Military Review

Pearl Harbor underwater

37
Pearl Harbor underwater

Attack of Imperial Japan on the main naval base of the Pacific Naval fleet USA December 7, 1941 still excites the minds of historians, researchers and politicians. However, in the shadow of a powerful air raid by the Japanese aircraft carrier aviation remained actions completely new for Americans weapons imperial fleet - dwarf submarines. The canonical version of their participation in the attack on Pearl Harbor says that all the boats were sunk without causing any damage to the American fleet. However, research over the past 20 years casts doubt on this version.


The birth of Japanese mini-submarines


The Washington Naval Agreement of 1922 defined a completely new balance of power for the leading naval powers after World War I and became a significant obstacle to the growing naval arms race. Imperial Japan turned out to be especially dissatisfied, since, according to the treaty, its navy was significantly inferior to the fleets of England and the United States in terms of the number of aircraft carriers, battleships and cruisers.

The Japanese were looking for a way out of this situation and found two loopholes. The first of these was the lack of agreements with the United States and Great Britain on the number of submarines. The second is permission from Washington and London to build forward bases for the Japanese Navy on the Pacific islands. Adding one plus one, the Japanese decided to turn these remote islands into advanced submarine bases that could not only attack the enemy fleet themselves, but also act as carriers of midget submarines. Covertly approaching the naval bases of the Americans or the British, the carrier boats were supposed to launch ultra-small submarines that could unexpectedly attack the enemy fleet right at the anchorages!

In 1934, in the strictest secrecy, two experimental ultra-small A-hoteki submarines (target boats, type A) were built. Based on the test results, the necessary improvements were made to the project, after which the serial construction of ultra-small Type A submarines under the designation "Kohoteki" was launched, which were armed with two 450-mm Type 97 torpedoes. These dwarf submarines could be used as carrier ships. hydro-air transport and ocean-going submarines.

On April 15, 1941, 24 junior naval officers received a secret order to join a special formation. Submarine crews were trained near the Kure naval base. During the development of submarines, accidents and breakdowns sometimes occurred. Crews died, and instead of targets, boats were hit that ensured their delivery ...

In addition, it turned out that midget boats had too short a cruising range, which was determined by the capacity of the batteries, and their recharging was possible only on the carrier ship. For this reason, it turned out to be completely impossible to use boats from unequipped parking lots on remote islands. But for attacking a protected enemy naval base, they were quite suitable.

So, the bow and arrows were ready, it remains only to lower the bowstring ...

Arrow shot at target...


Young submarine officers aggressively pushed for the inclusion of ultra-small Type A submarines in the operation against Pearl Harbor. In October 1941, the fleet command gave its consent and created a connection of ultra-small submarines "Tokubetsu Kogekitai", abbreviated as "Tokko". This phrase can be translated as "Special Attack Unit" or "Special Naval Strike Unit". At the same time, none of the dwarf submarines had a personal number and was identified only by the carrier boat.

Crews were formed on dwarf submarines (in accordance with Japanese rules, the surname is indicated first and only then the name of the submariner, the carrier boat is indicated in brackets). A characteristic detail: due to the small chance of returning from the mission alive, it was forbidden to involve submariners in the operation who were married, were the only or eldest sons in the family.

Lieutenant Iwasa Naoji and non-commissioned officer Sasaki Naoharu (I-22).
Second Lieutenant Hiroo Akira and NCO Katayama Yoshio (I-20).
Second lieutenant Sakamaki Katsuo and non-commissioned officer Inagaki Kyoji (I-24).
Midshipman Yokoyama Masaharu and non-commissioned officer Ueda Teji (I-16).
Midshipman Haruno Shigemi and Sergeant Yokoyama Harunari (I-18).


After that, work began to boil on the equipment of large submarines in carriers of ultra-small submarines. The I-22 submarine was the first to arrive at the Kure naval base to make the necessary improvements to the design. Three more arrived a few days later. The fourth submarine, I-24, had just been built in Sasebo and immediately began its sea trials.

Early on November 18, large submarines left Kure, stopping briefly at Ourazaki to pick up small boats. In the evening they headed for Pearl Harbor. The boats sailed at a distance of 20 miles from each other, with the flagship I-22 in the center. In the daytime, the boats went under water, fearing detection, and surfaced only at night.

According to the plan, they were supposed to arrive at the assembly point, located 100 miles south of Pearl Harbor, at night, after sunset, two days before the start of the attack. After checking the boats under the cover of darkness, the carrier submarines were to approach Pearl Harbor and take up a position in their square 5-10 miles from the entrance to the harbor.

Early on the morning of December 7, the mini-submarines were supposed to leave their carriers, quietly enter the harbor of Pearl Harbor and lie on the bottom, then join the air attack and inflict maximum destruction on the Americans with their ten torpedoes.

Three hours before dawn (at 03:00 on December 7, 1941), the leftmost boat in the I-16 group is the first to launch its ultra-small boat. Then, sequentially, with an interval of 30 minutes, ultra-small boats start from carriers I-24, I-22 and I-18. The midget submarine from the last boat, I-20, was supposed to pass through the harbor alignment half an hour before dawn.

The operation has begun...

First shots, first casualties...


The entrance to Pearl Harbor Bay was blocked by two rows of anti-torpedo nets, and American minesweepers conducted control trawling of the waters surrounding the base every morning. It seemed that it was not difficult to slip into the bay after them. However, the plans of the Japanese were violated from the very beginning.

At 03:42 (other sources indicate the time 03:58), the minesweeper "Condor" discovered the submarine's periscope in front of the entrance to the bay. The old destroyer Ward (built in 1918) immediately joined in her search, the commander of which William Woodward Outerbridge (1906-1986) immediately radioed to headquarters about contact in his patrol zone. However, after an hour of searching, he found nothing.

At about 05:00, the Americans opened a passage in the nets to let minesweepers, as well as the Antares military transport, a tugboat and a barge, approach. Two midget submarines took advantage of this and managed to stealthily enter the harbor. These were the submarines of Lieutenant Iwasa Naoji from I-22 and midshipman Yokoyama Masaharu from I-16.

The third dwarf boat of junior lieutenant Hiroo Akira and non-commissioned officer Katayama Yoshio from the I-20 carrier boat was not lucky. She was seen at 06:30 about 3-4 miles from the harbor by the Antares watch transport and the Catalina flying boat of the 14th Patrol Squadron circling over the sea. It is quite possible that the depth gauge on the boat failed, as it moved into the harbor at a speed of 8 knots on the surface - the cabin of the boat and part of the cigar-shaped hull rose above the surface of the water.

This time, the Ward did not disappoint and, after visually detecting the boat at 06:37, opened gunfire with direct fire from a short distance. Already the second shell hit the base of the cabin on the right side. The boat shuddered, but continued to move with a ragged hole in the wheelhouse. Having collected outboard water through a hole, she forever disappeared into the depths of the ocean. The destroyer dropped four depth charges at the dive point.

For a long time it was believed that their explosions almost tore the dwarf submarine in half. But in fact, they did not cause any significant damage to her hull. The Catalina also made its own contribution to the destruction of the uninvited guest, dropping several bombs at the site of the death of the boat. Second Lieutenant Hiroo Akira's dwarf submarine became the first casualty of the yet-to-be-declared Pacific War, and the destroyer Ward fired the first shots of that war and was the first to achieve victory.

At 06:53, the commander of the destroyer Outerbridge sent a message ashore:

"We attacked, fired on and dropped depth charges on submarines operating in the defensive sea area."

The message was transmitted to the commander of the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Husband Kimmel by 07:30. But he ignored him, since recently there have been many similar messages, none of which was confirmed during the check. After 25 minutes, dozens of Japanese aircraft appeared in the sky, and an air attack on Pearl Harbor began ...

The first dwarf submarine, Lieutenant Hiroo Akira and Non-commissioned Officer Katayama Yoshio, from the I-20 carrier boat, was discovered on August 28, 2002 using a deep-sea submersible of the University of Hawaii. The boat lay at a depth of 400 meters about five miles from Pearl Harbor. The submarine's hull was not destroyed by depth charges, as previously thought. At the base of the cabin, there was a hole from a shell from the destroyer Ward, which apparently killed the crew of the boat instantly.

The second dwarf submarine that died during a breakthrough into the harbor of Pearl Harbor was a submarine from the I-18 carrier boat, the crew of which was midshipman Haruno Shigemi and non-commissioned officer Yokoyama Harunari. Nothing was known about the actions of this boat, except that it was missing and its crew died.

Only after almost 20 years, namely on June 13, 1960, the boat was discovered by divers of the US Navy and US Marine Corps, who were trained in the Kehi lagoon, east of the entrance to Pearl Harbor. The boat was lifted and inspected.

Her hull was damaged by a depth charge attack. The hatch was opened from the inside, the remains of the crew were not found, and both torpedoes were in the vehicles. It became clear that midshipman Haruno's boat never managed to enter the harbor of Pearl Harbor, and the circumstances of the death of her crew remained unclear.

The submarine was restored and put on display at the former Japanese Imperial Naval Academy at Etajima on March 15, 1962.


Unlucky boat...


While carrier boats were launching mini-submarines one after another early on the morning of December 7, there was a serious hitch on I-24. On her "baby" (the crew of junior lieutenant Sakamaki Katsuo and non-commissioned officer Inagaki Kyoji), the gyrocompass failed. Troubleshooting failed. It was already 05:30 in the morning, and the boat was still not ready to launch, two hours late from the scheduled time. Dawn was approaching when Sakamaki and Inagaki squeezed through the hatch of their boat.

It was 10,5 miles before entering the harbor of Pearl Harbor, but it was not possible to move there right away - for more than an hour the submariners were desperately trying to straighten the trim of their submarine. With difficulty, they managed to do this, and they reached the entrance to the bay. The gyrocompass was still out of order, so Sakamaki was forced to raise the periscope to get his bearings. He saw the American destroyer Helm patrolling the entrance to the harbor, which soon approached so close that every detail on the deck and the white uniforms of the sailors could be distinguished through the periscope.

The Americans noticed the periscope and immediately rushed to the attack, dropping several depth charges. He rocked their boat for a long time, and then was picked up by the current and carried away into the open ocean. Sakamaki again tried to find the entrance to the base, but ran into a reef. As a result of the impact, one of the torpedo tubes was damaged, water began to flow into the boat. Due to the chemical reaction of water with the sulfuric acid of the batteries, asphyxiating gas began to be released.

At this time, Japanese aircraft had already bombed Pearl Harbor, and the Sakamaki boat still had not penetrated the bay! The crew, poisoned by gases (it was difficult to breathe, their eyes hurt), tried in vain to approach the entrance to the harbor again. But at about 14:00, the boat again ran into a reef and damaged the second torpedo tube. Poisoned and exhausted submariners were seized by depression. It became clear that the operation had failed. Sakamaki, with a last effort of will, tried to at least get to the carrier boat I-24, but soon both submariners lost consciousness, and the boat became uncontrollable.

When Sakamaki woke up, it was already night. The boat's engine was not running because the batteries were completely discharged. Having slightly opened the hatch cover, Sakamaki saw, about 200 meters away, the coast of some island, the moon and bright stars among the clouds. After recovering a little from the fresh sea air, Sakamaki tried to start the engine and after many attempts he succeeded. But the rejoicing did not last long - the boat again ran into the reef and this time got stuck tightly.

Realizing that it was all over, Sakamaki decided to sink the submarine - after all, it was the secret "wonder weapon" of the imperial fleet. Having undressed in advance and inserted detonators into the explosive charges, he lit the fuse of the fuse and, together with Inagaki, threw himself into the sea. According to other sources, Sakamaki ordered the non-commissioned officer and the mechanic of Inagaki's boat to prepare the explosion, but he did not comply with this order and threw himself into the sea (this version is confirmed by the fact that the explosion on the boat never happened). It was 06:40...

Sakamaki thought they were sailing towards the island of Maui, but in fact it was the west coast of Oahu, the same one where the Pearl Harbor base was located! Having jumped into the water after the commander, the exhausted Inagaki did not reach the shore and drowned. Exhausted and unconscious, Sakamaki was found on the shore and captured by Corporal David Akui of the 298th Regiment of the Hawaiian Territorial Guard.


American propaganda did not miss the opportunity to at least partially wash away the shameful stain of Pearl Harbor with the help of a captured Japanese submarine. During World War II, this submarine repeatedly "toured" the United States, inciting patriotism and thereby helping to sell war bonds to the population.

Inside the harbor...


One of the two dwarf submarines that successfully entered the harbor of Pearl Harbor was the boat of Lieutenant Iwasa Naoji and non-commissioned officer Sasaki Naoharu (from the I-22 carrier boat). When the first Japanese air raid began at 07:55, Lieutenant Iwasa began maneuvering and at 08:36 attacked the American Curtiss seaplane base, whose sailors were firing at Japanese aircraft at that time.

The torpedo fired by the boat passed by, but the American sailors noticed the periscope and immediately opened fire on it. At 08:40, the Japanese boat, due to damage or crew error, unexpectedly surfaced about 700 meters from the hydro-air transport and immediately sank again.

Some sources claim that two shells from the Curtiss hit the boat, but there is no documentary evidence for this. In any case, the Japanese have already signed their own death warrant - they were noticed by the destroyer Monaghan hurrying to leave the harbor.

Lieutenant Iwasa also detected the approaching enemy, turned around and fired a second (last) torpedo at the destroyer. She passed by, about 45 meters on the starboard side of the Monaghan. Moments later, at 08:43, the destroyer rammed the boat and then finished it off by dropping two depth charges. Due to the shallow waters of the harbor, thunderous explosions lifted the destroyer's stern out of the water. He lost control and crashed into a barge, escaping with minor damage.

Later, during the construction of new berthing facilities for submarines at Pearl Harbor, Lieutenant Ivas's lost boat, along with the soil, was used as material for one of the breakwaters. In 1952, the skeleton of the submarine was discovered again, but by that time the acid from the batteries had damaged the boat so badly that they didn’t bother with the “Japanese woman” and were “reburied” in the same place. At the same time, the remains of the crew remained inside the boat.

Of greatest interest to historians is the fate of the mini-submarine midshipman Yokoyama Masaharu and non-commissioned officer Ueda Teji from the carrier boat I-16. According to official investigations, the boat managed to enter the harbor, but failed to hit any targets, after which it disappeared without a trace, and its crew died.

In 2007, maritime historian and former US Navy submariner Parks Stephenson decided to solve the mystery of this boat. By that time, the fate was known and the skeletons of four of the five mini-submarines involved in the attack on Pearl Harbor were discovered.

But where did the fifth one go?

First of all, it was found that after the raid, namely on the night of December 8, the allegedly missing midshipman Yokoyama's mini-submarine sent two radio messages, which were received by the carrier submarine I-16. At 00:41 on December 8, Yokoyama radioed the success of the air attack on Pearl Harbor and the damage to the American battleships. 10 minutes later, another radiogram was received from him:

"Unable to navigate."

This clearly indicated that the Yokoyama boat did not die on December 7, but found a quiet place, lay at the bottom until night before surfacing and sending both radio messages.

But where is this calm place?

Stephenson's attention was drawn to West Loch, the western bay of the Pearl Harbor base, located directly opposite the battleships. It was the perfect hiding place, and that was where the boat was to be found. However, no traces of the "Japanese woman" could be found.

West Loch is known for the disaster that occurred here on May 21, 1944 and was classified until 1960. On that May day, 29 LST landing ships were stationed in the bay, preparing for Operation Forager, the US Navy's attack on the Japanese-occupied Mariana Islands. Some of these ships were loaded with ammunition and fuel.

The crews were actively preparing to go to sea, and nothing foreshadowed trouble, until at 15:08 an explosion occurred on LST-353, which was at one of the piers in the bay. The fire quickly engulfed several nearby ships. More and more explosions sounded, and the base command at first decided that this was another attack by the Japanese or an unexpected earthquake.

Having figured out what was happening, the commanders took their undamaged ships out of the harbor, saving them from the oil spilled in the water on fire. The last explosion occurred at 22:30, but fires on some ships continued until the next day.

The accident sank six landing craft and killed 392 sailors and marines. 20 buildings, 17 pieces of equipment and eight 155-mm guns were damaged. The investigation concluded that the cause of the incident could be the careless handling of ammunition by personnel or the ignition of gasoline vapors.

Within a few weeks after the disaster, all the wrecks of the ships were raised, towed and flooded 3 miles south of the Hawaiian Islands (with the exception of the LST-480 landing ship thrown ashore). In 1992, 2000 and 2001, the Hawaiian Institute conducted dives in the area, and in 2009 sent photographs taken to Stephenson. They captured the wreckage of not only American landing ships, but also a Japanese mini-submarine!

The Hawaiian Institute experts suggested that this was a boat that could have been captured by the Americans in 1942 on Guadalcanal or elsewhere, towed to Hawaii for research and later scuttled. However, the presence of a net cutter on the bow, characteristic of the first boats of type A, resolved all doubts - it was the fifth midshipman Yokoyama's missing mini-submarine!

The picture became more or less clear - having given radio messages to I-8 on the night of December 1941, 16, the crew sank the boat in West Loch and later died (probably committed suicide). The skeleton of the boat lay in the bay until May 1944, when it, torn into three parts by nearby explosions of landing ships, without understanding, was raised along with other debris and flooded south of the Hawaiian Islands.

Since both torpedo tubes of the boat were empty, it remained to find out who Midshipman Yokoyama fired his torpedoes at?

Here, Stephenson was helped by a declassified photograph taken by a Japanese aircraft during the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. It shows how torpedoes dropped by torpedo bombers rush to the target. But one torpedo shot was fired from a different point. After tracing the trajectory of the torpedo, the researchers found characteristic splashes on the water surface of the bay. These occur at the time of launching torpedoes from a dwarf submarine type A.

It became clear that the Yokoyama mini-submarine fired its torpedoes at the opposite battleships West Virginia and Oklahoma.

The torpedo fired at the battleship West Virginia never hit the target and was later found unexploded - it is mentioned in the report to Congress by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz in 1942.

But the torpedo fired at the Oklahoma battleship most likely reached its target, since the battleship received such serious damage that it did not sink to the bottom like the others, but turned over, burying 429 officers and sailors in its compartments.

In the fall of 1943, the battleship was raised and examined. It turned out that the damage he received to the underwater part was stronger than the aircraft torpedoes dropped by Japanese aircraft could inflict. At the same time, Japanese mini-submarines used much more powerful Type 97 torpedoes, which the battleship became a victim of, which received up to eight torpedo hits during the attack.

Conclusion


So, the official version of the Japanese type A mini-submarine attack on Pearl Harbor reads: all the boats were sunk without achieving any success, their crews were killed, and one submariner was captured. However, an investigation into the fate of each of the five dwarf submarines allows us to draw somewhat different conclusions.

First. The anti-submarine defense of the main naval base of the US Pacific Fleet was poorly organized. The first two Japanese mini-submarines managed to penetrate the base, and only the careless use of periscopes and the inexplicable ascent to the surface of the boat of Second Lieutenant Hiroo Akira allowed the Americans to finally detect the underwater danger and take action.

As a result, Second Lieutenant Hiroo's boat that surfaced was sunk, and midshipman Haruno's boat was damaged by depth charges and was scuttled by the crew. Second Lieutenant Sakamaki's third boat was ruined by technical problems and reefs.

It is worth noting that the Americans quickly corrected the matter. During the war, Japanese submariners patrolled the waters around Pearl Harbor more than once, but were never able to inflict any damage on ships that, during the years of the war, hundreds came and left the naval base. They were immediately discovered by aircraft, then anti-submarine ships and submarines were involved, frustrating all attacks and often sending underwater samurai to the bottom.

Second. An analysis of the photograph of the Pearl Harbor attack, as well as the damage to the Oklahoma battleship raised from the bottom, allows us to conclude that the Japanese submariners managed to sink the above-named battleship during the attack. Or, at least, finally finish him off with his torpedo - more powerful than the ones in service with the Japanese naval aviation. And this means that, in general, the operation should be recognized as a success - the death of an American battleship and more than 400 crew members more than compensate for the loss of five mini-submarines and 10 submariners.

The third. Despite the courage, determination and readiness to go to the end, the training of the Japanese mini-submarine crews was not up to par. The careless and too frequent use of the periscope attracted the attention of the enemy already at the initial stage of the operation and thwarted the surprise attack. And of the four targets attacked by Japanese submariners in Pearl Harbor, three were very large ships and stood motionless - the battleships Oklahoma and West Virginia, the Curtiss seaplane base. But the Japanese managed to get hit only in Oklahoma.

In Japan, the courage and self-sacrifice of the mini-submarine crews were highly appreciated - they became national heroes. A postcard was issued with the image of nine heroes of Pearl Harbor, among them was captured and thereby disgraced himself and the imperial fleet - Second Lieutenant Sakamaki Katsuo, who became Japanese prisoner of war No. 1 in the Pacific War.

To be captured according to Japanese tradition was an indelible shame, so Sakamaki was dismissed from the ranks of the imperial fleet and deleted from the list of Pearl Harbor submarine heroes. Waking up in the hospital, Sakamaki perfectly understood his position (he survived, was captured, and even did not destroy the secret submarine) and asked permission to commit suicide, which was refused.

After the end of World War II, Sakamaki married, worked for Toyota Motor Corporation, becoming president of its Brazilian subsidiary in 1969. He returned to Japan in 1983 and continued to work for Toyota until he retired in 1987. With the exception of writing his memoirs, Sakamaki did not like to reminisce about the war and became a pacifist.

Only in 1991 did he visit historical conference at the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas. He could not hold back his tears when, 50 years later, he saw his boat again, which was exhibited in the museum. He spent the rest of his life in Japan until his death in 1999 (aged 81).
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Нападение_на_Перл-Харбор#/media/Файл:Battleship-row-torpedos.jpg
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  1. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 24 January 2023 05: 02
    +16
    Strong people are sailors, submariners and not only Japanese. Interesting research and description.
    1. not the one
      not the one 24 January 2023 06: 51
      +15
      Yes, yes. They also got to Madagascar and Australia with their mini-submarines! And on November 7, 1942, off the coast of Guadalcanal, a midget submarine torpedoed and damaged the American steamer Majaba, which washed ashore and was later repaired. On November 29, 1942, the Alchiba transport was attacked and damaged in the same area, which also managed to get aground. True, it cost the Japanese eight submarines.
      1. not the one
        not the one 24 January 2023 06: 57
        +17
        They also reached the Aleutian Islands
        The top picture is dated 1943, and the bottom one is 2021. Interestingly, they seemed to be going to drag it somewhere, but apparently they abandoned it for some reason ..
      2. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 24 January 2023 20: 02
        +8
        Quote: not the one
        And on November 7, 1942, off the coast of Guadalcanal, a midget submarine torpedoed and damaged the American steamer Majaba, which washed ashore and was later repaired.


        It turns out that small boats have shown themselves well outside of their mission - to penetrate into other people's harbors.
        Use them on secondary sea lanes and along sparsely populated coasts and archipelagos, against coastal shipping, wherever there is no strong security - and it would give a decent result.
  2. Luminman
    Luminman 24 January 2023 05: 20
    +2
    all boats were sunk ... However, studies of the past 20 years cast doubt on this version

    The Americans occupied Japan. Couldn't they find out? Interrogate the admirals, check the archives. Everything was at their disposal...
    1. Orca
      Orca 24 January 2023 05: 34
      +11
      So, judging by the article, they found out that all these mini-boats were sunk. And whether the Americans excelled in this, or whether these samurai prodigies sank due to malfunctions, or the actions of their crews, this is secondary. The fact is that all of them, those that were launched from carrier boats, ended up at the bottom.
  3. Comrade
    Comrade 24 January 2023 05: 33
    +11
    An analysis of the photograph of the Pearl Harbor attack, as well as the damage to the Oklahoma battleship raised from the bottom, allows us to conclude that the Japanese submariners managed to sink the above-named battleship during the attack

    Military historian John Di Virgilio, best known for his two groundbreaking articles on the attack on Pearl Harbor and damage diagrams for the Pearl Harbor battleships, concluded that the battleship Oklahoma was hit. nine torpedoes.
    The distribution of torpedo hits in the diagram.

    Several reports are available on the web about the death of this battleship, the number of hit torpedoes is said to be five, then several more hits were felt.
    According to the ship's commander's report:
    The torpedoes were fired by aircraft on the port side of the bow at an estimated range of 200 to 400 yards. Estimated hits occurred between frames 25 and 120 on the port side. It is believed that the first three torpedoes hit below the armor belt. The next two may have hit above the armor belt, when the ship already had a roll to the port side of about 40 degrees or more.
    Five explosions with estimated time intervals between explosions in seconds: the first and second 10; second and third 10; third and fourth 20; fourth and fifth 30.

    As you can see, the ship began to roll rapidly after the first torpedo hit, so that each next hit higher than the previous one (see diagram) . As follows from the report of the battleship commander, the roll reached magpie degrees through twenty seconds after the first hit (!).

    Output.
    It is difficult to take seriously the hypothesis that it was precisely one of nine torpedoes hitting the ship. Decisive damage was received just as a result of hitting three aircraft torpedoes, in the first twenty seconds.
    If there was a torpedo from a submarine, then it hit the already doomed ship.
    By the way, it would be nice to look at the "declassified photo". If it is presented by the author of the article, it will be possible during the discussion to compare it with another photo (image size bless so details are visible), showing splashes from several splashdown torpedoes aimed at Oklahoma.
    1. Pushkowed
      Pushkowed 24 January 2023 08: 51
      +10
      By the way, it would be nice to look at the "declassified photo". If it is presented by the author of the article, it will be possible during the discussion to compare it with another photo (image size be healthy, so details are visible), which show splashes from several splashdown torpedoes aimed at Oklahoma.
      Either I'm not catching up with something, or the author meant this photo:
      There is also a higher resolution (without inscriptions): https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Battleship-row-torpedos.jpg
      Three characteristic bursts are attributed as propeller-raised boats, when, after launching torpedoes, it dedifferentiated and temporarily showed the bow, then the stern (with the propeller) out of the water.
      1. Comrade
        Comrade 24 January 2023 17: 20
        +2
        Quote: Pushkowed
        Either I'm not catching up with something, or the author meant this photo

        This photo is his number 1 in the article. So this is a different photo.
        Quote: Pushkowed
        Three characteristic splashes are attributed as propeller-raised boats.

        There are no captions on the photo you posted to confirm this. There are really visible several bursts, they are indicated by an arrow, above which the inscription Torpedo Porpoising And Tracks.

        Not a word about submarine propellers.
        Let's wait for the "declassified photo", maybe it will clarify.
        1. Pushkowed
          Pushkowed 25 January 2023 04: 05
          +2
          Torpedo Porpoising And Tracks
          Traces from a torpedo and its jumping.

          This is where an expert's comment is needed: after being dropped, can an aircraft torpedo ricochet off the surface of the water 2-3 times without falling apart and exploding?

          Despite what is written there, some researchers believe that these may still be splashes from the propeller of the boat, which appeared above the water for a while. Some even see the cabin of a boat there, appearing above the water.




          Here's a close-up of the place:

          Here are links to the original research:

          https://www.sfgate.com/news/article/New-Clues-on-Pearl-Harbor-Old-photo-suggests-2892005.php

          https://www.usni.org/magazines/naval-history-magazine/2004/december/pearl-harbor-midget-sub-picture
          1. Comrade
            Comrade 25 January 2023 06: 26
            +2
            Quote: Pushkowed
            Some even see the cabin of a boat there, appearing above the water.

            They mean this play of shadows, which they take for a rectangular object.

            At such a distance from the battleships, the cabin of the submarine, the height of which can be judged from this fragment of the photograph, would have been much smaller.

            In fact, the felling is lower than a white man, since it is designed for undersized Japanese.
            Take a look at any battleship, imagine a crew member on its deck, and then mentally place it where you “saw” a submarine. Yes, it's just not visible.
            By eye, there are five or six hundred meters between the battleship and the "rectangular object".
            1. Pushkowed
              Pushkowed 25 January 2023 07: 49
              +3
              They mean this game of shadows
              Yes, that is exactly what they mean.

              At such a distance from the battleships, the cabin of the submarine, the height of which can be judged from this fragment of the photograph, would have been much smaller.
              But the researchers believe they found a closer object in the image for scale:
              1. Comrade
                Comrade 26 January 2023 05: 10
                +3
                Quote: Pushkowed
                Yes, that is exactly what they mean.

                In this case, let's analyze this spot.
                1) In the fragment of the photograph below, there is a wheelhouse mounted on the top of the foremast of the battleship Oklahoma.
                On the platform below this cabin, there is a group of sailors. To make the picture more compact, I cut out several people from this group, after which I attached the cut out square with the sailors next to the wheelhouse. To make it easier to see, I drew two red horizontal lines. One above the heads of the sailors, the second - under their feet.
                Thus, we can judge the dimensions of this felling. Approximately, in height it with human growth.

                2) The next fragment is the same cabin on the foremast of the battleship Oklahoma, which I painted over in red for ease of perception.
                Then he transferred the fragment with this felling (framed in green) in close proximity to the spot, which some researchers have identified as the cabin of a Japanese submarine.
                On the right is the foremast, just for clarity.

                3) Here is the cabin of a Japanese submarine raised in Pearl Harbor. Next to the scale - a man.
                As you can see, the cabin is clearly lower than a person. Despite the fact that the legs of a person are not straightened.

                4) As you can see, the red-painted cutting is about the same size as the dark spot that some researchers take for cutting.
                However, given that there are several hundred meters between the battleship and the "cutting house", it can be stated that the height of the "cutting house" is much higher than it should have been, taking into account the reduction factor.
                There are several hundred meters between the spot and the battleship, how can the cabin have the same height as the people on the foremast of the battleship?

                If we put two identical bottles, for example, at a distance of two hundred meters from each other, and then we approach one of them, then the one that is two hundred meters away will seem much smaller to us than the one that stands directly in front of us.
                And according to the findings of the researchers, both bottles, regardless of the distance between them, will seem to us the same size.
                1. Pushkowed
                  Pushkowed 26 January 2023 09: 49
                  +2
                  Thanks for the work you've done. Impressed. No sarcasm.

                  First of all, I must correct you. The mast you carved is not from Oklahoma, but from West Virginia. Oklahoma has tripod masts, while West Virginia has columnar masts.

                  In addition, this is not a foremast, but a mainmast (West Virginia is turned stern to us).

                  But it doesn't really change anything. because the dimensions of these fellings should be approximately the same (yes, tied to human height).

                  And now to the point:
                  ... given that there are several hundred meters between the battleship and the "cabin", it can be stated that the height of the "cabin" is much higher than it should have been, taking into account the reduction factor.
                  и
                  If we put two identical bottles, for example, at a distance of two hundred meters from each other, and then we approach one of them, then the one that is two hundred meters away will seem much smaller to us than the one that stands directly in front of us.

                  These constructions do not take into account three points:

                  1. The distances from the camera (on which the picture was taken) to the battleship and to the "suspicious object" are incomparably greater than between the battleship and the "suspicious object". The camera was not near Oklahoma. She was high in the air, perhaps several kilometers from both "bottles". In this case, the difference in distances to them becomes a negligible value.

                  2. The photo was probably taken with an increase. Still, a reconnaissance aircraft. And this means that the real distances are many times greater than the "apparent" ones. Which ties in with the previous point. Approximately as in the diagram:

                  3. The trajectory of the torpedoes does not go directly "toward the photographer" or "away from the photographer", but at an angle to the axis of vision, close to a straight line. It should not be forgotten that the horizon is heavily littered with the image. If you correct it, this is what happens:

                  So your calculations do not contradict the hypothesis that a boat is visible in the picture. Rather, they confirm. But not definitively. We will probably never know the final answer...
                  1. Comrade
                    Comrade 27 January 2023 04: 04
                    +1
                    Quote: Pushkowed
                    Thanks for the work you've done. Impressed. No sarcasm.

                    And thank you for your kind words.

                    Quote: Pushkowed
                    First of all, I must correct you. The mast you carved is not from Oklahoma, but from West Virginia.

                    Thanks for the correction, you are absolutely right.
                    Quote: Pushkowed
                    The distances from the camera (on which the picture was taken) to the battleship and to the "suspicious object" are incomparably greater than between the battleship and the "suspicious object".

                    And here you are right.
                    By the way, this circumstance also occurred to me, but after I answered you.
                    Here is a photo collage showing the battleship Oklahoma moved horizontally to the left. Now it is under a dark spot of a rectangular shape.
                    To the right of the spot under discussion, for clarity, your humble servant has placed the top of the battleship's foremast. Two thin horizontal red lines show us that the height of the cutting and the dark spot are about the same.

                    And now let me share with you the results of an impromptu experiment I did today.
                    I took two cans of Coca-Cola. I put one jar on four boxes (conditionally felling on the foremast), put the second on the floor (conditionally water surface). He himself stood on a dais (conditionally the plane from which the photograph was taken).
                    Two photographs were taken, the distance between the two banks is ten and five steps. The results are below.
                    Banks that play the role of a dark spot are enclosed in a white circle. I then cut out these cans in each of the two photos and placed them next to the cans that act as cuttings. This was done in order to clearly show how much the size of the cans has decreased if they are placed five and ten steps from the same cans.
                    And in the photo collage with a battleship and a dark spot, the distance will be more, and yet, the spot, which some researchers take for the cabin of a submarine, is the same size as the cabin of the battleship.

                    Five steps between banks.


                    Ten steps between banks.

                    As you can see, the difference in the height of the cans is many times.

                    Quote: Pushkowed
                    So your calculations do not contradict the hypothesis that a boat is visible in the picture. Rather, they confirm.

                    The key question here is why, despite the distance, is the height of the "cabin" of the submarine equal to the height of the cabin from the foremast of the battleship?
                    The results of my impromptu experiments allow us to conclude that the dark spot cannot be the cabin of a submarine. It is too big.
                    1. Pushkowed
                      Pushkowed 27 January 2023 06: 50
                      0
                      It's amazing how much this topic touched you. Conducting full-scale experiments is an unconditional respect.

                      And yet, alas, your experiment does not quite reproduce the conditions from reality. The main thing is the ratio of the apparent distances to the can on the ground and to the can on the boxes. In the pictures they (apparent distances) differ significantly. It is logical that in this case the apparent sizes of the cans will also differ significantly. These are just the laws of optics (by the way, thanks to these laws of optics, we need exactly apparent distance). If there are 5-10 steps to the far jar, then to the jar on the box - about a couple of steps.

                      And in the picture from Pearl Harbor, the objects seem to be almost equidistant.

                      Also, in your 2nd experiment (10 steps), it is not taken into account that the angle at which we see the line between the banks has changed a lot.

                      We should try to calculate the range and height of that aerial photograph from real satellite photographs. Arizona is now where it was in the photo (for obvious reasons), Missouri now stands in the place of Oklahoma, the buildings in the background seem to have remained in place ...
                      1. Comrade
                        Comrade Yesterday, 03: 43
                        0
                        Quote: Pushkowed
                        It's amazing how much this topic touched you.

                        Everyone deals with boredom in their own way.
                        Quote: Pushkowed
                        Conducting full-scale experiments is an unconditional respect.

                        Here are a couple more photos I took today.


                        Quote: Pushkowed
                        And in the picture from Pearl Harbor, the objects seem to be almost equidistant.

                        There is a physical object in the picture - a battleship, and a spot in the photo, which some "researchers" identify as a submarine.
                        But if they had evidence that this is indeed a submarine, then we could say that the two physical objects seem to us equidistant.
                        On the Japanese Wikipedia page, an article on the Pearl Harbor raid touched on the topic of this spot. It says that the dwarf submarine, due to technical features, could not quickly launch two torpedoes, therefore, it could not surface.

                        Quote: Pushkowed
                        At the same time, the boat can easily stick the screw out of the water three times until the crew regains control over it. The picture shows 3 bursts, and the first one almost fell off, the second falls off, the third one is on the rise

                        In my youth, I had a chance to spend a lot of time in one of the southern cities, where more than once I had the opportunity to observe how men repair or tune outboard motors. Basically, Whirlwinds, of course.
                        It was done like this. Boat moorings had special structures welded from angle. The motor was hung on them. And so that during operation the screw does not rotate in the air, there was a container with water at the bottom, into which the underwater part of the motor was immersed.
                        And I have seen more than once how the motor twitched, and at the same time the rotating propeller came out of the water for a couple of moments and ended up in the air.
                        There were no splashes, at first the water "boiled" sharply, then a low cloud of spray and water dust formed. Someone who has never seen a spinning propeller come out of the water and then plunge back into the water, and invented the story about the "splashes" that the spinning propeller allegedly raises.
                        I did not tell you about this right away, because first it was necessary to deal with the "cabin" of the submarine.
                        If we consider these bright spots as columns of water, and not glare on the water, then the assumption of fallen bombs looks more plausible. There, yes, there could well be columns of water.
                        We dismiss the version with dropped torpedoes due to the lack of aircraft in the photo that could drop them.
                        The places there are shallow, so something like wooden wings were specially installed on the torpedoes so that they would not hit the bottom after splashing down. For the same reason, torpedo throwing was carried out from minimal heights. According to an eyewitness who watched the training of torpedo bombers, one could see the expression on the pilot's face.
                        So the "bursts" in the photo cannot be bursts from torpedoes, the planes simply would not have time to disappear from the lens before the "splash" falls, which takes less than ten seconds.
                      2. Pushkowed
                        Pushkowed Yesterday, 07: 29
                        0
                        ... we brush aside due to the lack of aircraft in the photograph that could drop them.
                        There is at least 1 aircraft in the picture. Here it is:
                        There are also many traces of torpedoes in the picture, at least 1 splash from hitting West Virginia (the same mast is visible against its background), and diverging circles from several dropped air torpedoes are visible around the "suspicious object". If the "suspicious object" is indeed a Japanese SMPL, then we can state that it almost fell under the "friendly fire" of its aircraft ...

                        Someone who has never seen a spinning propeller come out of the water and then plunge back into the water, and invented the story about the "splashes" that the spinning propeller allegedly raises.
                        Like this:

                        the dwarf submarine, due to technical features, could not quickly launch two torpedoes, therefore, it could not surface.
                        Our "Baby" with two "muzzle-loading" torpedo tubes also could not shoot in one gulp. Only one. But even so, there were cases when the boat did not keep the depth and showed a cabin above the water. And now some arithmetic.

                        Underwater displacement "Baby" VI series - 197 tons. And the Japanese SMPL - 47 tons. The mass of our torpedoes 53-27 and 53-36 is approximately 1,7 tons (0,86% of the underwater displacement), and the Japanese "type 97" is about 1 ton (2,13% of the underwater displacement). If ours could emerge after launch, then the Japanese - and even more so.
                      3. Pushkowed
                        Pushkowed Yesterday, 08: 09
                        0
                        By the way, yesterday I promised to try to fit the picture to the area. I got this:

                        Distances in meters rounded. And the satellite image itself is inverted (south from above) for clarity.

                        The distance between Oklahoma (it stood where the stern of Missouri is now) and the "suspicious object" was measured along the length of the Neosho tanker (about 170m), which is to the right and further than Oklahoma in the picture.

                        The height of the picture is subjectively presented as 200-300 meters (if you put the battleship "on the butt", it seems that you will almost hit it while flying over it). I did not immediately find the height of the foremast of Oklahoma, but judging by the pictures from the network - something about 40 meters. You should be more visible.

                        All values very exemplary and very rude, just to give you an idea of ​​the order of magnitude.

                        Perhaps a correct experiment could look like this:
                        1st bank - 10 steps on the ground.
                        2nd bank - in 9 steps on 2 boxes.
                        Between the banks - 2,5 steps, a shot from the height of one's own growth.
                2. Pushkowed
                  Pushkowed 26 January 2023 10: 30
                  +1
                  And by the way, I looked up information about torpedo splashes (which are Torpedo Porpoising And Tracks).

                  Dropping an aircraft torpedo is an art. She must enter the water at the right angle and at the right speed.

                  In 1982, during the Falklands War, the Argentines tried to adapt their Pucara anti-guerrilla attack aircraft (at that time the latest, but close in performance characteristics to WWII aircraft) to the role of torpedo bombers, using American Mk13 aircraft torpedoes from the times of that same WWII. The desired combination of entry angle, speed and drop height was not immediately guessed. At the same time, it was found that if the torpedo bounces off the surface of the water (and there have been such cases) then it fails and collapses.

                  Obviously, in the destroyed state, it cannot leave 3 neat bursts, and even so that each subsequent one is larger than the previous one. Rather, the first splash will be large, and then - a heapy area of ​​\u1b\uXNUMXbsmall splashes (from falling debris).

                  If the torpedo enters the water correctly - 1 splash and circles from it.

                  But if the SMPL, after launching torpedoes, does not maintain depth and jumps to the surface, and even its trim is disturbed due to the lightening of the bow, then keeling will begin. At the same time, the boat can easily stick the screw out of the water three times until the crew regains control over it. The picture shows 3 bursts, and the first one almost fell off, the second one falls off, the third one is on the rise. This is as it approaches the proposed boat, which fits into the hypothesis. Also highlighted are the alleged "correct" diverging "circles" (rather, ovals) from aircraft torpedoes that entered the water.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 24 January 2023 05: 43
    +8
    The American author has a good dilogy about Pearl Harbor and Midway, everything is described there every minute, including the Japanese submarine attack on Pearl Harbor ..
  5. Li17
    Li17 24 January 2023 06: 18
    +8
    Everything is interesting, the ideology of the Japanese and the ability to create deserve respect and admiration!
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 24 January 2023 10: 57
      +12
      Quote: lithium17
      Everything is interesting, the ideology of the Japanese and the ability to create deserve respect and admiration!

      You, most importantly, do not tell their neighbors about respect and admiration for the ideology of the Japanese. They will not understand, sir.
      And yes, here is the quintessence of Japanese ideology:

      © Japanese officer Yasuno Chikao cuts off the head of captured Australian Sergeant Leonard Siffleet.
      1. Adrey
        Adrey 24 January 2023 11: 54
        +8
        Quote: Alexey RA
        You, most importantly, do not tell their neighbors about respect and admiration for the ideology of the Japanese. They will not understand, sir.

        Yeah. And don't remember the "kimatori" custom. There is something to admire in the 20th century.
      2. Comrade
        Comrade 24 January 2023 17: 44
        +2
        Quote: Alexey RA
        You, most importantly, do not tell their neighbors about respect and admiration for the ideology of the Japanese. They will not understand, sir.

        Deeply respected colleague, the Chinese were distinguished by much more bestial cruelty during the reprisals against Europeans during the "Boxer Rebellion", for example. It's just not customary to talk about it now.
        In the picture you provided, we see a death sentence being carried out. It is not known what this prisoner of war did. Most likely, he tried to escape from captivity, which was punishable by death among the Japanese. An attempt to escape was also punishable by death.
        I do not justify such severity, but in fairness, didn’t we or the Germans shoot at prisoners when trying to escape? There is death, and here is death. The difference is only in the method of depriving a person of life - there is a bullet, here is a sword.
        I will say more, as you probably know, during the First World War, all residents of Canada of Ukrainian origin, being immigrants from Austria-Hungary, were recognized as enemies and driven into concentration camps. There is a photograph of a railroad trolley with several executed Ukrainians and a poster informing other Ukrainians that this will happen to anyone who dares to escape from the concentration camp.
        The trolley rode along the railroad along the cutting areas where the Ukrainians worked.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 25 January 2023 10: 42
          +3
          Quote: Comrade
          Deeply respected colleague, the Chinese were distinguished by much more bestial cruelty during the reprisals against Europeans during the "Boxer Rebellion", for example.

          There is one nuance here. The Chinese dealt with those who came to their territory. And it's not for me to tell you what the Europeans were doing in China - one opium business is worth something. wink
          The Japanese, on the other hand, established their own rules on foreign lands, cracking down on those who lived there.
          Quote: Comrade
          In the picture you provided, we see a death sentence being carried out. It is not known what this prisoner of war did.

          The only thing the sergeant did was to be a coast watcher. His group was captured by the locals and handed over to the Japanese, who executed all the prisoners.
          One can also recall Operation SA No.1, when most of the crew members of the Bekhar vessel, previously destroyed by the cruiser group, were beheaded on board the Tone SRT - because the commander of the operation decided that they were useless.
    2. Adrey
      Adrey 24 January 2023 12: 07
      +7
      Quote: lithium17
      Everything is interesting ideology Japanese and the ability to create deserves respect and admiration!

      Especially ideology! Xenophobic and cannibalistic completely, often in the literal sense (kimatori).
      Have you now mentioned the Japanese ideology of sacrifice in the name of the Emperor, for an hour not in the context of a feverish search for it, in the current situation in our country?
  6. not the one
    not the one 24 January 2023 07: 00
    +12
    Interesting investigation and description.
    I join, only the photo "will not be enough!" Here there will be more of them, if anyone is suddenly interested
    https://arsenal-info.ru/b/book/1934221868/8
  7. not the one
    not the one 24 January 2023 10: 44
    +13
    Some sources claim that two shells from the Curtiss hit the boat, but there is no documentary evidence for this.
    Raised by the Americans Japanese mini-submarine No. 22 Type A Ko-hyoteki (Type A Ko-hyoteki / 甲標的甲型) at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard.
    On the hull of the submarine, traces of explosions of depth charges and a ram are visible. The upper part of the image is censored.
    A through hole in the cabin was most likely made by a 127-mm projectile.
    We hit, as we see. But who exactly ... after all, both the Curtiss (USS Curtiss, AV-4) and the destroyer Monaghan (USS Monaghan, DD-354) were both armed with 127mm.
  8. not the one
    not the one 24 January 2023 10: 50
    +10
    The boat was lifted and inspected.
    Video savedThanks to the author for an interesting story!
  9. Jin
    Jin 24 January 2023 11: 54
    +10
    I read it with pleasure. Thanks for the material.
  10. Adrey
    Adrey 24 January 2023 11: 57
    +9
    Good article good . The author is definitely a plus.
    Of course, he knew about the attack of the submarine, and the same about the first shots of that war ("Curtiss"). But the details about each boat eluded me (or maybe I didn’t look for laughing).
  11. Reader 2013
    Reader 2013 25 January 2023 15: 22
    +2
    Very informative, well done author,
    Unfortunately, such high-quality material is less and less common on VO
  12. optimist007
    optimist007 Yesterday, 11: 38
    +1
    Quote: Tartar 174
    Strong people are sailors, submariners and not only Japanese. Interesting research and description.

    That's right! soldier
  13. optimist007
    optimist007 Yesterday, 11: 38
    +1
    Quote: Jin
    I read it with pleasure. Thanks for the material.

    The material is excellent! drinks
  14. optimist007
    optimist007 Yesterday, 11: 40
    +1
    Quote: Adrey
    Quote: Alexey RA
    You, most importantly, do not tell their neighbors about respect and admiration for the ideology of the Japanese. They will not understand, sir.

    Yeah. And don't remember the "kimatori" custom. There is something to admire in the 20th century.

    Really! drinks
  15. optimist007
    optimist007 Yesterday, 11: 42
    +1
    Quote: Alexey RA
    Quote: lithium17
    Everything is interesting, the ideology of the Japanese and the ability to create deserve respect and admiration!

    You, most importantly, do not tell their neighbors about respect and admiration for the ideology of the Japanese. They will not understand, sir.
    And yes, here is the quintessence of Japanese ideology:

    © Japanese officer Yasuno Chikao cuts off the head of captured Australian Sergeant Leonard Siffleet.

    Yes, he's still a good guy! sad