Military Review

About the feat of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya

103
About the feat of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya



"There is no extra courage for a man,
who doomed himself to the dangerous service of the Partisan.
He must destroy the hope to taste
upon accomplishment of a feat, the fruits of heroic inspiration;
forget about the applause awaiting him,
praises and awards, and go for the right way
to inflict sensitive blows on the enemy,
perish with benefit, even a shameful death ... "

Denis Vasilievich Davydov

Entry


Once upon a time in the days of the USSR, this name and surname were known to every Soviet schoolchild, but after the collapse of a huge country, they began to gradually forget about Zoya and her feat. And now, the feature film Zoya, released in 2021, again attracted public interest in this legendary Soviet girl.


Unexpectedly, the film split modern Russian society into two camps: some consider her act a real feat, while others, on the contrary, condemn and even call her actions a crime.

Moreover, the most surprising thing is that both of them do not know who Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya really was and what she did in the days preceding her death at the hands of the Nazis.

The vast majority of people have an idea of ​​​​Zoya through reading various publications published back in Soviet times, written in the spirit of Soviet propaganda, and therefore often containing unreliable information.

Others learned details about the life and death of Kosmodemyanskaya mainly thanks to the movie Zoya they watched.

As a result, many people consider the truth not the truth itself (which is unknown to them), but various legends - fiction, versions composed by various authors in Soviet or post-Soviet times.

Those people who really knew the truth have long been gone from this world. And the memoirs left by some of them, again, cannot be taken as absolute truth, if only because people who served in special intelligence units never tell the whole truth about the specifics of their work and the tasks they perform.

Additional difficulties arise due to the fact that so far only a few documents have been made public containing information that only allows one to put forward cautious assumptions about who Zoya really was, in which military unit she served, in what military rank and in what position she was , and what task she performed shortly before her death.

It is likely that detailed information about the service of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in the Red Army will never be declassified.

Therefore, versions about her activities during her stay in the ranks of the Red Army have to be built based on a minimum number of documents, and mainly through logical analysis, analogies and assumptions.

Formation of the image of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in the Soviet press


The first stage in the creation of the legendary image of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya dates back to January 27, 1942, when an essay by war correspondent P. A. Lidov “Tanya” was published in the Pravda newspaper.

It said that in early December 1941, in the village of Petrishchevo near the town of Vereya, the Germans executed an eighteen-year-old Komsomol member from Moscow, who called herself Tatyana. From the stories of the villagers (who allegedly learned this from German soldiers), it followed that the girl tried to set fire to the building where the “important military facility” was located, but did not have time, as she was caught by a German sentry. The girl turned out to have a revolver with cartridges, bottles of gasoline and matches, so it was concluded that she was a partisan.

According to the residents of the village of Petrishchevo, the Germans subjected the girl to an intensive interrogation with the use of physical measures, but she stood firm and did not tell them anything.

However, after interrogation, during a conversation with one of the village women, the girl confessed to her that the day before the capture she set fire to the stable in Petrishchevo, where the horses of the German unit were.

The next morning

“... a bottle of gasoline taken from her and a board with the inscription “Partizan” were hung on Tatyana’s chest. So she was taken to the square where the gallows stood ... "

During the execution, Tatyana behaved courageously and urged the villagers to fight the Nazis. Her last words were:

"Farewell, comrades! Fight, don't be afraid! Stalin is with us! Stalin will come!

The article included a photograph of a woman with a rope noose around her neck, the inscription under the picture said: "The corpse of the Komsomol partisan Tatyana." How this photograph got into the newspaper was not explained in the article.

On the same day, January 27, 1942, the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper published an essay by Sergei Lyubimov “We ​​will not forget you, Tanya!”, where it was reported that she “... did not have time to set fire to the warehouse with military property.” Further, the essay provided a detailed description of torture with separate details that were not in Lidov's essay.

At the end of the article, the phrase "... everyone who knew her and saw her in a partisan detachment ..." was given, giving readers the impression that the girl was in a partisan detachment, that is, she was a partisan.

On February 16, 1942, the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces was signed on awarding Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya the title of Hero of the Soviet Union

"...for courage and heroism shown in the partisan struggle in the rear against the German invaders..."

In addition to Zoya, two more partisans were included in this Decree: Mikhail Alekseevich Guryanov and Mikhail Nikolaevich Kuzin.

On February 17, 1942, the Decree was published in the Pravda newspaper, a large photograph of Zoya was placed next to it, and below it another decree and a list of other partisans awarded various orders and medals were published.

On February 18, 1942, another essay by P. A. Lidov “Who was Tanya” was published in the Pravda newspaper. It reported that the Komsomol partisan Tanya mentioned earlier in newspaper articles was actually Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya, a tenth grade student of school No.

Further in the essay it was reported that on November 18, 1941

“... with a group of Komsomol partisans, Zoya crossed the front line into the territory occupied by the enemy. For two weeks they lived in the forests, at night they carried out their combat mission, and during the day they warmed themselves in the forest by the fire and slept, sitting in the snow and leaning against a pine trunk ... "

Then Zoya, for unknown reasons, was left alone, spent two nights in the forest, then entered Petrishchevo

“... to an important enemy object and alone courageously fought against a whole pack of fascists who tormented her with insane cruelty ...”

Subsequently, a great many publications appeared, reporting more and more details of the heroic deed of Kosmodemyanskaya. And all of them had two features:

1) none of the publications published during the Soviet period indicated that Kosmodemyanskaya was in the Red Army, everywhere she was called a partisan;

2) the description of the details of her behavior in captivity was presented from the words of the inhabitants of the village of Petrishchevo.


Much later, several photographs were found of the dead Nazis, depicting Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya before execution. The details recorded in the photographs conflicted with the details set out in Lidov's articles and other publications. In particular, on the board hanging on Zoya’s chest, it was written not “partisan”, but “House setter”, below the inscription was duplicated in German. And no bottles from Zoya are visible in the photographs.

Summarizing the above, it can be noted that thanks to Soviet propaganda, instead of an honest story about who Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya really was, what relation she had to the Red Army and what task she performed, a beautiful legend was composed about a courageous partisan - a people's avenger who took a painful death from the hands of the enemy.

It is possible that to the people at the helm of Soviet propaganda during the Great Patriotic War, such an algorithm of actions to create semi-mythical images of folk heroes at that time seemed more correct than truthful stories about them and their actions in the course of the fight against the enemy. But time, as usual, put everything in its place and revealed a big drawback of this approach.

After the collapse of the USSR, publications began to appear where the authors, highlighting the generally correct facts that Kosmodemyanskaya was a fighter in a sabotage group and carried out the task of destroying villages by setting them on fire, but then, based on these facts, were made completely wrong conclusions: where they called her a fanatic, a criminal and an enemy of the Soviet people.

And many readers, completely unfamiliar with the events taking place in the Moscow region at the end of November 1941, and even remotely not representing the goals and objectives of the guerrilla-sabotage war, believed these conclusions.

Now we are witnessing the results of those fundamental mistakes that were made by Soviet propagandists during the war years and after it - lies and even “half-truths” built on omissions will never become a solid basis for instilling patriotism among the younger generation.

Let's try to install historical truth and clear the last days of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya's life from completely unnecessary propaganda husks.

Scarcity of documentary evidence


I want to note right away that it is not possible to restore with absolute certainty the events that took place with the participation of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in the village of Petrishchevo, and to separate them from the legend composed in Soviet times.

To establish the actual course of events, the most important historical document is missing: the protocol of interrogation of Kosmodemyanskaya drawn up by the Germans. As well as other documentary data of the enemy: reports, entries in the combat log, etc.

The whole story of the feat is built solely from the words of people living in the village of Petrishchevo. At the same time, there is no firm certainty that the narrators stated everything with 100% accuracy (which is impossible in principle), that their testimony was sincere (without fiction or embellishment). And also that the testimony was recorded verbatim and subsequently (when published) were not changed to suit the Soviet propaganda guidelines that were available at that time.

It is only documented that Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya at the end of November or at the beginning of December (even the exact date is not known) was hanged by the Nazis in the village of Petrishchevo after being accused of intending to burn houses. Consequently, during the interrogation, the girl behaved courageously and refused to buy her life, paying for it with a betrayal of the Motherland.

If during the interrogation she confessed everything, then the Germans would have saved her life, as, for example, they saved the fighter of the same group to the traitor Klubkov. This very important circumstance is diligently avoided by Zoe's detractors.

It is also impossible to establish exactly with what degree of intensity the Germans conducted the interrogation, whether they used torture and what kind. The published Act of examination and identification of the body of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya dated February 4.02.1942, 1 [XNUMX] does not contain data on any injuries on the body and any other information about the condition of the corpse.

There is no mention of injuries to the body in the Act of exhumation of the corpse of Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya, compiled on February 12.02.1942, 2, during the next opening of the grave [XNUMX]. It only states that

"... The corpse is in a state of freezing, well preserved for identification."

What military unit did Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya belong to?


In the publications of the Soviet period, Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya was called a partisan, and in the post-Soviet period - a Red Army soldier acting as part of a sabotage group, i.e. a soldier and saboteur.

Who was she in reality, what does the phrase from Lidov's essay "...volunteer in the fighter squad" mean?

The search for an answer to this question is very difficult due to the almost complete absence of documents describing Zoya's activities after she left school and went to war.

The most significant is the historical document “Message from the commander of military unit No. 9903, Lieutenant Colonel A.K. Sprogis, to the Secretary of the Moscow and Moscow City Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League A.M. Pegov about the execution of Z.A. Kosmodemyanskaya, dated February 5, 1942” [3], which contains the information:

“... I inform you that the Komsomol member Kosmodemyanskaya Zoya Anatolyevna in October 1941 was mobilized to the front by the Moscow Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. When performing a special task of the command of the intelligence department of the headquarters of the Western Front on the front of the struggle against the German invaders on November 30 - December 1, 1941 at 11 o'clock in the village. Petrishchevo, Vereisky district, was executed by German fascists ... "

A. K. Sprogis also appears in another document - the Act of exhumation of the corpse of Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya dated February 12.02.1942, 2 [XNUMX], as one of those present.

I want to draw the reader's attention to the fact that the above documents do not indicate the military (in those years they wrote "military") rank and position of Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya.

It is known from numerous publications that Artur Karlovich Sprogis (1904–1980) was a well-known Soviet specialist in sabotage and guerrilla warfare and gained extensive combat experience in preparing and committing sabotage during the Spanish Civil War.

In the initial period of the Great Patriotic War, he was the head of the school for the training of partisan intelligence officers, demolition workers and commanders of reconnaissance and partisan detachments, which is documented as military unit 9903 and belongs to the intelligence department of the headquarters of the Western Front (hereinafter referred to as RO ZapF).

Therefore, since A.K. Sprogis prepared the first document above and appears in the second one, it can be quite reasonable to conclude that Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya was directly related to military unit 9903 and RO ZapF.

But how to find out her rank and position?

Further, one has to approach the establishment of the truth by analyzing the available materials, using an analogy in some cases.

From the memoirs of a veteran of military unit 9903 Claudia Aleksandrovna Miloradova [4], it follows that she, together with Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya, was trained at the Sprogis partisan-sabotage school and in November 1941, together with Zoya, performed combat work as part of small groups that committed behind enemy lines various sabotage.
It can be assumed that at that time Zoya had the same rank and position as Klava Miloradova.

From the award list stored in TsAMO, we learn that K. A. Miloradova consisted
in the position of "fighter of the partisan detachment" and did not have a military rank:


The fact that many young women who were in the Sprogis unit did not really have military ranks at that time is also confirmed by the list of those awarded in the Order to the troops of the Western Front dated February 27.02.1942, 0230 No. XNUMX, where the ranks of the fighters K. A. Miloradova and M. I. Guseva are absent.


And also this conclusion is confirmed by entries in the award lists of many other young women who are subordinate to Sprogis, where in the column “military rank” there is either a gap or an entry - “does not have” or “volunteer”.


The foregoing allows us to make a very plausible assumption that at the time of her death, and Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya was in the position of "fighter of the partisan detachment", without having a military rank.

Is this possible?

Based on the information contained in numerous award documents, one can put forward the version that almost all young girls who were trained at the school of military unit 9903 went there voluntarily (not at the call of the RVC), were not connected with the Red Army by any legal obligations and did not took the oath, therefore, carried out the tasks of the RO ZapF exclusively on a voluntary basis, driven by their patriotism and desire to defend their homeland.

Simply put, they fought as "civilians" (not military personnel).

Consequently, the girls can be called both partisans and saboteurs, since they received appropriate training and acted behind enemy lines as part of small groups of 8–12 people who committed sabotage during short-term raids (usually lasting 7–10 days) on assignments from the ZapF RO. And after completing the task, they returned back - they crossed the front line and arrived at military unit 9903 to report the results of the raid. And then, after a short vacation, they again went to the next raid on the German rear.

And usually they did not return from the second or third combat exit - they died while performing the task ... And most often the circumstances of their death remained unknown, many are still missing ...

It is worth noting here that even crossing the front line when the group was following behind enemy lines was associated with the risk of detection by the enemy and death either from bullets and shrapnel, or after being captured, since the Germans considered all captured members of sabotage groups not military personnel, but bandits. And in case of refusal to cooperate, they were immediately executed by hanging.

And the soldiers of the Red Army who were captured were sent to the camp, therefore, they had a theoretical opportunity to survive.

In the process of crossing the front line when returning “to base”, the danger doubled, since, in addition to the probability of dying from German weapons or after the capture, there was a risk of falling under the friendly fire of the Red Army. Therefore, it can be concluded without any exaggeration that all these 17–20-year-old girls who went behind enemy lines to commit sabotage were real heroes, but, unfortunately, not all of them were awarded even medals by the country...

In modern terms, Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya was not connected with the ZapF RO by any legal obligations, she was formally a civilian, therefore, at any time after returning from the assignment, she could refuse further work behind enemy lines and return back to school. And no one would have condemned her for this - the leadership of the RO understood perfectly well how difficult for these young Komsomol women who went to war voluntarily, the tasks that were set for them.

Moreover, the girls could refuse to complete the task even during the raid. And in this case, too, they were not subject to any punishment, except for moral condemnation by their comrades.

However, Zoya never lost heart, and, returning after the first rather difficult combat exit, she, without hesitation, agreed to go to the next one.

She was a true patriot of her country and believed that she had no right to act differently at this difficult moment for her Motherland. She believed that every Soviet person should contribute to the common cause of victory over the enemy. And she went behind enemy lines a second time, from where she never returned, but by her death she earned immortality ...

There were thousands of such young volunteers in 1941, but none of them were lucky enough to receive such a high rank as Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya. Many died without receiving any awards.

At that difficult time in the USSR there were a great many young people, real patriots, ready to give their lives for their Motherland without hesitation.

And none of them shouted from the high stands about their patriotism. Young people, schoolchildren and students, simply voluntarily went to war, asked to go where it was most difficult, and if there was no other way out, they sacrificed their lives for the sake of a common cause - the liberation of their homeland from the hated invaders.

About guerrilla warfare


Here it is necessary to briefly step back from the subject of research and briefly talk about the partisan movement in 1941.

Under the influence of cinematography, most people got the impression that the Soviet partisans were local residents who had gone into the forests and united in detachments for armed struggle against the German occupiers. That is, for the most part, these are “civilian” people - brave bearded men who periodically come out of the forests to destroy the Nazis.

And detachments from among the military personnel of the Red Army or the NKVD sent to the rear of the enemy to conduct an armed struggle are no longer partisan detachments, but sabotage groups.

In fact, guerrilla warfare is a very broad concept and implies many forms and types of armed struggle.

In our country, the partisan struggle first clearly manifested itself during the war of 1812. It was led by detachments from the Russian regular army, called parties. Hence the name "partisan" - a soldier or officer who fights behind enemy lines as part of a party.
Such detachments consisted of light cavalry, formed from the Cossacks, because they were best suited to carry out the specific tasks assigned.

In those years, guerrilla warfare was understood as the actions of armed detachments located behind enemy lines, with the aim of destroying transports delivering weapons, ammunition, food, medicines and other property to enemy military units. As well as the destruction of small groups of the enemy moving in the rear, communication couriers, lodgers, crossings, etc. [5]

The attack was carried out suddenly and, as a rule, with an overwhelming numerical advantage of the attackers. Simply put, the partisan detachments in that war conducted fleeting military operations, which later received the name “raid” in the tactics of special intelligence units.

As partisan commander D.V. Davydov put it very wittily:

“A certain number of Cossack detachments were launched on the route of communication of the enemy army: and as soon as they separated from our main forces, the hitherto serene enemy communication routes took on a different look - everything turned upside down and into chaos ...” [6].

The second activity of the parties in 1812 was intelligence.

The detachments were formed and led by experienced officers from the regular army (F.F. Winzingerode, D.V. Davydov, A.N. Seslavin and others).

An exception to the general rule was the partisan detachment organized by A. S. Figner. Initially, this officer was sent behind enemy lines as a scout. But then he formed a detachment from among the Russian soldiers and officers who were surrounded, as well as peasants from the local population who joined them.

Thus, in the war of 1812, the partisan movement arose not in the form of a spontaneous popular struggle against the invaders, but in the form of specially organized combat work carried out by army formations that had regular contact with the headquarters of the Russian army and acted under its leadership.

During the Great Patriotic War, the foundations of partisan struggle laid down in 1812 were preserved and only slightly expanded, supplemented by actions to destroy communication lines, bridges, small warehouses, destroy railway echelons and tracks, military equipment and vehicles, mine roads, attack enemy soldiers in places their lodging, etc.

During the Great Patriotic War, the expression "partisan detachment" was a very broad concept - this was the name of all armed detachments operating behind enemy lines, regardless of the method of their occurrence, composition and subordination. And the guerrilla war was called any actions carried out behind enemy lines that cause damage to him.

At that time there were 4 main types of partisan detachments:

1) created by party bodies (for example, detachments of Kovpak and Fedorov);
2) organized by the NKVD from the employees of this department;
3) formed by the intelligence departments of the Red Army;
4) spontaneously formed and consisting of fighters and commanders of the Red Army who fell into the environment and activists from among the local population who joined them and escaped from the camps of Soviet prisoners of war.


Also, the guerrilla struggle was carried out by underground groups. So they called people who remained in the occupied territory, but did not want to adapt to the new order and embarked on a deadly path of secret struggle against the Nazis.

The underground usually kept in touch with the partisans, collected intelligence information about the enemy; procured samples and forms of documents for the partisans; train schedules; medicines; food, etc. For this, many underground workers specially got jobs in German institutions.

Sometimes underground workers committed sabotage, for example, they planted special mines disguised as pieces of coal in coal heaps intended for use in locomotive furnaces, or attached magnetic mines to the bottoms of locomotives and railway tanks with gasoline, set fire to warehouses, etc. [8]

The documents I have studied allow us to suggest that in the autumn of 1941, the ZapF RO had not yet begun to form partisan detachments of 20 people or more, sent behind enemy lines for a long time, whose backbone was the Red Army soldiers (this will happen in 1942).

At that time, small partisan groups of 8-12 people were formed, consisting mainly of young men and women (sometimes only women), sent behind enemy lines for a short time (usually from 7 to 10 days) to mine roads, undermine bridges, destruction of wire communication lines, destruction of populated areas occupied by the enemy (by arson) and ambush attacks on small enemy groups and single vehicles moving outside populated areas.

Along the way, they also conducted reconnaissance, but since there were no radio stations in the groups, the intelligence received was reported very late, and therefore often lost its relevance.

In award lists, such detachments were called "partisan group" and sometimes even "partisan detachment". Basically, they were engaged in sabotage or, as they wrote in the documents of that time: "active reconnaissance."


That is, in terms of their structure and the status of the people involved, these were partisan groups participating in the partisan movement, and in terms of the nature of combat activity, they were sabotage and reconnaissance groups.

Consequently, the boys and girls who fought as part of such groups, who are not military personnel, can be called with equal justification both partisans and saboteurs.

This means that Zoya A Kosmodemyanskaya, without sinning before historical truth, can be called a partisan, a saboteur, and a scout. A partisan is her position and "legal status" as a participant in the war, a saboteur and intelligence officer are military specialties.

In modern terms, Zoya fought in a special forces group of the intelligence department of the Western Front and was engaged in special intelligence. At the same time, she was not a soldier and did not have a military rank.

According to today's ideas, this fact looks like a paradox, but in the fall of 1941, when the Germans rushed to Moscow, hundreds of young girls fought like that, not thinking about their legal status, awards, and even more so about some kind of post-war benefits. They were obsessed with the desire to destroy the Nazis by all available means, the rest did not matter to them.

And there is one more conclusion that can be drawn on the basis of documents: at best, they left this war disabled, and at worst, they died behind enemy lines while performing tasks.

And it is unfortunate that the names and surnames of most of these young heroes, who made their contribution to laying the foundation of the Great Victory, remained in obscurity ...

And those spiteful critics who are currently trying to present them as monsters and criminals (which we sometimes see in publications about Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya) can be called either mentally retarded or vile slanderers subject to public condemnation and contempt.

On the heroism of Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya


Even despite the lack of historically reliable details of the last hours of the life of Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya, it can be concluded that she was a real hero, and not created by Soviet propaganda organs.

And her heroism began to manifest itself not at all in Petrishchevo, but much earlier, when a Moscow schoolgirl, not subject to conscription under any circumstances, voluntarily went to war to defend her homeland.

And she went to serve not at the headquarters as a clerk and not even as a nurse, but asked to go where it was harder and least likely to stay alive - to the intelligence department of the headquarters of the Western Front to perform combat work behind enemy lines.

In my opinion, the most difficult for Zoya were not the last minutes of her life, when the girl accepted death with dignity. The main component of her feat is overcoming the difficulties, hardships and temptations that she had to experience and overcome on the long road to her death.

First, this ordinary Moscow schoolgirl (not even an athlete), as part of a small sabotage and reconnaissance group (DRG), consisting of young boys and girls like her, crossed the front line for the first time in early November 1941, which was already associated at the risk of being killed or captured.

Then, for many days, the group made many kilometers of raids behind enemy lines, moving mainly through forests and ravines. Young scouts spent the night in the forests and, observing measures to ensure secrecy, lit fires only in rare cases. Many had a cold, frostbite, and poor nutrition did not allow replenishing rapidly declining strength.

It was especially difficult for girls who were not able not only to perform elementary hygiene procedures, but even to wash themselves with warm water and dry their wet clothes to the end. Add to this the constant risk in intelligence work, since it was usually the women who were part of the DRG who went to reconnaissance in the villages occupied by the enemy under the legend of having previously been mobilized for the construction of defensive works and now making their way home.

Then the group, where the fighter Kosmodemyanskaya was, having completed the task, returns back, and the fighters are again in danger of being captured and killed when crossing the front line ...

After returning, Zoya could refuse further work as part of the DRG, say sick or ask for an easier service.

But such an act does not correspond to the girl's worldview: after a short rest, Zoya goes to the second combat exit behind enemy lines. And again, long passages, spending the night in the forests, hunger and cold fall to its lot. And the constant nervous tension caused by the danger of being killed or (which is much worse) being seriously wounded or captured.

It should be noted that in the second decade of November 1941, frosts in the Moscow region sometimes reached 16 degrees.

Imagine a strong, well-dressed and well-fed Red Army soldier who, during the battle, in a second impulse in front of his comrades with a bunch of grenades, makes a swift throw to blow up a German tank. And he dies the death of the brave, pierced by a machine-gun burst ...

Now imagine a frail 18-year-old girl: hungry, with a cold, chilled to shivering, exhausted by long transitions, constant sleep deprivation, poor nutrition and colossal nervous tension, who is forced to make her way to her last "tankfor many days and nights. And after being captured, she steadfastly withstood the interrogation, not broken, and then courageously accepted death with her head held high.

Which of them, in your opinion, was harder to overcome the difficulties that preceded their death and the feeling of fear and desire to survive inherent in every person?

It is with this view of the circumstances that the true meaning of the feat of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya becomes clear.

And it lies not only in her courageous behavior in captivity of the enemy.

The feat consists of many days of struggle with the hardships that befell this strong-willed girl, in the struggle with the natural temptation to show weakness, under a plausible pretext to leave her comrades and return home to her mother, to warmth and satiety. Or settle down in some locality and simply survive until the arrival of the Red Army, subsequently explaining the reason for leaving by illness.

Let me remind you that the girls included in these DRGs were not military personnel, they acted as volunteers, and therefore their departure from the group could not even be legally recognized as desertion. And in the general human understanding, such an act is difficult to condemn: it is impossible to demand from a person that which is beyond his strength ...

But the fighter Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya did not lose heart, this fragile girl with an iron will deliberately chose such a difficult path, went through it with dignity and to the end. She fought with the enemy with her last strength and until the final minute of her short life, and eventually died in order to save the lives of thousands of Soviet people ...

And the country (which has now turned into countries), for the sake of whose future Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya gave her young life, will never forget her. Remembering Zoya, we will always remember the exploits of many hundreds of young girls like her, who fought in small partisan groups operating in the Moscow region in 1941, but, unfortunately, remained little known or completely unknown in the history of the country.

Eternal glory to them, eternal memory and great human gratitude!

And their heroic struggle against the enemy will always be the clearest example of selfless service to the Motherland and the manifestation of mass patriotism of the young generation of Soviet people who are ready, without hesitation, to sacrifice their lives for the sake of the independence of their country.

About the order to "burn the villages"


Nowadays, many publications have appeared, stating that Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya allegedly did not accomplish any feat, and her actions are allegedly assessed as a savage crime, because she tried to burn (and even burned) houses belonging to peaceful villagers, leaving them homeless.

It is very difficult for me to judge what the people who issue such completely absurd statements are guided by. Such conclusions can be born either due to a lack of intelligence, or due to an overabundance of ignorance.

On November 17, 1941, the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command issued Order No. 428
"On the creation of special teams for the destruction and burning of settlements in the rear of the Nazi troops."

In pursuance of this order, the ZapF RO began to send sabotage groups behind the front line with the task of burning the villages where the Nazis were stationed.
Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya was included in one of these groups, and, following the order of the intelligence department, she tried to burn down the village of Petrishchevo, occupied by the Nazis, in order to inflict damage on the enemy and deprive him of a recreation base.

To many people today, such actions may seem unnecessarily cruel, since the villages to be destroyed were inhabited, mainly by the elderly, women and children. And they could die in a fire or be left without shelter and property, which was also tantamount to death.

But do not forget that a brutal war was going on then, and during any war, civilians who find themselves in a combat zone suffer incalculable losses and hardships.
The hero of the war of 1812 Denis Vasilyevich Davydov at one time bitterly recalled:

“Here I just became convinced of the misfortune and disasters caused by the war to that class of people who, not acquiring in it, like us soldiers, neither glory nor honors, is deprived not only of the last property, but also of the last piece of bread, not only life, but also the honor of wives and mothers and dies, skinny and stricken in everything that he has dear and holy, on the smoking ruins of his homeland” [7].

Alas, this happened, is happening and will always happen in any war at any time ...

Some modern authors believe that the above order of the Stavka was inhuman in relation to the civilian population.

However, it must be taken into account that now, looking from the present, we all know that the Nazis failed to encircle Moscow in 1941, they were stopped in its vicinity. And then, during the December offensive of the Red Army, they were thrown back from the capital by 100–150 km. And, perhaps, this could well have been done without the destruction of the villages located in the German rear.

But then, in November 1941, the members of the Supreme Command Headquarters did not have such confidence. In those days, the Germans, grinding parts of the Red Army, stubbornly advanced towards Moscow, the forces and means of the formations of the Western Front were rapidly decreasing, and numerous divisions of the Red Army, hurrying to help from all over the country, were still thousands of kilometers from the capital. And it can be quite objectively concluded that in November 1941 the chances of Wehrmacht formations to surround Moscow were much higher than the chances of the Red Army units to defend it.

In order to fully realize the severity of the crisis that developed at the ZapF in those days, it is enough to carefully study this combat report stored in TsAMO:


The document states that on November 26, in the regiments of the 18th Infantry Division, which defended the approaches to the capital, the number of infantry (shooters) ranged from 85 to 238 people. And in the entire division, there were only 543 arrows.

In order to better understand all the drama hidden in such a sparingly presented information, it is necessary to find out that according to the wartime staff No. 04/601 in force at that time, about 1 riflemen should have been in a rifle regiment (including commanders of rifle platoons and the composition of reconnaissance platoons ), and in the rifle division there are about 270 riflemen.

So November 26th throughout the 18th division there were shooters seven times lessthan it should have been in a normally equipped rifle division, and even two times less than should have been in one rifle regiment.

And in the 1306th rifle regiment there were 15 times fewer fighters than it should be in the state.

Simply put, on November 26, 1941, the 18th division was actually defeated and was subject to urgent withdrawal to the rear for reorganization due to the complete loss of combat capability. But it was not possible to take her away, because there was no replacement for her. And this so-called division, two times smaller in composition than the completed regiment, continued to fight and even tried to counterattack the enemy, so that at the cost of the lives of the remaining soldiers and commanders, at least slightly weaken the offensive impulse of the enemy.

The situation with the presence of combat personnel was not much better in other rifle divisions that covered the approaches to Moscow in those days.

And how to stop the advancing enemy, with such meager forces and small reserves?

Moscow was the largest communication hub in the USSR, and its encirclement by the enemy in 1941, in addition to a significant disruption of transport communications, could cause an extremely unfavorable world resonance for the USSR, and ultimately lead to defeat in the war. And defeat in the war entailed not only the loss of independence of our country and its colonization by German settlers, but also (according to the fascist OST plan) the destruction of about a hundred million Soviet people.

Therefore, it was required at any cost to thwart the intention of the Germans to surround the capital - the outcome of the entire war depended on this. By the end of November, time was counting not even days, but hours.

Any damage inflicted on the Germans gave a gain in time, and a gain in time increased the chances of surviving. Minutes turned into hours, hours into days, and days increased the likelihood of fighting back, frustrating the enemy’s plans, holding out until the reserves arrived.

Giving the order to destroy settlements in the immediate rear of the enemy, the leadership of the USSR acted solely from the position of expediency - at any cost to gain time, contain the enemy, prevent him from encircling the capital and, as a result, prevent him from winning the war.

This decision expresses a well-known principle that has been applied in all wars since ancient times: we sacrifice a part in order to preserve the whole. And in this case, this part and the inevitable victim was the civilian population.

In 1941 in the village. Petrishchevo had more than 60 residential buildings. Consequently, up to 1 German infantrymen could rest there. By the standards of those days, this is the combat strength of almost an entire infantry regiment. If the village were completely burned down, then up to 200 enemies would be forced to spend the night on the street, which would undoubtedly worsen their physical condition and incapacitate some of the soldiers due to frostbite. And if the next day these fascists, unexpectedly caught in the cold, had been ordered to go on the offensive, then they would have gone into battle in a state of reduced combat capability, which means that it would be easier for the Red Army men to repulse their attacks.

And as a result, a precious gain in time would have been obtained, and the lives of many Red Army soldiers who had entered the battle with this weakened regiment would also have been saved.

And if 10 such large villages were destroyed, then up to 12 enemies would be in the cold.

This is what the idea of ​​this order of the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command was.

In addition to soldiers, weapons, military equipment and vehicles of the enemy were destroyed during fires. For example, even the incapacitation of two horses could lead to a failure to deliver a light gun to the front line.

Thus, any damage, even seemingly insignificant at first glance, caused to the enemy by setting fire to houses in its location, increased the chances of the Red Army to withstand this most difficult period of the war.

It was for this purpose: to inflict as much damage on the enemy as possible and reduce its combat capability by any means, hundreds of small sabotage groups were urgently sent to the front line almost to certain death. And their young fighters, sparing no effort, carried out orders and selflessly fought against the Nazis, often giving their own young lives in the name of saving Moscow and their homeland.

Hundreds of young girls, Moscow schoolgirls and students who fought as part of such partisan groups died during this struggle and are still missing.

And only the circumstances of the death of only one of them in 1941, by a lucky chance, became known throughout the country. And the country awarded her with its most honorable award, thus, as if paying tribute to all of them, these young heroes ...

Therefore, for millions of Soviet people, Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya was not just a brave Soviet girl, she personified a vivid image of all the young people of the pre-war generation who died in the fight against the enemy, defending their homeland!

Eternal memory and eternal glory to them!

Sources:
[1] - Frontline Moscow. 1941–1942 Archival documents and materials, Publishing House of the association "Mosgorarkhiv", M., 2001, p. 566.
[2] – same source, p. 574.
[3] – same source, p. 567.
[4] – same source, p. 581.
[5] - Davydov D.V. Experience in the theory of partisan action, M., 1822.
[6] - Davydov D.V. On the partisan war. Publishing house "Pravda", M., 1942.
[7] - Davydov D.V. Military notes. M., Military publishing house, 1982.
[8] - Golitsin P. A. Notes of the head of military intelligence. M., Ceres, 2002.
Author:
Photos used:
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/
103 comments
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  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather 21 January 2023 05: 12
    +13
    Now we are witnessing the results of those fundamental mistakes that were made by Soviet propagandists during the war years and after it - lies and even “half-truths” built on omissions will never become a solid basis for instilling patriotism among the younger generation.
    have always been a strong foundation for the education of patriotism, but now, "they will never"? Yes, now in general this concept is controversial, when young people from the NWO jump abroad in herds. Today's propagandists are generally disgusting.
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 21 January 2023 05: 27
      +23
      The author, albeit indirectly, casts doubt on the torture that the Germans subjected to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, referring to two acts of examining her corpse. Then it turns out stupid Stalin read a note in Pravda and gave the famous order not to take anyone from the 332nd Infantry Regiment prisoner? Probably the fanatics from this regiment drank tea with her as friends, and then they hanged her.
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 21 January 2023 06: 28
        +10
        The author did not give all the details about the fighters in the group, which included Zoya.
        One of them, Vasily Andreevich Klubkov, was also captured by the Fritz and gave them everything he knew about her and his other comrades.
        From the minutes of interrogation of V. Klubkov: “I said that I was sent by the intelligence department of the Western Front, located near the Kuntsevo station. The part has 400 people, prepares and transfers sabotage groups of 5-10 people to the rear of the Germans.

        “Yes, the officer asked me if it was her and what I knew about her. I said that this was indeed Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, who had come to the village with me to carry out acts of sabotage, and that she had set fire to the southern outskirts of the village.

        ... when he went to our rear, he was suspected of treason and after interrogation he split just like the Germans ... in criminal case No. N-16440, transcripts of Klubkov's interrogations were recorded in detail, according to which he not only told who he was, but also called the name and surname of his comrade-in-arms Zoya ....

        On April 3, 1942, the military tribunal of the Western Front sentenced Vasily Andreevich Klubkov, a former Red Army soldier of military unit 9903, on the basis of Art. 58-1b of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (treason to the motherland) to capital punishment - execution. Without confiscation of property for lack thereof. The verdict, being final, was not subject to appeal and was carried out on April 16, 1942.

        https://dzen.ru/a/YBje-y03CBicAxnM
        1. solar
          solar 21 January 2023 08: 19
          0
          There were always many who wanted to earn stars in a high-profile case.
          In this case, in the Special Department of the Western Front. His testimony that he was allegedly present during the interrogation of Kosmodemyanskaya does not stand up to criticism - no one saw him at all in the village.
          A little later, Sviridov, a resident of the village of Petrishchevo, was shot for the same thing as Klubkov. Only this time the stars were earned in the NKVD of the Moscow District, and not the Western Front.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 09: 37
        +14
        Stalin did not give such an order. It simply does not exist in nature.
        But the absence of injuries on the body of the hanged Zoe is a fact that cannot be dismissed just like that.
        Personally, I completely agree with the author of the article - were Zoya tortured before her death or not, it doesn’t matter much to me personally - her feat is not that. For drama, of course, torture is required, but historians are not playwrights. It is what it is.
        Together with Zoya, another member of the detachment, who had betrayed her, was detained. From his testimony, the Germans already knew everything that Zoya could tell them, so active work with her, as a source of possible information, could not have been carried out - why? As an arsonist, she was identified and exposed, information about the detachment, its composition, route and mission was received - why would she be tortured and mocked? Only out of sadistic motives, perhaps. Were there sadists among the Germans? Undoubtedly. But we have no evidence that such sadists were in Petrishchevo during the capture of Zoya, and an examination of the body did not establish any signs of torture. Conclusion: Zoya was not tortured, but simply kept until the morning and executed.
        And if you think that the absence of torture somehow detracts from her feat - it's up to you. If you think that Zoya received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union because she was silent during interrogation under torture, then you and I understand this issue in completely different ways. In your opinion, it turns out that if Zoya had not been tortured, then she would not have deserved the award, but for me whether she was tortured or not tortured - there is no difference. All the same, the Hero, like many others, whose names we, unfortunately, do not know.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 21 January 2023 10: 56
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master

          And if you think that the absence of torture somehow detracts from her feat - it's up to you.
          You think that I think so. And I really think that you are FUCKING trolling, you would be embarrassed.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 11: 33
            +3
            Well, then you need to think before you comment on something.
            Quote: Proxima
            The author, albeit indirectly, casts doubt on the torture that the Germans subjected to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, referring to two acts of examining her corpse.

            Does it matter to you if she was tortured or not? Apparently, it has, since you write like that.
            Without going into the question whether there were tortures or not, I will simply ask: in your opinion, the possible absence of torture somehow detracts from the feat itself?
            You are trolling yourself. And how FUCKING you do it, you yourself know better. wink
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 21 January 2023 15: 47
          +4
          . Were there sadists among the Germans? Undoubtedly.

          The body was mutilated even after death, what kind of inspection is there, remember the photos, I don’t want to post them.
      3. Alien From
        Alien From 21 January 2023 10: 07
        +17
        I know one thing, only yesterday late at night I drove past the monument to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya on the Minsk highway, he stood, stands and will stand! People remember, sometimes they stop, sometimes they go on an excursion to that village (not far from there), and most importantly, they tell the children what and why! Who knows the Moscow and Smolensk land will understand me, the land itself is a memory of the exploits of the Soviet people! Eternal memory to them and rest in peace! hi
    2. Snowfall
      Snowfall 21 January 2023 07: 19
      +6
      Quote: Dead Day
      today's propagandists are generally disgusting.

      Particularly disgusting are propagandists like Yura Podolyaki from Sumy, who broadcast victorious reports all spring, and when the awls came out of the bag everywhere during the retreats, he burst into righteous anger - "I'm not like that, I'm a virgin. Look, what debauchery is all around !!! How is it happened!?" and deleted my youtube channel. He also wrote comments on topvar back in 2012 for Bandera.
      https://topwar.ru/17965-nkvd-protiv-upa-voyna-posle-pobedy.html

  2. Doccor18
    Doccor18 21 January 2023 05: 27
    +4
    But time, as usual, put everything in its place and revealed a big drawback of this approach.

    Time will certainly put everything in its place...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 January 2023 07: 31
      +8
      I don’t remember which of the domestic historical figures ironically noted the wonderful idea - “If you want to achieve justice in Russia, you must be a long-liver.”
      Good morning everyone!
  3. Guran33 Sergey
    Guran33 Sergey 21 January 2023 05: 28
    0
    And what a lie, they taught me in high school in the sixties about the fact that she burned down residential buildings with the Germans, now they turn entire cities (Mosul like a millionaire?) into piles of construction debris with residents buried under it
  4. Former soldier
    Former soldier 21 January 2023 06: 06
    -10
    Why this article?
    The text of my comment is essentially the article.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 21 January 2023 06: 42
      -5
      Why this article? The text of my comment is essentially the article.
      That was...
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 January 2023 07: 47
      +10
      Quote: Former soldier
      Why this article?
      The text of my comment is essentially the article.

      Having started reading the work of the Author, I also initially thought that it was “consumer goods”, which consists of “blowing the soap bubble of a myth, followed by its “bursting” under the stormy aviation of the “hamster community”.
      But having reached the lines about Ferdenand Wintzingerode, I realized that the Author is quite immersed in the topic. After reading to the end, I appreciated the amount of work of the Author. So Lev Tyurin for the essay is a definite plus and thanks.
      Giving an assessment of his work, I will answer one thing with the general conclusions, I completely agree.
      Private - I doubt it.
      For example, the rejection of the "people's club" in 1812. No wonder this war is called the Patriotic War.
      There are other comments, but these are particulars. Otherwise, the author is well done!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 08: 54
        +6
        Hello, Vlad. hi
        Agree with everything said. The author conducted a certain kind of research and did it at a high level uncharacteristic for HE.
        I fully share the author's attitude to the feat of Zoya in particular and the Soviet people in general.
        And just like you, I am ready to challenge the thesis about the denial of the popular character of the guerrilla war in 1812.
        To the question of organizing the partisan movement and the underground in the occupied territories, in the place of the author, I would definitely add the presence in the USSR of ready-made personnel for this - the participants in the Civil War and revolutionary work in Tsarist Russia were still alive, this is much more important than the experience of the war of 1812.
        And so - an excellent article, correct, thoughtful, competent, interesting.
        1. Alien From
          Alien From 21 January 2023 11: 26
          +2
          I agree with you and Kote! The article is good, before pride in ancestors was brought up in people from an early age hi there is only one problem now - for too long the leadership shamelessly covers us with its new mantra - "" "we'll buy everything for money" " Bought .......... (Lavrov's phrase !!!!) amnow we can’t register a lost key on a car, and this is the simplest.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 January 2023 14: 41
            +6
            Quote: Alien From
            I agree with you and Kote! The article is good, before pride in ancestors was brought up in people from an early age hi there is only one problem now - for too long the leadership shamelessly covers us with its new mantra - "" "we'll buy everything for money" " Bought .......... (Lavrov's phrase !!!!) amnow we can’t register a lost key on a car, and this is the simplest.

            If the Author mentioned the partisan and chief of Denis Davydov, General in the Russian service Ferdinand Wintzingerode, then it is worth describing the memories of eyewitnesses about his bivouac in the forests of the Moscow region. In short, everything resembled the camp of a “robber fair” of serfs, landowners, Cossacks, “wild” hussars and “crazy” uhlans.
            Everyone traded, everyone and everything. Barter was popular. Sometimes with a wild rate of gold to banknotes by weight. Moreover, for banal reasons, the weight of paper money was less than that of gold and silver! So the material incentive was clearly present in the guerrilla war of 1812.
            Another thing is the guerrilla war of 1941-1945. There was even a material incentive in combat units: pilots and sailors were paid for a "unit" of enemy equipment. Such orders and medals had a cash equivalent. But they were not key.
            About ideology. I propose to search the net for Mikhalkov's children's poems - "Uncle Styopa Border Guard"!
            This is the real ideology, to the time and place.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 January 2023 11: 35
          +5
          Hi Michael. Thanks for rating the comment.
          I will add from myself. According to Grandfather, not only the experience of the First World War and the Civil War was in demand. At the front, there were fighters who captured the Russo-Japanese War. With the advent of shoulder straps at 43, many were not afraid to dress "George". He personally split one case for me, when, after the death of the orderly of the battalion commander, they found four officer's crosses and Anna's sign on the saber.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 13: 42
            +7
            In the cities, the old Bolsheviks remained underground, familiar with underground work from pre-revolutionary times. It was extremely difficult for the Gestapo to fight organizations created by such cadres.
            Yes, and not such a rarity in the Great Patriotic War there were people for whom this war was already the fifth. There was one in our village, I didn’t know him personally, but his widow, in my memory, a deep old woman, died of old age when I was about seven years old, I guess. I was friends with his great-grandchildren and saw photographs of a young man in their house, first with a St. George cross, then he, a little older, already in Soviet uniform. He died in the 41st, passing the Russian-Japanese, World War I, Civil and Finnish.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 21 January 2023 06: 49
    +6
    Now we are witnessing the results of those fundamental mistakes that were made by Soviet propagandists during the war years and after it - lies and even “half-truths” built on omissions will never become a solid basis for instilling patriotism among the younger generation.
    The Soviet government is to blame for the failure of patriotic education, today, they planted a bomb under the propaganda of today's government. laughing
    1. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 03
      0
      what is the connection between Soviet propaganda and modern? They are diametrically opposed.
  6. dummy
    dummy 21 January 2023 06: 56
    +8
    The military correspondent's accusations of hiding the truth about Zoya are more than strange. Did they have to, like Stirlitz, dig up the archives of the Reich to write an article? Or no less secret archives of the NKVD?
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 09: 00
      +7
      The author is not blaming anyone. Lidov and other authors wrote about Zoya what they knew at that time. Perhaps with their own conjectures, but these conjectures did not change the essence of what happened. But this does not mean that it is not necessary to study this issue and correct the inaccuracies they have made.
  7. solar
    solar 21 January 2023 08: 10
    -3
    80 years have passed, and the truth about that story has not been revealed.
    And I doubt that the current article will help this, it only lets in fog.
    The article included a photograph of a woman with a rope noose around her neck, the inscription under the picture said: "The corpse of the Komsomol partisan Tatyana." How this photograph got into the newspaper was not explained in the article.

    From this photograph, some identified Lily Azolina.
    on that day, an essay by Pyotr Lidov about the partisan Tanya, hanged by the Germans, and a photograph were printed in the issue. The face of the hanged partisan was terribly similar to Lilino. L. Belaya interviewed all the neighbors in the apartment where L. Azolina lived, and they told how, shocked by the similarity, they hid a newspaper with a portrait from her mother, believing that Tanya was the dead Lilya. Identified her from a photograph and a school teacher.

    On February 16, 1942, the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces was signed on awarding Z. A. Kosmodemyanskaya the title of Hero of the Soviet Union

    And not posthumously, but with the award of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal.
    http://podvignaroda.ru/?#id=1560657314&tab=navDetailDocument
    But the award list for Kosmodemyanskaya is classified, not available. It remains only to guess what they were awarded for, what it has to hide, and why not posthumously. Did the awardees not know that she was no longer alive?
    Regarding who Kosmodemyanskaya was, the author draws an analogy with Miloradova. But not everything is so clear.

    Most likely, at that time they did not bother with such formalities. The fact that she did not take the oath is extremely doubtful. On the other hand, in Zoya's group there was also a 14-year-old teenager, Nikolai Morozov (b. 1927).
    since the Germans considered all captured members of sabotage groups not to be military personnel

    A soldier is, if in uniform and with insignia, in this case he can claim the status of a prisoner of war. If not, then in accordance with the convention on the laws of war, he cannot apply for such a status.
    The author does not quite understand the meaning of the word saboteur. A saboteur is an enemy soldier in uniform and with insignia.
    Thus, in the war of 1812, the partisan movement arose not in the form of a spontaneous popular struggle against the invaders, but in the form of a specially organized combat work.

    Still would. At that time, the French master was much closer to the Russian master than the Russian peasant. They even spoke the same language.
    1) created by party bodies (for example, detachments of Kovpak and Fedorov);

    Fedorov
    commander of the Chernihiv-Volyn partisan unit of the NKVD of the USSR, operating in Ukraine, Belarus and the Bryansk forests of Russia.

    In pursuance of this order, the ZapF RO began to send sabotage groups behind the front line with the task of burning the villages where the Nazis were stationed.

    The author is wrong. Not the villages where the Nazis were located, but all the settlements in a certain zone.
    The rate of the High Command ORDERS:
    1. Destroy and burn to the ground all settlements in the rear of the German troops at a distance 40 — 60 km in depth from the front edge and 20 — 30 km to the right and left of the roads.
    For the destruction of populated areas in the specified radius of action, immediately throw in aircraft, make extensive use of artillery and mortar fire, reconnaissance teams, skiers and guerrilla sabotage groups equipped with incendiary bottles, grenades and blasting agents.

    The order stated that the Germans in this zone were evicting our people from their homes. In the case of Kosmodemyanskaya, it is obvious that this was not the case.
    Some modern authors believe that the above order of the Stavka was inhuman in relation to the civilian population.

    War is generally inhumane. But in this case, the ineffectiveness of the order was obvious - even if it was possible to burn down half of the housing, then first of all it was obvious from the houses that ours would be expelled, and the Germans would be warm.
    Until now, there is no evidence that this tactic of warfare brought the Germans at least some noticeable damage. It is clear that there were some frostbites, but it is clear that they would have been without it. There is no research on how many of our lives it claimed.
  8. DMB 75
    DMB 75 21 January 2023 09: 11
    +11
    IM TANYA
    (To the 60th anniversary of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya)

    Delicate mouth and stubborn eyebrows -
    Eighteen girl years.
    In the partisan forests of the Moscow region
    Your trace will never disappear.

    Deer with big eyes
    Swarthy cheeks, a semi-childish oval ...
    The commander sent on a mission -
    It turned out that he sent it to Immortality.

    You fell into the clutches of the Gestapo -
    Harder not to come up with trouble.
    And the executioner of a red-hot lamp
    Brought you instead of water.

    The girl was trampled with boots:
    - Where are the other bandits, answer!
    The name of? Where are you from?
    - Im Tanya…
    - Where are the others?
    - Prepare for your death...

    And in the snow with bare feet,
    Squeezing the bloody mouth tightly,
    How to the throne, partisan of Russia
    The scaffold climbed to the top.

    Looked around:
    Why are you crying people?
    Ours are close! They will take revenge!
    ... The autumn wind chills my tears.
    Are you sixty?

    No, you remained young, do you hear?
    Years have no power over you.
    You rise higher and higher in the sky of Eternity,
    Our Komsomol star!

    November 1983, XNUMX

    Julia Drunina
  9. Lewww
    21 January 2023 09: 19
    +4
    Quote: Proxima
    Then it turns out stupid Stalin read a note in Pravda and gave the famous order not to take anyone from the 332nd Infantry Regiment prisoner?
    If you have seen such an order in the original or as a text in a trustworthy source, please kindly post a scan or a link.
  10. north 2
    north 2 21 January 2023 09: 30
    +10
    I would be ashamed to question Zoya's feat, it would be blasphemous to evaluate the "quality" of fascist torture, it would be even more shameful now, after eighty years, to me, who did not live then, to refute or question the materials from the secular newspapers of the times of the Second World War, which were written by contemporaries of that time - correspondents of that terrible and heroic war. But the author of the article wants to eat, so why not earn extra money, they say, expose and put our Heroes in their "place". There is such a breed that Zoya's feat itself specifically minimizes by replacing it before the trial - she was a partisan, a saboteur or a fighter of the Red Army.
    You are very mistaken in thinking that such articles are harmless. No . See. In such articles, the word "saboteur" appears more and more often instead of the word "partisan". By the way, for example, in the Baltic States, the word "saboteur" now refers to Soviet partisans, and the word "partisan" refers to those who during the Second World War helped the Nazis shoot people, and after the Second World War, as "forest brothers", those who crawled out of the forests again killed women, old people and children. By the way, in Ukraine, Soviet partisans are also already called saboteurs, and post-war Bandera partisans.
    Thousands crawled out who want through a microscope of doubt to us to reduce the significance of the exploits of Kosmodemyanskaya, besieged Leningrad, Matrosov, Panfilov, Gastello and millions of other Heroes.
  11. Maks1995
    Maks1995 21 January 2023 09: 35
    +3
    Logical.
    It’s bad that they don’t usually explain this, just getting confused in the arguments “what were they awarded for”?

    There are clear criteria for other branches of the military - for which they gave the "Hero"
    For 5 (later 15) downed aircraft. For 3 destroyed tanks (I don’t remember the number, I guess), etc.

    And here not a single German seems to have been killed. It is not even clear whether she even burned the mentioned stable, because. there is no confirmation, according to the article, and the essay in Pravda is either inaccurate or half-fictional.

    "And only the circumstances of the death of only one of them in 1941, by a lucky chance, became known to the whole country. And the country awarded her with its most honorable award, thus, as if paying tribute to all of them, these young heroes ..."

    It is a pity, of course, that neither then, nor now, they can truthfully tell everything.
    You have to lie, dodge, come up with black and white.
    What then comes around for a long time and badly, and you can’t wash off ......
  12. Lewww
    21 January 2023 09: 36
    0
    Quote from solar
    And not posthumously, but with the award of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal.
    http://podvignaroda.ru/?#id=1560657314&tab=navDetailDocument
    But the award list for Kosmodemyanskaya is classified, not available. It remains only to guess what they were awarded for, what it has to hide, and why not posthumously. Did the awardees not know that she was no longer alive?
    you make up the fog where it is clear.
    Then the word "posthumously" was not written in the decrees on awarding, if you don't believe it, follow the link https://cdnc.pamyat-naroda.ru/podvig/DIP/002/P7523-4-53/00000198.jpg
  13. Lewww
    21 January 2023 09: 45
    +2
    Quote from solar
    Regarding who Kosmodemyanskaya was, the author draws an analogy with Miloradova. But not everything is so clear.
    Miloradova received the order without having a military rank, then apparently at some stage she was awarded the military rank of a Red Army soldier - everything is clear here.
    I will say more: many girls listed for military unit 9903 who died (missing) in November 1941 and were awarded without a military rank, later (43-45 years) were listed as Red Army soldiers according to the registration documents of the military registration and enlistment offices.
    Apparently in / sound. were assigned to them retroactively
    1. solar
      solar 21 January 2023 13: 07
      0
      Apparently in / sound. were assigned to them retroactively

      Or just confusion in the documents, which I wrote about.
  14. Lewww
    21 January 2023 09: 52
    +1
    Quote from solar
    Fedorov
    commander of the Chernihiv-Volyn partisan unit of the NKVD of the USSR, operating in Ukraine, Belarus and the Bryansk forests of Russia.

    Wikipedia is, of course, easy and accessible, but here is what I.G. writes about Fedorov. Starinov (Notes of a saboteur):
    Regional committee secretary Fedorov

    Fifteen people were sitting in the reception room of the first secretary of the Chernigov regional party committee, Alexei Fedorovich Fedorov.
    The assistant to the secretary of the regional committee took my mandate, went behind the high door, upholstered in brown leather, and literally a minute or two later flung it open:
    - By the way, I've arrived! Fedorov greeted me with unexpected affability. - Well, how impossible it is by the way! We are going to partisan, but there are no knowledgeable people!.. You sit, sit, Comrade Colonel. I won't let you go so easily!
    Having returned the documents, Aleksey Fedorovich said that the people in the partisan detachments and groups were selected, armed with rifles, there were even grenades and machine guns, but they only know about partisans from books.
    - Do not ask anyone what it is - partisans, they answer at once: well, well, Baklanov and Metelitsa, in a word, “Rout”. It was given, you understand, to them this name is “Rout”! They, on the contrary, need to smash the fascist themselves!
    Aleksei Fyodorovich seemed to be speaking contritely, but the sly eyes were laughing, and I felt: the secretary of the regional committee was looking at me, evaluating me.
    A broad-shouldered man of about thirty-five entered the office without a report.
    "Meet me," said Fedorov. — Colonel Starinov. And this is the secretary of our regional committee Nikolay Nikitovich Popudrenko. Now he is in charge of the underground and the partisans.
    Personally, I got the impression that Fedorov's detachment was created by the Chernigov regional party committee, and not the NKVD
    1. sibiryouk
      sibiryouk 22 January 2023 09: 19
      +2
      Fedorov's detachment was created with the participation of the Regional Communist Party - Fedorov himself was elected (appointed) secretary of the underground party committee. The underground regional committee was based in a partisan formation, which was commanded by Fedorov concurrently. There are a lot of references to this in Soviet literature about the struggle behind enemy lines - Read books! It gives knowledge, not Wikipedia!
  15. Lewww
    21 January 2023 10: 15
    -1
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    Private - I doubt it.
    For example, the rejection of the "people's club" in 1812. No wonder this war is called the Patriotic War.
    There are other comments, but these are particulars.
    Colleague, the war of 1812 was called patriotic not at all because the peasants took an indirect part in it, but because it was fought on their own territory, i.e. at the first stage was a war for their fatherland.
    And the independent participation of the peasants in it was rather an undesirable accident and did not have much benefit for the campaign.
  16. Lewww
    21 January 2023 10: 22
    -2
    Quote: north 2
    But the author of the article wants to eat, so why not make extra money, they say, expose and put our Heroes in their "place". There is such a breed that Zoe's feat itself specifically minimizes
    Dear, could you explain how, in your understanding, the author of an article can "earn extra money" by writing it, what exactly is this income?
    And another question: what do you think is the "minimization" of the feat of Kosmodemyanskaya, accomplished by the author?
    Enlighten please winked
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 11: 44
      -2
      Not all people want the truth. Some want and try to live in a world of pleasant illusions and react very nervously to an attempt to invade this world.
      You are doing everything right.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 January 2023 13: 09
      +2
      Dear, could you explain how, in your understanding, the author of an article can "earn extra money" by writing it, what exactly is this income?
      This is your ninth material and, in principle, you could claim some monetary reward from the administration of the resource if the intervals between publications were not so large.
  17. Lewww
    21 January 2023 11: 37
    +2
    Quote from solar
    The author does not quite understand the meaning of the word saboteur. A saboteur is an enemy soldier in uniform and with insignia.
    You have some strange idea about the term "saboteur".
    To better understand, here are a few examples:
    Many years later, in the Vympel special-purpose group, we, saboteurs, were taught to turn the contents of thermometers into powerful explosives at home.
    Abdulaev Erkebek Call Sign - 'Cobra'

    Yakir also said that mine-explosive barriers cannot disable roads for a long time. The enemy, having good technique, is able to restore them quickly. Therefore, we will train partisans to mine the roads and other communications being restored by the enemy. Our task is to prepare saboteurs, invisible to the enemy, deeply conspiratorial. When the enemy is on our territory, the partisans must turn the restored areas into traps.
    I.G. Starinov Notes of a saboteur
    Simply put, a saboteur is a military specialty that does not depend on the presence of a uniform and even belonging to someone's army. Or in a broader sense, this is a person committing sabotage.
    1. solar
      solar 21 January 2023 13: 10
      -1
      The legality or illegality of the use of sabotage against the enemy depends on:

      the category of persons who commit them
      sabotage object
      means and methods used
      Only combatants (that is, specially trained and equipped units of the regular armed forces - servicemen of sabotage and airborne detachments, members of resistance movements) can commit acts of sabotage. Persons who do not have the status of combatants are not entitled to the lawful implementation of acts of sabotage.

      The purpose of acts of sabotage should be the material infrastructure of the enemy, that is, military installations. Sabotage against the enemy is a legal act if the rules of law relating to the choice of goals, methods and means are observed.
  18. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 21 January 2023 11: 44
    -1
    I would like to clarify - did the Germans themselves burn the villages during their retreat in the winter of 1941 in order to create the same problems for the Red Army? Most likely burned...
    Although, as I understand it, the village of Petrishchevo, in any case, survived by the time of liberation.
    1. solar
      solar 21 January 2023 13: 16
      -3
      I would like to clarify - did the Germans themselves burn the villages during their retreat in the winter of 1941 in order to create the same problems for the Red Army?

      During the retreat near Moscow in 1941 - it is unlikely that it was not before, but in general such facts are known, although not very much. They only burned for a different purpose - if in the case of creating a defense line, the village created problems, they could burn it, having previously evicted the inhabitants.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 January 2023 13: 46
        +2
        Or they might not have been evicted. They didn't really care about the population. Basically, they burned to deprive the partisans of base points. In the best case, before setting fire, they drove people out of their houses, but sometimes they didn’t bother with that either.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 21 January 2023 13: 57
          +3
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          At best, before setting fire, they drove people out of their houses

          In winter, they had already kicked everyone out a long time ago, since they themselves lived in local houses ...
    2. sibiryouk
      sibiryouk 22 January 2023 09: 27
      0
      Konstantin Simonov claimed that during the retreat in the winter of 941-1942, the Germans burned the villages if they had time to do it. Later in 1943 in the summer, the Germans, retreating in the South-Western direction, used the scorched earth tactics. For this, an order was issued by the German command.
  19. Lewww
    21 January 2023 12: 26
    -5
    Quote: Timofey Charuta
    I would like to clarify - did the Germans themselves burn the villages during their retreat in the winter of 1941 in order to create the same problems for the Red Army?
    As I understood from the documents, they sometimes burned, apparently when they had time, but many villages still survived.
    Everything is very complicated here, I will explain using the example of the city of Ruza, which I have studied well.

    At first, the city suffered during the German offensive when it was defended by the Red Army - part of the houses during the two-hour battle was destroyed by the Germans.

    Then, at the end of December, 41 units of the spacecraft repeatedly unsuccessfully tried to take Ruza, as a result of shelling, many houses were again destroyed and burned. Then the city was shelled by spacecraft almost daily for almost 3 weeks until the very moment it was abandoned by the enemy.

    Well, in the end, the Germans, during the retreat, also started a fire.

    So who exactly caused the most damage to the city - part of the spacecraft or the Wehrmacht - is not possible to assess. But officially, the Nazis were blamed for all the destruction, which is basically correct.
  20. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 21 January 2023 13: 21
    0
    Quote from solar
    His testimony that he was allegedly present during the interrogation of Kosmodemyanskaya does not stand up to criticism - no one saw him at all in the village.
    A little later, Sviridov, a resident of the village of Petrishchevo, was shot for the same thing as Klubkov. Only this time the stars were earned in the NKVD of the Moscow District, and not the Western Front.

    I think these are well-deserved stars of the NKVD ... the protocols of interrogation by the Germans of Klubkov are real and not fictitious ... the testimony of witnesses about Sviridov is also real and not fictitious ... so they deservedly received punishment ... no need to justify them.
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 21 January 2023 13: 40
      +1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      I think these are well-deserved stars of the NKVD

      But then there were no stars wink
      1. Reader 47
        Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 17
        0
        This is Lyokha from Anroid. Don't be so hard on him
    2. solar
      solar 21 January 2023 21: 55
      -1
      Looking what protocols. The fact that he was captured is not refuted by most researchers. But no one has confirmed anywhere that Klubkov was interrogated by the Germans in Petrishchevo, and even more so since Kosmodemyanskaya was interrogated in his presence.
      Both Klubkov and Sviridov were shot for the same thing, which, as you understand, is impossible.
  21. Lewww
    21 January 2023 13: 47
    +2
    Quote from solar
    Only combatants (that is, specially trained and equipped units of the regular armed forces - servicemen of sabotage and airborne detachments, members of resistance movements) can commit acts of sabotage. Persons who do not have the status of combatants are not entitled to the lawful implementation of acts of sabotage.
    you googled nonsense.
    During the Second World War, Soviet partisans and underground fighters were not combatants, nor were girls from partisan groups of military unit 9903.
    Do you think they committed sabotage illegally? belay
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 21 January 2023 13: 58
      +2
      So in general, if I can say so "funny" - a legal war ..
    2. solar
      solar 21 January 2023 22: 06
      0
      Even before the war, a system of partisan groups was created, which was made up of regular employees of the Red Army. You can read about this in Starinov's memoirs. With the outbreak of the war, he and other professional partisans insisted on organizing partisan struggle according to the systems developed before the war.
      And as for the combatants (in the pre-war version, the belligerent) - these are not necessarily regular employees, there may be volunteers who are not in the civil service. Read the Hague Convention on the Laws and Customs of War on Land.
  22. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 21 January 2023 14: 01
    0
    Quote: mat-vey
    But then there were no stars

    Oh really... smile


    [/ Center]
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 21 January 2023 14: 05
      +1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Oh really...

      Is it already, is it already ... You need to carefully look at what you post .. There are even dates there ..
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 21 January 2023 17: 33
        0
        And there are dates and asterisks smile ...open your eyes.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 22 January 2023 06: 54
          +1
          Especially for you - 1941, this is between 1937 and 1943. And what do we see in your post? There are no stars .. not well, if only Beria wanted to squeeze in another one for himself ..
  23. north 2
    north 2 21 January 2023 15: 52
    +4
    Quote: Lewww
    Quote: north 2
    But the author of the article wants to eat, so why not make extra money, they say, expose and put our Heroes in their "place". There is such a breed that Zoe's feat itself specifically minimizes
    Dear, could you explain how, in your understanding, the author of an article can "earn extra money" by writing it, what exactly is this income?
    And another question: what do you think is the "minimization" of the feat of Kosmodemyanskaya, accomplished by the author?
    Enlighten please winked

    to earn extra money, it is not necessary to receive a cash fee. And food can be not only food, but also
    moral self-satisfaction. And therefore, the relentless investigation about the Hero of the Soviet Union Zoya Kosmodemyaskaya is a strange tendency, ignoring even such heroes as the four-fold Hero of the Soviet Union Brezhnev. We then know who our Hero Zoya is, but about the four hero Lenya
    weakly issue thousands of articles ... Or such food is not appetizing that you can dig into it under a microscope
  24. Tests
    Tests 21 January 2023 15: 57
    +5
    "But how to find out her rank and position?
    Further, one has to approach the establishment of the truth by analyzing the available materials, using an analogy in some cases.
    Dear author! The path you have chosen is not clear. The intelligence department of the headquarters of the Western Front had to train intelligence agents-saboteurs somewhere. So there must be an order for this school, of course, vulgarized and not at all a fact that it was declassified in the 21st century, that the full name (it is not at all necessary that it is real), date of birth (can also be taken from the ceiling), nationality (knowledge of languages ​​is welcome), party membership, is credited to the position from "__" ______ 1941. Before this order, there must be verification materials for a candidate for cadets. Suddenly, dad - a Trotskyist was shot long ago, mom - CHSIR in the camp, brother with weapons in his hands voluntarily surrendered to the Germans in June 1941 and is actively working with Soviet prisoners of war in the camps, recruiting them. And such a candidate - to the intelligence school of the headquarters of the Zap. enlist the front? From the date of the order, it is necessary to determine where the cadet will eat, drink, send natural necessities, and rest. So there are, with a high degree of probability, documents for the issuance of food, uniforms, property (cidor and gas mask, as without them, and maybe bedding, if the cadet received a uniform and lived not at home, but in the barracks), money, weapons and ammunition, about holding at least the first firing, taking the Oath. And at the end of school there should be an order. And an order to send from the training unit to the combat unit. After all, even, purely theoretically, during the time a cadet studied at school, the front could be divided or renamed. And having arrived at the combat unit, a fighter of the partisan detachment of the Intelligence Department of the Western Front must be fed, watered, he is given money, he can write an application for transferring money to his mother and brother or for the construction of a tank or aircraft. Get weapons and ammunition, explosives and explosives, maybe binoculars, an index package and a compass, the group commander should have received a map.
    Zoya went to the rear with a revolver, for the loss of weapons in 1941 ...
    Another point, you cite documents where the commanders are called operational workers. It can be assumed that agents of the Intelligence Department of the headquarters of the Western Front were left in the temporarily occupied territories. It is the meeting with them that is the main task of the captain and senior lieutenant. The rest were supposed to provide meetings, including distracting from the locality where there will be a meeting with the agent, we will carry out sabotage. Possibly, caches with weapons, b / n, explosives, food, maybe, but unlikely, a walkie-talkie and batteries for it were also left. Maybe some object was mined, but due to the breakthrough of the Germans it was not blown up. The Germans did not find the mines and the group was instructed to blow up this object ...
  25. Tests
    Tests 21 January 2023 16: 49
    +1
    And yet, to study history ONLY according to award lists - "not at all comme il faut." An example - yes please. Lived opposite me, in apartment 91, the former chief mechanic of DOK-2 (Woodworking Plant -2, which provided the entire Severodvinsk construction site with window frames, doors and railings). In conversations with him and with his brother, both at home and in a fishing hut in the Plesetsk district of the Arkhangelsk region, I talked a lot about the war. How! Georgy Mikhailovich ended the war in the same regiment as Alexander Kosmodemyansky ... Now there is a "Feat of the People". Received: Lebedev Georgy Mikhailovich. Found: data in the account card:
    "Year of birth: __.__.1921
    guards foreman
    in the Red Army since __.__. 1940 years
    Place of birth: Arkhangelsk region, Plesetsk district, Tserkovnichesky s/s
    Record Number: 1269403245
    List of awards
    125/n 09.07.1945/XNUMX/XNUMX Order of the Red Star Show award document"
    And what about the medals "For the Capture of Königsberg" and "For the Victory over Germany"?
    I go through the "Show the award document" and I can't believe my eyes:
    "Rank: guards foreman
    in the Red Army since 1942 Place of conscription: Plesetsk RVC, Arkhangelsk region, Plesetsk district "Immediately a question since 1940 or since 1942 in the Red Army? Date of conscription where?
    I open the award sheet, it is not printed on a typewriter, the notes are written in ink with a pen: "Senior minder traffic controller of the 350th guard. "participates in the Patriotic War since 2" in the Red Army "since 1942"
    No fronts where he fought, no months of participation in hostilities. And he began to fight on the Karelian front against the Finns as a driver of the NKL-26 snowmobile. Then he retrained and fought on the ISU-152, went on a 10-day vacation, was late for a day from vacation due to a delay in the train and the state. had no awards. The award sheet was signed on May 16, 1945. But! Aleksey Grigoryevich Rodin Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel General of Tank Troops, commander of B and MV 3 of the Belorussian Front, was awarded the Order of the Red Star. Order stamped "Secret" copy. No. 2 No. 025 / n on rewarding personnel, he signed on July 09, 1945.
    After the war, the orders were issued, but did my neighbor serve in the Red Army since 1940 or since 1942?
  26. Amateur
    Amateur 21 January 2023 18: 41
    +4
    Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya - a symbol! Symbol of the struggle for the Motherland. A symbol of self-sacrifice in the fight against enemies. Symbols are not discussed. They believe in symbols and look up to symbols. And you don’t need to touch or discuss the symbols!
    ps One of the main symbols of humanity is Jesus Christ.
    pps One of the main troubles of modern Russia is that there is a "kolisurengoy", but unfortunately there is no "Malchish-Kibalchish".
    1. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 21
      0
      If you wrote this about a boy a year ago. But now! I am surprised. We have a whole country of Kibalchish, and a handful of bad guys.
  27. Winter
    Winter 22 January 2023 10: 06
    +2
    I read up to "intense interrogation with the use of measures of physical influence" and wanted to get into the author's personality.
    Another debunker.
  28. Lewww
    22 January 2023 12: 40
    0
    Quote: Tests
    So there are, with a high degree of probability, documents for the issuance of food, uniforms, property (cidor and gas mask, as without them, and maybe bedding, if the cadet received a uniform and lived not at home, but in the barracks), money, weapons and ammunition, about holding at least the first firing, taking the Oath.
    The girls who entered the intelligence school of the ZapF on the basis of the Komsomol recruitment did not take the oath.
    Everything else is just speculation.
    And yet, to study history ONLY according to award lists - "not at all comme il faut
    Undoubtedly, it is necessary to study by comparing all available documents
    You cite documents where commanders are called operational workers. It can be assumed that agents of the Intelligence Department of the headquarters of the Western Front were left in the temporarily occupied territories.
    Operative worker is a typical name for a full-time intelligence or counterintelligence position.
    You can guess a lot
  29. Lewww
    22 January 2023 12: 55
    0
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    This is your ninth material and, in principle, you could claim some monetary reward from the administration of the resource if the intervals between publications were not so large.
    I do not set a goal to receive material benefits from my publications, I write for the soul
  30. Privet
    Privet 22 January 2023 14: 03
    +3
    Zoya's feat is immortal. And there is no need to doubt it. Before Alexander Matrosov, there were also many people who closed the loopholes with themselves, and immortalized his memory. And pilots flew without legs, not only Maresyev alone. And at home under the Nazis, not only Zoya fired. Propaganda is one thing, a feat is another, but those who betrayed it, they are alone.
    1. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 23
      0
      After the film "Pilot", the listing of disabled pilots was very cool. It's gone.
  31. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 22 January 2023 18: 49
    0
    I'm still waiting for the article to be written by Shpakovsky, but no, some kind of Tyurin, apparently the artistic fellow managed
  32. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 22 January 2023 19: 30
    -2
    If you look at what happened with the eyes of cold "machine" logic, then a young girl went to set fire to non-evacuated villages in winter, in which, in addition to local residents, there were also some numbers of quartered Germans. She was going to set it on fire with ignition mixture bottles, without any large-scale and thoughtful actions. She was caught and executed for refusing to cooperate with the investigation.

    From the point of view, again, of machine logic - point ignition without any preliminary preparation and organization causes MINIMUM damage to the quartered manpower. A village hut is not a haystack, and a village full of quartered Germans is not a "sleeping farm". There are people who are vigilant and who will make a rustle at the first outbreaks, as they say.

    From this, the first conclusion is that the human damage on the part of the Germans from such activities would be MINIMUM. The material POSSIBLY would be somewhat more significant - however, all the more or less significant accumulation of value, according to the LOGIC OF THINGS, is under the protection of someone. Since the ZK was hardly trained to covertly eliminate sentries, and acted alone, the potential damage from this kind of activity for the enemy was MINIMAL.

    It must be understood that even in the event of a major fire, relocating personnel to neighboring bases for the Germans, with their high degree of mobility and motorization, would not be a critical problem. But the Germans did not need the local residents (whom the Soviet authorities did not bother to evacuate), and even more so, and the fact that they would have been left without a roof over their heads in winter would not have hovered over anyone.
    And without this very roof, they would have remained quite themselves, thanks to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya.
    As noted above - to respond to a fire at the very beginning in conditions where several. a person is "watchful" at night - there is no problem. You can save people, most of the mat. valuables - all this is NOT a problem if the arsonist is a lone and if there are no preliminary actions such as eliminating the guards. But putting out a fire that has already begun is already a problem.

    From this, the second conclusion is that such ZKs inflicted the greatest real damage precisely on the remnants of local residents, who had nowhere to go.

    In case of capture of ZK, what questions could there be for her? Group size and location, group tasks, personal task and status. Place and specifics of training. Everything else practical Germans would hardly be interested in.
    Most of even these questions were of near-zero value. Such groups were NOT productive (for the above reasons) - their ability to inflict damage on the Germans was minimal. So the question of the localization of the group is a circle on the map between several of us. points within walking distance. The minimum instructions for security are 3 watchmen on duty and that's it, there are no Zoya Kosmodemyanskys in the area in which at least one was caught. The tasks of the group are nowhere clearer, as is the personal task. A human torpedo with a "molotov" and without personal transport is also a completely understandable status.
    The place and specificity of training is the first interesting and valuable question. So to speak "volumes of activity". Group size is also an interesting issue.
    Everything - just 2 questions of real value. On the first of them, the ZK could absolutely calmly lie anything - the Germans in 1941 had no idea about the scale of organizing training of this kind. And the USSR was stupidly huge. The size of the group is the only "fawn" issue - and again, any game could be rubbed in. Go and find 10 people scattered with different tasks in a cold and snowy winter. Or 8. Or 12. Yes, any number up to N. "We went to a rotten stump in the forest - then we dispersed, we must get back one by one." Everybody. Lies of the "first class" level, which in 1941 it was unrealistic for the Germans to check.

    And the third conclusion - if the choice is to rub a wagon of game or silently die "like a hero", then the second option is not at all so unambiguous. The real benefit from ANY data that Zoya owned was minuscule, and the ability of the Germans to verify them at the beginning of the war was even less.

    I summarize - from the point of view of "cold machine logic" - the action is almost useless, with a rude end and empty victims. I don’t see anything heroic in this, it’s called “life for half a penny”.
    Did at least one German die? Burned down at least one scruffy shed with grenades? NO.
    That is, there is NO result. And effective - and even more so. But there is a victim - and this victim, for some magical reason, is called a "hero". Pathetic to die - is it heroism? Well, this is the logic of one big person, who has "we are going to heaven, and they will just die (c)". This is bad, bad logic.

    The hero is not the person who died (and it doesn’t matter how he died at all), but the one who died, taking with him to the next world a certain number of evil enemy people in the juice itself. Or better without "died" at all.
    And this is a classic "martyr", and it is precisely the type of martyr who himself climbed into the cauldron and asked to light it.
    1. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 25
      0
      I'm sorry I can't give you a turnip. I really want to.
  33. Churchill
    Churchill 23 January 2023 10: 01
    +1
    How much can you procrastinate this topic. The work of propaganda on the formation of "patriotism" in a bourgeois-capitalist country. As the President noted the 100th creation of the USSR? It is not to lay flowers at the monument to K. Mannerheim, an accomplice of Hitler's Germany, and not to install a commemorative plaque in St. Petersburg to the punisher of Russian, Soviet people, the culprit of the death of hundreds of thousands of residents of besieged Leningrad. Z. Kosmodemyanskaya carried out the task of the command for sabotage activities, was taken prisoner. She behaved more than with dignity, she didn’t fall on her knees, she didn’t beg for mercy. Death accepted heroically. If not for the article in the newspaper, no one would have known about her feat, and there could have been thousands of such heroes who did not get into the newspaper. If not for the German archives, we might never have known the details of the defense of the Brest Fortress.
    1. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 27
      +1
      No need to use the filthy word "procrastinate"! Remember the feat is called! If you don't like it, go to Wikipedia to read articles laudatory about Kolchak
  34. Lewww
    23 January 2023 11: 23
    +2
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    If you look at what happened with the eyes of cold "machine" logic

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    From the point of view, again, of machine logic - point ignition without any preliminary preparation and organization causes MINIMUM damage

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    Most of even these questions were of near-zero value. Similar groups were NOT productive
    That is, there is NO result.

    dear, I don’t want to offend you, but you somehow strangely imagine the content of the concept of “feat”, approaching this phenomenon from some strange accounting and statistical position.
    For the credibility of your approach, you also propose to introduce a tariff scale, such as burning one village where the Nazis were stationed - get a medal for merit, burned 3 - get it for courage, burned 5 - get Kr. Star, etc.

    In the USSR, it was believed that a feat is a philosophical concept, it is a heroic self-sacrifice, an act committed in difficult conditions in the name of a great goal for the benefit of the Land of Soviets.
    And from this position, the act of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya can rightfully be called a feat.
    And you approach the concept of FEAT from the modern point of view, adopted in the lower-level capitalist states, where everything is evaluated by various material meters: money, property, etc., etc.
    1. Knell wardenheart
      Knell wardenheart 23 January 2023 12: 01
      -3
      You argue in the vein of the traditional for our country and ever-deepening abstract approach.
      An abstract, symbolist approach to things, on the one hand, gives meaning and shades (to what is deprived or almost deprived of them) in difficult times, on the other hand, creates a whole culture without end and edge, forming a "thing in itself", "a world in itself" increasingly different from the real world.
      A sort of virtualism in general. Over the past 100 years, we have been very fond of breeding this "garden of fearless animals", rubbing people with whole layers of morality or factual bases that have NOTHING (or almost nothing) in common with the REAL state of affairs. While the shell of the USSR was relatively intact - everything was "good" (from the point of view of intra-shell constructions), as soon as it cracked on a large scale - people saw the scale of the dissonance and their towers were blown away, which we observed in the 90s. This is what happens when you breed a "garden of fearless animals", and then it meets reality, "such and such", but no less objective and real from this.

      Actually, for this reason, I look at "feat" as, first of all, an act of conscious exchange. Because some heroic action during the war MUST cause DAMAGE to the ENEMY, exceeding the damage to itself. Otherwise, the objective semantic value of this action is DISCONNECTED from the real practical side.
      From your point of view, Author, a "hero" could be called any person who, in a frenzy (blow, rage, etc.) would crawl out of the trench in full chest and yelling something epic towards the Germans would tear on his chest a vest (where I would have gotten it right there "on the other side").
      From the point of view of our morality, the "garden of fearless animals" and "things in themselves" are some awesome heroic action, a feat of spirit, and so on. From an objective point of view, this is -1 frag "per ball" for the enemy.

      From the point of view of "exchange" - 1-2,3 bullets 7.62 are exchanged for a human life 20+ and ALL the resources of society and the family that were invested in this person.
      This "feat" did not cause any damage to the enemy, and therefore, from a PRACTICAL point of view, it is POSSIBLE.

      Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya exchanged her life for a short pathetic speech in front of old people, children and Germans who didn’t know Russian. Such "Zoy", no doubt, there was a shaft, but do you remember them? Even every tenth? Yes, every hundredth. No. And the Germans did not remember, although, of course, the number of those killed and hanged influenced the brains of soldiers accustomed to fleeting and much less "meat" military campaigns.
      I point out to you that SUCH a sacrifice was objectively meaningless, and although it could (with proper coverage) somehow support the spirit (and so to the limit of people pumped up with agitprop), in the material world it was an exchange of a hole from a donut for life.
      Why I started the answer with the problem of placing accents is the key problem of our society. We are stuck in a similar kind of "fundamental ideas about things", often very far from a utilitarian approach to them. We look at many things and see something other than what it objectively is - just as a person sees a distorted picture under substances.
      And for this reason (including) our truck constantly arrives somewhere in the wrong place, we cannot ensure the progressive growth and development of our society.
      It is with this noodles about "plans without essence", "feats without a feat" and "solid heroism without results" that we elegantly mask all our astronomical fails for years, either by moving the arrows, or simply turning on "URAA!" and enjoying an ecstatic crowd that prefers the feel of something epic to the actual action that leads to it.

      To die "in the name of something there" is not difficult, but to do it with minimal benefit is much more difficult. And not to die and to benefit at the same time is even more difficult. The less our heroes think about what will happen tomorrow, the less likely it is that this tomorrow will be something other than a system that is used to surviving on SUCH heroes.
      However, I am not sure that you will understand and accept what I want to say. It is very difficult to understand that in the material world things are not taken "out of nowhere", and that people with positive exchange statistics, and not negative ones, forge victory. These people are heroes.
      1. Reader 47
        Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 37
        0
        Reading your writings about the rational exchange of human lives for nishtyaki and prices for feats, I just can’t find words to call it. I just hope you want to shock. Otherwise, I have bad news for you.
  35. Lewww
    23 January 2023 13: 33
    0
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    A sort of virtualism in general. Over the past 100 years, we have been very fond of breeding this "garden of fearless animals", rubbing people with whole layers of morality or factual bases that have NOTHING (or almost nothing) in common with the REAL state of affairs.
    I have no desire to enter into a philosophical argument with you.
    I just tried to explain to you that from the standpoint of Soviet society in 1941, Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya committed a heroic deed.
    Therefore, one can only discuss whether it was necessary to award her with the highest award of the Motherland or award an award of a lower rank.
    But there is no doubt about her accomplishment of a feat.

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya exchanged her life for a short pathetic speech in front of old people, children and Germans who didn’t know Russian.
    And what would you do in her place?
    Apparently they would agree to cooperate with the Nazis according to their rational approach to life's actions?

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    It is very difficult to understand that in the material world things are not taken "out of nowhere", and that victory is forged by people with positive statistics of the exchange

    During the Second World War, victory was achieved by the universal efforts of the Soviet people, and Kosmodemyanskaya's contribution to it is beyond doubt. And this contribution would have been even if the circumstances of her death had not been covered in the press.
    Each of the fighters of the partisan groups 9903 made their own contribution to the common cause, they are all heroes.
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    Actually, for this reason, I look at "feat" as, first of all, an act of conscious exchange. Because some heroic action during the war MUST cause DAMAGE to the ENEMY, exceeding the damage to itself.
    Well then, with your approach, the most important heroes of the 2nd World War are the pilots who dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities. After all, they destroyed without loss in an instant a huge number of potential enemies and demoralized the enemy and shocked the Emperor of Japan, forcing him to declare surrender.
    And with your approach in modern warfare, the biggest hero will be the person who pressed the "nuclear button"
    1. Knell wardenheart
      Knell wardenheart 23 January 2023 14: 42
      -2
      And what would you do in her place?

      In her place (God forbid, of course) it was possible to sell your life at a higher price, having a revolver and a couple of grenades - didn't you think about it? Here it is - a feature of the focus of perception of the rhinoceros - to see only what is in front of the horn. Nuances and details remain outside the story - we are used to focusing on some fragment of history.
      Here, for example, Filippov (a pilot shot down in Syria) - was not captured by the militants, first firing back, and then committing a self-explosion (and it seems that one of them died) - and accordingly. he did not remain silent later, like a partisan during interrogation, if there was an understanding of how this story would end.
      If an armed man is captured, isn't it logical to try to rub glasses into the enemy, since there was no desire to die with a weapon in his hands? After all, competent misinformation is damage, and in a situation where OTHER DAMAGE IS NOT CAUSED, is it not logical to sell your life at a higher price here?
      Think about it, don't be like a rhinoceros.

      the victory was achieved by the universal efforts of the Soviet people and the contribution of Kosmodemyanskaya to it is beyond doubt

      As I expected, you showed exactly the qualities that I so diligently described. You saw a feat where the enemy was not damaged, and where our side, on the contrary, suffered it. Both in the person of the inhabitants of the scorched villages, and in the person of such dead Zoya, who are unable either in terms of the level of training or in terms of the level of planning to achieve a 1 to 1 ratio in causing REAL damage to the enemy. You also like some kind of virtualism - some mythical "horror" with which the Germans were supposed to be saturated from her feat (who had tortured her before and, probably, were already quite resistant to horrors) or vice versa, reverence (which, probably, the local residents whose houses she failed to burn down). If you consider the result of the internal agitprop effect to be a feat, then I will point out to you that the scope of the description of this story (you yourself write about it) was outrageously wide, to the point that the name of the character was different and the descriptions of death were completely different (also 100500 important questions, details, about armament, for example, about how they were detained, etc., remain outside the scope. In this format, this whole story could simply be invented, squeezed out of anything and stuck in Pravda (as they preferred to do on a very large scale then) - and someone would undoubtedly be excited by this.
      Here, instead of some virtual hero, a real person died without killing a single German. The fact that for you he is still a hero indicates that in your perception "hero" and "martyr" are synonyms, and these are the same "synonyms" inside objective reality as "success" and "result". If we think in such paradigms, then we will always call ANY "result" - "success" and will not arrive anywhere. It will always be possible to say that "we fought like lions and gnawed out this in mortal combat" - and everyone will think that the maximum effort was made, without a sober perception of it.
      This approach is counterproductive from the point of view of any development, and above I pointed out the viciousness of such a view from the point of view of the country's development. But, you probably do not consider it important or read between the lines. Or a "principle" is playing in you, which prefers to ignore the materialistic view of the concepts of "success" and "failure", and operates with other constructions of a semi-religious orientation.

      Each of the fighters of the partisan groups 9903 made their own contribution to the common cause, they are all heroes

      It's not about "everyone" - it's about a specific person and a specific event. You can't judge a basket of eggs by an egg, and by a basket of eggs you can't judge an egg. This is extremely primitive.

      Well then, with your approach, the most important heroes of the 2nd World War are the pilots who dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities. After all, they destroyed without loss in an instant a huge number of potential enemies and demoralized the enemy and shocked the Emperor of Japan, forcing him to declare surrender

      The ultimate goal of any war is victory - will you challenge? Actions that bring victory closer are overwhelmingly mostly deeply material actions, such as the destruction of a mat. critical objects. for the enemy, incapacitation of his manpower, demoralization and discord of his rear, and so on. Other people think that by successfully knocking on a tambourine or flying around the city with an icon in an airplane, you can change something, maybe this is so (or maybe not, who KNOWS?). But with regard to material damage, there can be no such doubts - because people are not yet molded from clay and factories are not built in one day. So in the fight (in which it comes to the fact that yesterday's schoolgirls are sent on missions "one way") - probably all means are good, but the assessment of the EFFICIENCY of these means (through the prism of the approaching end of the war and victory) is an exclusively material assessment through the criterion of exchange.

      You yourself point out that the destruction of 2 Japanese cities with atomic bombs forced the end of the war. From the point of view of mat. damage - it was not the MOST epic and huge destruction in that war. As well as in terms of human casualties. So it turns out that from the point of view of efficiency (1 aircraft, 1 crew (by the way, they all returned alive) - for 1 strategically important city) - this is an excellent proportion.
      Before pretending to be the virgin Mary of humanism, I recommend that you read about the crimes of the Japanese in BB2, about Nanjing and, in general, about the attitude of the Japanese towards the inhabitants of the occupied territories. The Japanese got what they deserved - and that "high morale" that you sing about, considering Zoya's accomplishment a feat - did not save them from defeat in the deeply material plane that I'm talking about. Stupidly flew in and burned like a hornet's nest. Stupidly knocked out most of the air defense and fleet - trade, transport and military. And all - paws up. Because you can't build a barn out of heroism, it's a condiment, not a main course.

      But you are right about one thing - the discussion is useless. You LOVE your position and don't really care if it's true or not. Unfortunately, it is very traditional for our country to sit on your nest in spite of everything and not notice anything.
      All the best and success in your creative work!
    2. Reader 47
      Reader 47 26 January 2023 11: 41
      0
      About nuclear bombs is a bomb! And I didn’t have words how to answer this rationalist-misanthrope
  36. Lewww
    23 January 2023 15: 58
    0
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    In her place (God forbid, of course) it was possible to sell your life at a higher price, having a revolver and a couple of grenades - didn't you think about it?
    it is possible that she was taken by surprise - she did not have time to use the revolver. Or they didn't have any ammo. I did not see any information about the presence of grenades in her.

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    As I expected, you showed exactly the qualities that I so diligently described. You saw a feat where the enemy was not damaged
    dear, I didn’t see it, I’ll repeat it again: I just tried to explain to you that from the perspective of Soviet society in 1941 Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya made a heroic deed.
    Therefore, one can only discuss whether it was necessary to award her with the highest award of the Motherland or award an award of a lower rank.
    But you didn’t understand my explanation and obviously won’t understand, it’s pointless to continue.

    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    But you are right about one thing - the discussion is useless. Do you LOVE your attitude?
    this is not my position, this is a position adopted in Soviet society, and shared in modern Russian.
    A soldier running with a bunch of grenades towards a German tank performs a heroic deed even if he does not throw grenades and dies struck by a machine-gun burst without damaging the tank.

    And a person sitting in a bunker and pressing the "nuclear button" will not be a hero even if this pressing entails the death of 1 enemy soldiers and commanders (and even more civilians) and the end of the war.

    Something like this in my understanding - I see no point in continuing the discussion
  37. 12olegg34
    12olegg34 23 January 2023 22: 14
    0
    The article is large and the question is what is it about? A lot of words, such an impression the author "gained up the volume" of the text on holy names for us. And so eternal glory to the soldiers who gave their lives.
  38. Bogalex
    Bogalex 24 January 2023 07: 04
    +1
    A strange article, despite the abundance (excessive, to be honest) of patriotic pathos.
    It remains completely unclear what harm was from the fact that
    ... thanks to Soviet propaganda, instead of an honest story about who Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya really was, what relation she had to the Red Army and what task she performed, a beautiful legend was composed about a courageous partisan - a people's avenger who accepted a painful death at the hands of the enemy.

    But what, Zoya was not a "people's avenger who accepted a painful death at the hands of the enemy"? What's wrong?
    As if the author looks like a formalist, for whom finding out the legal status of Kosmodemyanskaya in the ranks of the Red Army is of some kind of obsessive nature, although this has never mattered to any ordinary person.
  39. Lewww
    24 January 2023 12: 00
    0
    Quote: 12olegg34
    The article is large and the question is what is it about?

    I am writing for those who read the article diagonally or simply did not master it.

    Why was the article written?

    1. The author described his own understanding of what exactly the feat of Z.I. Kosmodemyanskaya. In particular, he expressed the opinion that the feat does not lie in the fact that she set fire or did not have time to set fire to some buildings in the village, and not in the fact that she was "brutally tortured." Her feat lies in the fact that this schoolgirl, instead of studying, left school for the war, asked not to be a clerk at the headquarters, but in special intelligence units, where it is hardest and most likely to die, then during combat exits she steadfastly endured everything the difficulties that fell to her lot, and when she was captured, she did not lose heart and did not buy her life through betrayal. And even in the last minutes of her life, she clearly showed that the Nazis failed to break her. Those. she fought like a hero and died like a hero - it's just a statement of fact without any patriotic snot.

    2. Based on the documents, the author tried to clear the circumstances of Z.I.'s death. Kosmodemyanskaya from alluvial husks, composed by Soviet historiography and Russian cinema. And in particular, he explains that at the moment there is no documentary evidence that the Germans brutally tortured Kosmodemyanskaya and even more so raped her in a crowd, as it is cynically shown in the movie Zoya. Which in no way detracts from Zoya's feat.

    3. Again, based on the documents, the author made a reasonable assumption about the “legal status” of Z.I. Kosmodemyanskaya during her participation in the Second World War. And came to the conclusion that she:
    a) did not take an oath;
    b) did not have a military rank;
    d) that is, she was not a member of the military and was not subject to the laws governing liability for military crimes. Consequently, she could at any time refuse to complete the task and return to school or remain in the occupied territory, and for this she could not be held accountable for desertion.
    But she did not shy away from the task despite the severity of the conditions during combat exits and the high probability of dying or being captured. What is an integral part of the feat she accomplished.
    In addition, since many other girls in military unit 9903 (like Zoya) were not Red Army soldiers, their parents could not count on receiving benefits in the event of the death of girls behind the front line.
    Quite on the fingers: although these girls were in a military unit, they actually fought as civilians exclusively on a patriotic basis, about which there is no information anywhere.

    4. The author tried to clearly explain what partisans are, where this word comes from and how partisan detachments were formed during the war of 1812 and the period of the Second World War. And at the same time he showed the difference between partisans and underground workers. And he explained why the girls in military unit 9903 were called partisans, and not Red Army soldiers.

    5. The author tried to explain what was the reason for the need for the Headquarters to issue the order to “burn the villages” and what the expected benefit from this burning was for the defense of the spacecraft. Unfortunately, this chapter turned out to be the most unbearable for readers.

    As a result, we can conclude that the article is not a copy-paste of other people's articles, but an independent study. Therefore (as befits a historical article), it turned out to be complex, sometimes boring and designed for a prepared or at least patient reader, trained to read consistently and thoughtfully, and not to skim the text from a smartphone hastily with his eyes, jumping over lines and paragraphs to get to the end faster.
  40. Yuri Martynenko
    Yuri Martynenko 25 January 2023 06: 51
    +1
    People fought for their Motherland, for a brighter future ...
    Education and more education...
  41. Vasilyevich Pensioner
    Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 10: 25
    0
    such an algorithm of actions to create semi-mythical images of folk heroes at that time seemed more correct than truthful stories about them and their actions in the course of the fight against the enemy.
    I'm not talking about what happened, or not everything was like that. The author, at that time it was necessary to inspire people to counteract the enemy and it did not seem more correct, but it was right to do so. And telling the whole truth about their actions is utter nonsense. Now they are telling a lot about the events of the NWO and this is a mistake.
    and it is not possible to separate them from the legend composed in Soviet times.
    Accusing those who told at that time of writing. The author himself is no different from them and spreads his imagination.

    And none of them shouted from the high stands about their patriotism.
    Author, and what is this nonsense invented for? Then there were no microphones and patriotic speeches had to be pronounced quite loudly so that many could hear. So it was like they were screaming.
    After returning, Zoya could refuse further work as part of the DRG, say sick or ask for an easier service.
    The author, how can such nonsense come to mind.
    In 1941 in the village. Petrishchevo had more than 60 residential buildings. Consequently, up to 1 German infantrymen could rest there.
    The author again sticks out a trifle, without mentioning important details. The Germans were located in the houses, they had to be burned. But the author does not report an important detail, there were no residents in the houses, they were driven out to the sheds. And with the departure of the Germans, in most cases the houses were burned down.
    The author, based on positive material about the feat of Zoya, stuffed into him not a spoonful of fantasy, but buckets.
  42. Lewww
    25 January 2023 10: 40
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    But the author does not report an important detail, there were no residents in the houses, they were driven out to the sheds. And with the departure of the Germans, in most cases the houses were burned down.

    you are a classic Internet critic - you don’t understand the material, you don’t know the texture, but this doesn’t stop you from criticizing wink
    According to the memoirs of the inhabitants of Petrishchevo, the Germans were accommodated in houses along with their owners, read carefully http://zoyakosmodemyanskaya.ru/books5-37.htm
    Information about the burning of the village by the Germans. Petrishchevo is not found.
    And telling the whole truth about their actions is utter nonsense. Now they are telling a lot about the events of the NWO and this is a mistake.
    Those. Do you think it’s more correct to hide from the public the whole mess and the consequences of this mess, what is happening now at the stage of preparation and during the NWO, and declare that everything is wonderful and going exactly according to plan?
    After such a statement, I got sick of having a dialogue with you.
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 10: 53
      0
      Yeah, 20 people per house, based on the author's calculations. And the houses are straight merchants. And the Germans are philanthropic. After such fabrications, there is no point in discussing this with you.
  43. Lewww
    25 January 2023 11: 16
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    Yeah, 20 people per house, based on the author's calculations. And the houses are straight merchants.
    20 people, not according to the author's calculations, but according to the recollections of the inhabitants of Petrishchevo:
    ...All three are Germans. They don't know how to speak Russian. They pressed her against the stove (one of them took her by the chest and pressed it), and two began to search her. During the search, there were other soldiers who lived in this hut (15-20 people). They were in another room and laughing...

    ...Live recording of the conversation with: 1) gr. Kulik Praskovya Yakovlevna (33 years old). Where it was taken from, I don't know. That night in my apartment was 20-25 GermansAt 10 o'clock I went outside.

    http://zoyakosmodemyanskaya.ru/books5-37.htm
    And the Germans are philanthropic.
    where in the article does it say that the Germans are philanthropic? - poke your finger
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 11: 24
      0
      After such a statement, I got sick of having a dialogue with you.
      What did you want? belay And my own grandmother and aunt were under the Germans. Their stories were enough for me. Also, at that time, my grandfather and father beat the Nazis and never heard such stories from the residents. They were driven into barns - it was, they were burned in houses - it was. And to be allowed to stay with them in the hut in the winter - nonsense. Well, you can continue to believe in fairy tales.
  44. Lewww
    25 January 2023 11: 29
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    They were driven into barns - it was, they were burned in houses - it was.
    and where in the article does it say that they were never kicked out and never burned?
    Poke your finger
    The article is written not about something somewhere, but about what happened in a particular village. Petrishchevo

    Once again I will repeat for you, if the first time it didn’t work:
    According to the memoirs of the inhabitants of Petrishchevo the Germans were housed in houses with their owners, read carefully http://zoyakosmodemyanskaya.ru/books5-37.htm


    Well, you can continue to believe in fairy tales
    faith is an attribute of religion. And I brought you what is recorded in the documents
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 11: 34
      0
      faith is an attribute of religion. And I brought you what is recorded in the documents
      Yes, you can believe in any religion, it is not forbidden. You can also read documents. And I lived for more than a dozen years with those who were participants and under the Germans, and liberated from the Germans. It is they who are the main witnesses for me, and not the author with his fantasies and people like you who believe in it.
  45. Lewww
    25 January 2023 11: 45
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    And I lived for more than a dozen years with those who were participants and under the Germans, and liberated from the Germans. They are the main witnesses for me
    and what, these witnesses of yours told you that in November 1941 in vil. Petrishchevo, all the inhabitants lived in sheds, and the Germans burned down Petrishchevo during the retreat? negative
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 11: 51
      0
      What the participants told me will not fit into your head at all. That's not what she's busy with. Your head is busy supporting the fact that the author tried to get the hang of it and inflate soap bubbles. It's not for you to stir up the memories of my family. They have long rested and it is good that they cannot read arguments like the author and you.
  46. Lewww
    25 January 2023 11: 54
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    It's not for you to stir up the memories of my family
    Well, that is, your relatives did not tell you anything about Petrishchevo, I understood your allegorical speech.
    You could have written easier - "was wrong"
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 11: 57
      0
      It looks like you are reading the comments, figuratively speaking, running, thinking about your own. Otherwise, they would have understood and the meaning of the message would have reached you. But it doesn't look like it's meant to be, that's your problem. And your problem is your problem.
  47. Lewww
    25 January 2023 12: 20
    0
    Quote: Vasilyevich Pensioner
    It looks like you are reading the comments, figuratively speaking, running,
    I read your comments slowly and answered them in detail.
    And if I misunderstood something, explain to me on the basis of which you concluded that in November 41 the inhabitants of Petrishchevo lived in sheds and that after the retreat the Germans burned Petrishchevo?
    And also what made you doubt that in each house of Petrishchevo in 41 there were about 20 Nazis?

    Can you clearly explain?
    1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
      Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 12: 22
      0
      All the messages are in place, they couldn’t understand, read it again, it didn’t work the first time, there is an opportunity to do it repeatedly. Until understanding.
      1. Lewww
        25 January 2023 12: 44
        0
        OK, I realized that you have nothing to answer my direct questions.
        This discussion can end
        1. Vasilyevich Pensioner
          Vasilyevich Pensioner 25 January 2023 12: 58
          0
          All answers were given above, if not understood from the first reading, the advice was given.
          This discussion can end
          But my memory is normal, this has already happened from you. It looks like your mindfulness is friends with your memory and the problems are the same.
  48. Lewww
    25 January 2023 20: 35
    -1
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    The author did not give all the details about the fighters in the group, which included Zoya.
    One of them, Vasily Andreevich Klubkov, was also captured by the Fritz and gave them everything he knew about her and his other comrades.
    Vasily Andreevich is too loud.
    18-year-old Vasya Klubkov, a minor with a 7th grade behind him, a fighter of the partisan group of military unit 9903, but unlike Kosmodemyanskaya, he is a Red Army soldier.
    During the military exit, he was captured, broke down, agreed to cooperate with the enemy, then returned back, voluntarily surrendered, as a result, on the basis of Art. 58-1 p. "b" of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR sentenced to the highest measure of criminal punishment - execution, without confiscation of property in the absence of such.
    History with him muddy
    1. agond
      agond 27 January 2023 20: 29
      0
      Quote: Lewww
      During a military exit, he was taken prisoner,

      The participants in the combat exit were given a task (I don’t know what words to call it), but I definitely know that it was possible to set some other, different task characteristic of saboteurs, I would like to know what those who sent people to the combat exit were thinking about?
      1. Lewww
        Yesterday, 12: 18
        0
        Your question does not have an exact answer - those who sent memoirs did not leave.
        But I believe that they were thinking about how to fulfill the requirements of Order No. 0428 with the least loss of l / s
  49. optimist007
    optimist007 Today, 06: 28
    +1
    Quote: Alien From
    I know one thing, only yesterday late at night I drove past the monument to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya on the Minsk highway, he stood, stands and will stand! People remember, sometimes they stop, sometimes they go on an excursion to that village (not far from there), and most importantly, they tell the children what and why! Who knows the Moscow and Smolensk land will understand me, the land itself is a memory of the exploits of the Soviet people! Eternal memory to them and rest in peace! hi

    Verily! soldier