in European Armor, 1400-1500.
    1. +2
      27 January 2023 15: 40
      Quote: Ruyter-57
      Fashion in European Armor, 1400–1500

      These are the kind of comments I love. I read it all ... And there is a lot more! And the book about Emperor Maximilian is generally brilliant.
  9. +3
    27 January 2023 16: 26
    This hurt:

    in his 1583 book Anatomy of Abuses, the English moralist Phillip Stubbs attacked the growing trend towards weapons as a stylish accessory, denouncing upstart dandies who sported "swords, daggers, and rapiers adorned with costly engravings." Stubbs's main concern was that men of all classes were succumbing to the whims of fashion and began to wear weapons daily as decoration, giving way to vanity and pride, and at the same time erasing the boundaries of their social position.


    I asked and found:

    Philip Stubbs (Stubbes), c. 1555 - c. 1610) was an English pamphleteer. From 1581 to 1593, Stubbs published 10 works, the most famous of which is The Anatomie of Abuses (1583).


    So if only Stubbs was like that! It turns out that the Puritans in England created a whole school of moralists. As capitalist relations developed, they literally trained the emerging economic class, as well as the aristocracy, in the principles of virtue, imposing harsh norms of social behavior and exactingness of each on others, but first of all on themselves. From here, English writers, writers and even modern films become understandable. And I thought, they say, why are they demanding correct behavior from the members of their society - after all, colonialists, fanatics!
    The word "Puritans" somehow imperceptibly slipped past consciousness ...
    By the 19th century, Puritanism degenerated into the so-called "amateur" (this is in Russian), preaching careful work on self. Russian society was reading a book by a follower of the Puritans Samuel Smiles, which in translation was called "Amateur Activities" and was published in Russia 7 times - from 1866 to 1903.

    Hmm... As it turned out, Western capitalism, in addition to the idea of ​​a "big hapka", also had ethical foundations that restrained it. And how Russia turned out to be unprepared for this!
    1. +4
      27 January 2023 16: 52
      there were also restraining ethical foundations
      I will tell you more. In medieval France, there was a kind of progressive tax, that is, people with an income of less than 5 livres per year were taxed at a lower rate. This is the dark Middle Ages.
    2. +2
      27 January 2023 16: 55
      The fate of Rockefeller in this regard is very instructive. And he was re-educated by none other than PR manager Ivy Lee! And how re-educated!!!
      1. +4
        27 January 2023 17: 27
        So, Vyacheslav Olegovich, let's have an article on this topic. And then there is whining everywhere: "They left the ideology of communism, they did not come to anything! Give, well, give us a national idea!"
        Yeah, well, they will. To your own detriment.
        And it is the national idea of ​​capitalism. So tell us about Puritanism and its transformation in the 19th century. And I already see how it will be possible to supplement the article in the comments.
        1. +2
          27 January 2023 17: 40
          And then everywhere whining:
          Finally you realized it.
          1. +2
            27 January 2023 18: 21
            Anton, whining from my and all other whining illiteracy.
            I'm a techie!
            And at the institute - the history of the CPSU and Marxist-Leninist philosophy. There was nothing even close to explaining the development and stability of the capitalist system.
            However, I didn't think about it at all.
            1. +5
              27 January 2023 18: 41
              We had some different history of the CPSU and Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Everything about capitalism was explained very clearly. We decided to check in the 90s and made sure that the founders were telling the truth. The tools and methods for achieving goals have changed, but the goals and essence have remained.
              1. +1
                27 January 2023 19: 24
                You won't believe it, Vladimir, the founders were wrong. Capitalism is not private ownership of the means of production, it is money trading.
                1. +4
                  27 January 2023 20: 33
                  Well, firstly, for some reason you decided that I meant only the means of production, no, it won’t work that way, we take into account all aspects.
                  Secondly, I believe and willingly agree with you, but only in the following wording: "This is private ownership of the means of production and trade in money, and actually much more." Throwing out one of the fundamental concepts in the analysis of the most complex object of historical formation is wrong. They are dialectically linked into a single complex. (Three laws of dialectics were also taught at school).
                  According to Braudel, for example, finance in all its diversity is the driving force behind capitalism. But money trading was actively used in the Middle Ages. This is one of the properties of money. The basic principles of financial markets originated before or served as the basis for the formation of capitalism. But like feudalism, capitalism is very different in time and space.
                  I recalled that Vladimir Ilyich, speaking of imperialism, emphasized in particular the role of capital, finance capital.
                  1) concentration of production and capitalwhich has reached such a high stage of development that it has created monopolies that play a decisive role in economic life; 2) merger of banking capital with industrial and creation, based on this "financial capital", financial oligarchy; 3) the export of capital, in contrast to the export of goods, is of particular importance; 4) international monopoly alliances of capitalists are formed, dividing the world, and 5) the territorial division of the land by the major capitalist powers is completed.
                  PS Maybe I did not understand your idea, then clarify the mechanism of money trading in your understanding..
              2. +2
                27 January 2023 20: 16
                Quote: balabol
                Tools and ways to achieve goals have changed

                And just this is the main thing!
                1. +4
                  27 January 2023 20: 42
                  Main result. The goal is to obtain maximum political and financial power. The rest is a means to achieve the goal, soft or hard power, a stick or a carrot, etc. Starting to do something, you choose the goal, and then the means to achieve it, or you do something, and then how it goes. So this is a hobby, not capitalism.
            2. +2
              27 January 2023 18: 46
              whining from my and all other whining illiteracy.
              This is true. But we must give you credit, you at least try to understand something.
              1. +3
                27 January 2023 19: 06
                You know, comrades, but I like the current quiet family gatherings! As the "Master of the Trilobite" once said, falling bloodied into a quiet tavern after an epic battle with folkhistorians: "How quiet, calm you are."
                1. +2
                  27 January 2023 20: 14
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  "how quiet and calm you are."

                  ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
        2. +4
          27 January 2023 20: 12
          Quote: depressant
          What can be added to the article in the comments.

          The idea is good. I will. Moreover, the story is really interesting. The article will be titled: Ivy Lee and John Rockefeller.
          1. +4
            27 January 2023 20: 23
            Excellent! I study lives wassat )))
            The administration demands a more voluminous answer. But figs to her! Put all your cards straight on the table.
  10. +1
    28 January 2023 06: 32
    To develop my historical knowledge, I enjoyed the work of the author! RESPECT. I look forward to continuing drinks
  11. 0
    28 January 2023 12: 50
    In general ... how much cultural heritage will remain from the 20-21st century ... not iPhones and MacBooks ... but something interesting
  12. 0
    28 January 2023 13: 03
    Thanks to the author for an interesting article.
    PS for the Italian artillery of the First World War, it would be better to go deeper. laughing
  13. -1
    28 January 2023 17: 00
    well, they robbed in Europe it’s notable that the fellows perfectly preserved no words
  14. 0
    28 January 2023 20: 44
    I wonder where there is so much old junk from. Probably the collectors got good
  15. -1
    29 January 2023 18: 23
    The collection is certainly good, but which of these exhibits belongs to the history of the United States?

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"