Military Review

Stockholm Bloodbath 9 Nov. 1520 of the year

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Stockholm Bloodbath 9 Nov. 1520 of the year

8 — 10 on November 1520 of the year in Stockholm on the orders of the Danish king Christian II took place a mass execution, which entered into history as the Stockholm Bloodbath. This event is considered the most tragic page in the history of Sweden. On trumped-up charges of heresy, a ruling of the ecclesiastical court was issued, according to which about a hundred distinguished people and famous citizens of Stockholm were executed.


It all started with the fact that the interests of the influential archbishop Gustav Troll collided with the interests of the regent of Sweden Wall Sture Junior (reigned from 23 July 1512). The Regent wanted to deprive the Archbishop of the grounds and the castle at Stack. A real internecine war began, Sture arrested Father Troll, and when the archbishop hid in Stack, the castle was besieged by the troops. The archbishop betrayed the besieging anathema, and the Danish king moved his troops to help him. However, Sten Sture dropped Danish troops from Stockholm.

In fact, it was a war between supporters of Denmark and its opponents. It should be noted that since the time of the Kalmar Union, when in 1389, an agreement was signed at Kalmar Castle to create a union of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, there was a certain hostility between the two kingdoms. Under this treaty, the three kingdoms were to have a single monarch, power was to be transferred in a straight male line; in the case of the childlessness of the king, the representatives of all three states were to elect a new monarch. The kingdoms entered into a military alliance and pledged to assist each other in the event of war or insurrection. Reserved privileges of the church. At the same time, the internal autonomy of the kingdoms and their internal laws remained. In the union there was a struggle for supremacy between Denmark and Sweden (Norway was in economic dependence on Denmark). The church took the side of the Danish crown, and Sture sought to put it under control, so he struck a blow at the basis of the power of the spiritual feudal lords - the land holdings.

In Stockholm, after the defeat of the Danes, a meeting of the Riksdag was held. He was attended by the Archbishop, protected by a security certificate. In fact, this meeting turned into a trial of Troll. The Riksdag issued a decision in which Gustavu Troll was denied the rights of the archbishop in Sweden, Stack, as the “cause of great evil”, was proposed to be destroyed and destroyed so that he would not be a stronghold for traitors, foreigners and Danes.

The siege of the castle was continued. The stack was eventually taken and destroyed. The archbishop was beaten and imprisoned. Many supporters were beheaded and wheeled. Church property abolished. Danish king Christian II. Danish in 1518, the second time he tried to restore the union, but was defeated. Talks on a truce began between the Danes and the Swedes. However, the Danish king broke them - he took six Swedish noblemen negotiators as hostages and took them to Denmark. The war was continued with the same strength and cruelty. King Christian has equipped a new army for a campaign in Sweden. He was supported by the Pope, who announced the bull about excommunication of Sweden from the church for actions against Archbishop Gustav Troll. To fulfill the will of the papal throne was entrusted to the Danish monarch. In addition, the actions of the Danes and supported the powerful trading house Fuggerov: he seized in his hands almost all the production and sale of copper in Europe, and had views and mining in Sweden.

A large army at the time, reinforced by mercenary detachments from Germany, France and Scotland, crossed the border of the southwestern province of Hallandi in 1520 and invaded Westergötland. On the Lake Osund, the invaders were met by the army of Wall Sture, which consisted not only of royal soldiers and nobles, but also peasant militias. There was a battle on the ice of the lake. The Swedish army was defeated and retreated to the north. Sten Sture was seriously wounded by a cannonball at the very beginning of the battle. Swedish troops suffered another defeat in the Tiveda forests and the invaders paved the way in the region of Middle Sweden. Sten Sure died two days after the battle in the Tiveda forests, while crossing Lake Melarn on the way to Stockholm.


Death Wall Sture Jr. on the ice of Lake Mälaren in 1520, Hood. KG Hellquist (1851 — 1890).

The situation for Sweden was extremely difficult. The peasants lost their leader. No one could immediately replace Wall Sture. The nobility and the church went on the way of finding a compromise with the Danes. The Danish command entered into negotiations with the liberated Gustav Troll. A truce was concluded between Sweden and Denmark. The Swedish State Council recognized Christian king of Sweden. Representatives of the Danish king promised mercy to the defeated and the preservation of constitutional rule, which will preserve autonomy for Sweden.

At this time there was an uprising. The widow Stena Sture, Kristina Yllensherna and her supporters organized resistance and turned to Poland and Danzig for help. However, the uprising was crushed. Stockholm was surrounded by land and sea and surrendered in September. 4 November Gustav Trolle crowned Christian in the Stockholm Cathedral. At the same time, promises of universal amnesty were repeated.

However, the archbishop and his supporters were eager for revenge. They wanted reprisals against Sture. They managed to attract the Danish king to their side, promising him that the legal norms would not be violated. The actions directed against the archbishop and his supporters were declared heresy, their opponents were called heretics, which are not subject to the king's promises. 7 in November in the Stockholm Castle in the presence of the king, members of the State Council and other high officials read the complaint of the Archbishop, in which Wall's actions were viewed as heresy and were asked to act fairly with heretics. The next day, an interrogation was held at the church court, which was headed by Archbishop Gustav Troll. Soon the sentence was pronounced, it was established that the defendants refused to acknowledge their excommunication from the church and vowed that the archbishop would never again receive his church and freedom. The defendants were declared in heresy. Executed 82 man. The widow of Sture, Christian, the Danish king declared "dead in life," she was put in prison.

All secular and ecclesiastical persons who belonged to the Wall Sture party were executed. Their property was confiscated in favor of the king. The bodies of the dead were burned. They even ordered to dig the body of the deceased Wall Sture and burn it.

The Stockholm Bloodbath and the subsequent repressions against supporters of Wall Sture caused not the result that the Danish king wanted (the creation of the great Scandinavian empire). He led the Swedes to general hatred for the invaders and a large-scale uprising led by Christina's relative Gustav Eriksson Vaza. He was taken as a prisoner to Denmark in the 1518 year, in the 1519 year he fled to Lübeck, where he found protection and shelter. During the Stockholm massacre, his father and son-in-law were killed, and his mother and sister were taken to Denmark. Vaza was energetic, possessed the art of a good speaker and a beautiful appearance, hated the Danish invaders, this attracted many people to his side who needed a leader. He was supported by the Swedish nobles, peasants and miners, the Hanseatic city of Lübeck. The Danes, with their terror, exorbitant taxes, enslavement of the Swedish peasantry, led to the unification of the private nobility, peasants and miners against Danish domination and the Catholic Church. Gustav Wazu was elected king of Sweden, and in 1523, he freed Stockholm. Kalmar union has ceased to exist. Gustav Waza reformed in Sweden.
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  1. Leisure
    Leisure 9 November 2012 09: 14
    +2
    For me, these "Scandinavian showdowns", "dark forest", practical, no one is interested in the history of this issue. Although interest after the article may appear.
    1. Hammer
      Hammer 9 November 2012 10: 19
      +2
      In a sense, this is certainly informative, not only for us to read about our history "chernukha". What is called - "we are not alone."
      But let it be better to write about cannibalism in "enlightened" Europe up to the 19th century, which was considered the norm there and which they are now shyly silent about.
      And these people teach us how to live ?!
      1. mda
        mda 12 November 2012 16: 42
        0
        I support! There is nothing Europe to teach us to live!
  2. GG2012
    GG2012 9 November 2012 09: 53
    +2
    The Russian Orthodox Church is now actively lobbying for the adoption of the law "On insulting the feelings of believers."
    The church court will become secular.
    For reading a non-canonical gospel and discussing it, will give a deadline. Middle Ages are back!
    1. Purgen
      Purgen 9 November 2012 11: 10
      0
      don't be dumb. Go for a walk. Ventilate. If at least a little in the material. then about the Russian Orthodox Church in this initiative is not at all out of the question. Believers are not only Orthodox, but also Muslims, Buddhists, Jews and other faiths.
    2. xan
      xan 9 November 2012 14: 52
      +4
      turn off the fool
      such or similar laws exist in all decent countries
      1. GG2012
        GG2012 9 November 2012 15: 11
        +5
        Quote: Purgen
        don't be dumb. Go for a walk. Ventilate

        Quote: Purgen
        turn off the fool

        Go to the links ... "intelligent" you are ours.
        http://www.taday.ru/text/1865957.html
        http://mir24.tv/news/society/5823902
        Soon Old and New Testaments, our children will cram in the same way as you crammed "Ilyich's April Theses" and the Party congresses!
        So what?! Have you become real communists ??? !!!

        When religion becomes ideology, the Middle Ages come!
        1. Purgen
          Purgen 9 November 2012 16: 24
          -1
          Good. DO YOU READ THESE LINKS READ ?. AND IF I READ THAT I UNDERSTAND ?. Where did you see.
          "The Russian Orthodox Church is now actively lobbying for the adoption of the law" On insulting the feelings of believers. "
          The church court will become secular.
          For reading a non-canonical gospel and discussing it, they will give a term. The Middle Ages are back! "

          It is a question of opening at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute a department of theology. And not about the adoption of the law. Especially for you an article from WIKI ..

          "Theology, or theology (calca Greek θεολογία, from Greek θεός - God and Greek λόγος - word, teaching) is a systematic presentation and interpretation of ANY RELIGIOUS TEACHING, teaching, dogma of any religion [1]. a complex of disciplines dealing with the study, presentation, substantiation and protection of the doctrine of God, his activities in the world and his revelation, as well as related teachings about moral norms and forms of worship "
          Where did you see at least a word about the Russian Orthodox Church in the definition of theology ?. Read and ponder.
          And about the law on insulting the feelings of believers, I wrote to you above. There is such an initiative from the ROC. All believers, not just Orthodox. ALL. Do you distinguish the difference between “all believers” and “Orthodox” ?. Once again, that would be understood by the believers, this is both Muslims and Jews and Buddhists and other confessions. Go learn the mat part and read carefully and understand what you read literally, and not as you want. Adju.
          1. GG2012
            GG2012 9 November 2012 18: 43
            +2
            Quote: Purgen
            Especially for you an article from WIKI ..

            ABOUT! Cool! You learned to use Wikipedia!
            By the next comment, you will master personal pronouns, and you will stop "Poking".
            If "Tykanie" is a trait of your character, then you are an "ordinary boor" (habitats - dirty entrances, cheap pubs).
            And if "Poking" is a mechanism of psychological defense, then you increase your self-esteem in this way. Then your complexes speak for you, but you ... alas, cannot be heard.

            Reread carefully again the articles given by me, and you will understand what is written there. Then there will be no need to make empty links to Wikipedia.
        2. Ratibor12
          Ratibor12 11 November 2012 00: 54
          +1
          Quote: GG2012
          Soon Old and New Testaments, our children will cram in the same way as you crammed "Ilyich's April Theses" and Party congresses! Have you become real communists ??? !!! When religion becomes an ideology, the Middle Ages begins!


          I will subscribe to every word! We will wait for the fact that Gagarin will be anathematized, and the Queen will be excommunicated! Fuck all this Christian-Muslim kodlu and others. This is incomprehensible to the mind! A huge horde of mutants who clog people's heads with outright lies. As if the media is not enough for us.
  3. sq
    sq 9 November 2012 10: 14
    0
    Ordinary showdowns between feudal lords, since the church (in this case, the Catholic) was the largest feudal lord and claimed the secular authority.
  4. skullcap
    skullcap 9 November 2012 11: 15
    +4
    Once again, one can make sure that official pro-Western historians have defined the criterion of cruelty or the necessary justice of a ruler.
    Ivan the Terrible - undoubtedly - a bloody despot. Because he executed the Vatican accomplices in Russia.
    Danish king Christian II executed the opponents of the Vatican, therefore it is not a bloody despot. Simply, "... has shown the ability to make political decisions in extremely difficult circumstances. Undoubtedly, he was clever, brave and patriotic ... ", as they write about him in historical materials.
    1. xan
      xan 9 November 2012 15: 15
      0
      plus 100500
      if it weren't for Vanya the Terrible, we would now be like Poles, these "poets in politics and politics in poetry"
  5. kopar
    kopar 9 November 2012 11: 40
    +2
    And when Europe treated us well? Only when it needed something. Thanks to the author for the article and "+". This topic is almost never raised anywhere.
  6. xan
    xan 9 November 2012 15: 05
    0
    ordinary history of a European state
    everything is like people
    and now the number of homosexuals among the Danes and Swedes is off the charts, because pacifists are
  7. 8 company
    8 company 9 November 2012 16: 26
    -7
    Have 82 people been executed? And this is a "bloodbath"? In pursuance of the order of the NKVD No. 00447 of July 30, 1937, 390 thousand people of "anti-Soviet elements" were executed - this is a real bloody bath.
    1. nnz226
      nnz226 9 November 2012 19: 00
      +3
      For how long were 390 people executed ??? How are the Germans in Babi Yar? Brought out under machine guns and mowed a week ??? There is no need to re-sing about Solzhenitsyn, and so they read, it is true, they tell about millions of those killed. .. Again, why were 000 executed? Yezhov and company are included in these numbers ??? Murderers, robbers, going under the "watchtower" according to their own (not 390th) article, are they also "victims"? Spies and saboteurs? If only ONE Karatsupa border guard detained several hundred of them (and his outpost guarded only 000 km of the state border), then how many of them were there in the USSR? And not with good intentions ...
    2. Ratibor12
      Ratibor12 11 November 2012 01: 01
      0
      Shit shit ... the thrower turned on? Such an insult to the USSR and Soviet power! Maybe they accidentally shot you then? You cannot forgive everything. In general, a control scribble would not hurt you.
    3. mda
      mda 12 November 2012 16: 48
      0
      Where did the information come from? I DO NOT BELIEVE! No.
  8. Black
    Black 9 November 2012 19: 11
    0
    pnz226] Again, for which 390 were executed?
    I think of them - 82 were innocent or all 390000 traitors to the motherland?