First in the world. Techniques for disrupting the cumulative jet

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First in the world. Techniques for disrupting the cumulative jet


Up to 10 kilometers per second


The cumulative jet is a terrible thing. The speed is about ten kilometers per second and the steel, behaving like a liquid, penetrates the armor several calibers of the attacking ammunition thick.



Until now, among those interested in armored vehicles there is no consensus regarding the mechanism of action of the cumulative jet. Simply put, does it flush or does it burn through?

Let us turn to the researchers of the Moscow State Technical University. N. E. Bauman, who described the mechanics of the cumulative jet when it encounters armor. A bit abstruse, but completely exhaustive. In the book by V. A. Odintsov, S. V. Ladov and D. P. Levin “Weapon and weapons systems" the following wording is given:

“When a cumulative jet interacts with a barrier, a very high pressure arises at the boundary between the materials of the jet and the barrier, which is one or two orders of magnitude greater than the ultimate strength of the barrier material.
As a result, the cumulative jet turns around, its material spreads in the direction opposite to its velocity.
The barrier material also “leaves” the high-pressure zone, and part of it is carried along with the jet to the free surface, while the other part moves in the radial direction due to plastic deformation.
Thus, a crater is formed (for barriers of semi-infinite thickness, not pierced through) or a hole (for barriers of finite thickness, pierced through), the diameter of which significantly exceeds the diameter of the cumulative jet.


One of the most unpleasant opponents of the Red Army. Source: pamyat-naroda-ru.ru

In theory, cumulative ammunition has no equal on the battlefield. It is not surprising that for the first time people thought about protection against a deadly jet during the Second World War. Sergey Smolensky, chief engineer of the Armored Institute, also known as TsNII-48, tested the simplest systems for disrupting a cumulative jet with an explosion back in 1944.

The old principle came into play - "a wedge is knocked out with a wedge." Unfortunately, the most important experimental work for the country's defense turned out to be unclaimed. As the legend goes, lieutenant general tank troops Hamazasp Babajanyan did not allow this idea to develop to serial implementation with the famous expression:

“Not a single gram of explosives will be on the tank!”


As a result, the German (according to other sources - Norwegian) Manfred Held in 1970 issued a patent for the dynamic protection of tanks, and it first appeared in serial execution among the Israelis in the early 80s. Despite Israel's formal leadership, there is some reason to believe that foreign developments were based on early Soviet experience. For example, the dynamic protection of the Israeli tank M48A3 was called Blazer, just by the name of one of the manufacturers of the Soviet DZ model in Chelyabinsk Blazer G. A. As they write in the work “Dynamic protection. The Israeli shield was forged in ... the USSR? Tarasenko A. A. and Chobitok V. V. “According to available information, comrade. Blazer in the 1970s immigrated to Israel. Can this be considered evidence of borrowing by the Israelis of the Soviet experience - a rhetorical question? It is also difficult to understand how the secret carrier managed to leave the Soviet Union in the 70s? Be that as it may, in the USSR they began to test the first samples of protection against a cumulative jet "in metal" back in the early 60s, and the T-64BV with "Contact" was adopted fifteen years later.

Estimate the time period from the first experiments in 1944 to adoption in 1985. Now it is customary to criticize the Russian defense industry for really being slow to introduce innovations in the army. In the Soviet Union, too, not everything went smoothly, and the example of dynamic protection is a clear confirmation of this.

After a short digression, let's return to the origins of design ideas about dynamic protection at the end of the 40s. In 1949, in the secret collection "Proceedings of TsNII-48", the first article of its kind "On the possibility of using explosive energy to destroy the KSP" was published. The authors are Ilya Bytensky and Pavel Timofeev. But it was only the quintessence of many years of work of the Armor Institute.

Much more interesting and informative is the recently declassified technical report “Refining the optimal options for protecting the hulls and turrets of tanks and SU from being hit by cumulative projectiles and grenades” (Topic BT-3-48). The material dates back to 1948, that is, it managed to absorb at least four years of experience of Soviet engineers on the problem of protecting tanks from a cumulative jet.

Subject BT-3-48


TsNII-48 engineers chose substances with a large supply of internal energy as the basis for the so-called active method of protection against cumulative ammunition. So in a scientific way you can call explosives. The idea came, apparently, from previous experiments with shielded armor protection, which caused the cumulative ammunition to fire prematurely, which somewhat reduced its effectiveness. Since the cumulative jet often requires laboratory conditions for work, it is necessary in any way to prevent the ammunition from doing its dirty work.

The engineers suggested that this could be done in two ways. The first is to use explosives to disrupt an already formed cumulative jet. The second and more difficult is to arrange an explosion to prevent the correct formation of a cumulative jet or its breakdown at the time of formation.

In the first case, as indicated in the report,

“The countercharge is not equipped with a separate detonator; its detonation in this case can occur either as a result of impact action when a mine hits, that is, the formation of a cumulative jet, or due to the initiating influence of a cumulative jet. Due to the detonation of the countercharge, the cumulative jet is weakened, that is, the corresponding protective effect is achieved.

In the second case, the engineers assumed that

“The countercharge is equipped with a separate detonator; due to the presence of a special synchronizing device, the detonation of the countercharge can take place at a given distance from the armor and at a given time in relation to the moment of the explosion of the cumulative mine.

As time has shown, the second approach did not justify itself - it is almost impossible to undermine the projectile at a strictly defined distance from the armor. It is easier to destroy it with an active defense complex. Nevertheless, at the end of the 40s, the utopian nature of a synchronized countercharge had yet to be experimentally proven.

Therefore, the main work was organized around a countercharge without a synchronizer. Engineers reasoned that it was easier and more efficient to upset the cumulative jet with the same explosive that caused the formation of this very jet. An alloy was prepared from TNT and RDX in the ratio of one to one TG-50/50. This explosive had the main thing that a countercharge needed - a high detonation velocity.

The question remained - will the cumulative jet cause a guaranteed detonation of the countercharge, or will it simply pierce it like a chalk checker? Recall that high-speed shooting, capable of solving the problem once and for all, did not exist at that time. For this, three experimental installations were built at once.

“First. Half of the shaped charge sawn along the axis was placed on a polished steel plate. At a distance of 30 mm from it, half of the countercharge was installed. According to the prints obtained on the plate, it was found that when the shaped charge is detonated, the products of its detonation cause the detonation of the countercharge.

Second. A cumulative jet was directed onto a lead column with a steel plate - compression of the column was observed. Then a countercharge was placed between the shaped charge and the column. After the explosion in this case, the column was completely destroyed. This suggests that the column was affected not only by the cumulative jet, but also by the detonation products of the countercharge.

Third setting. During the detonation of a charge composed of separate charges with air gaps, it was found that the charge completely detonates from the primary charge.

Agree, the experiments of the TsNII-48 engineers are not without elegance, especially with a lead column.

The next problem facing the researchers was the question of the timely detonation of the countercharge. That is, does he manage to upset the cumulative jet, or will it first pass through, and then the explosive detonates. A non-trivial problem, it should be noted.

For this, two cumulative blanks were prepared - one large weighing 520 grams, but without a metal shell of the notch, and the second weighing 25 grams, but with a metal shell of a cumulative cone. Interestingly, in the course of preliminary research at the institute, it was found out that the form of the countercharge does not really matter. We settled on cylindrical products with a flat end. The prototype of the future dynamic protection in model experiments was placed either at some distance from the protected armor, or directly on it.

The results of the experimental explosions were very encouraging. If we simplify it completely, then without a countercharge (that is, without a remote sensing gun), the cumulative jet penetrated the armor by 19 mm. The weight of the shaped charge in this case was 520 grams, the diameter was 100 mm. As soon as explosives were installed in the path of the jet, the depth of the “gulp” decreased to 3–12 mm, depending on the mass of the countercharge.

For greater reliability, the engineers proposed an alternative protection in the form of inert substances - alabaster, chalk, wood and plexiglass. As expected, they could not effectively weaken the action of the cumulative jet. In TsNII-48, they noticed one important feature - the closer the countercharge is to the cumulative recess and the farther from the armor, the more effectively it upsets the destructive effect of the ammunition.

For example, if, all other things being equal, the countercharge is placed 20 mm from the armor, but close to the shaped charge, then the penetration depth will be 4,7 mm, and if the countercharge is placed on the armor at a distance of 40 mm from the ammunition, then the jet will penetrate the armor already at 9,6 mm. At the same time, the distance between the armor and the shaped charge is unchanged, only the placement of the remote sensing prototype varies.

Research results of Soviet engineers in 1947–1948. really encouraging, but there were still tests of the prototype of dynamic protection with a detonation synchronizer ahead.
37 comments
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  1. +6
    14 January 2023 04: 57
    I watched a series of films about our weapons, if I'm not mistaken "Deadly Force", and there the developer told how this phrase appeared: "There will not be a single gram of explosives on the tank!". Upon presentation of the state commission, headed by Lieutenant General of the Tank Forces Hamazasp Babajanyan, an abnormal operation of all elements of dynamic protection occurred, after which the tank received critical damage.
    1. -1
      15 January 2023 07: 47
      Technological progress is difficult where the opinion of one person is decisive. In a country free for entrepreneurship, he himself would start producing and develop his idea. Therefore, the fate of the DZ is a completely logical outcome. The first planes also constantly fell, the lieutenant general would have cut down the aircraft too ...
      1. +1
        18 January 2023 15: 06
        Khrushchev cut down the development of artillery. Now, like, everything will be done by rockets. Left behind because of him then for a decade ...
      2. 0
        April 6 2023 03: 45
        I present your "development" of the idea on Cadillacs and Chryslers. And the inevitable electric chair in the end.
  2. +3
    14 January 2023 05: 28
    The cumulative jet is a terrible thing. The speed is about ten kilometers per second and steel behaving like a liquid, penetrates armor several calibers of attacking ammunition thick.

    I didn’t read further ... actually copper, sometimes other metals are used, but steel in its purest form?
    I remember my military department, the colonel was teaching a lesson in our audience, suddenly knocking, a cadet from another course comes in, who equipped the neighboring room and asks after the appeal - Comrade colonel, what corner should I take for facing the corners, steel or aluminum?
    Colonel with irritation says - I said ... metal! good
    1. +2
      14 January 2023 07: 14
      In my opinion, a clumsy presentation. I was also surprised, but it turned out that steel can also be used for lining the recess, I even found a Russian patent on the net.
      1. +2
        14 January 2023 08: 23
        Partially steel can be used,

        The choice of material for cumulative lining (CC) is one of the priority areas of research. This is due to the fact that copper is most often used in shaped charges, which has a sufficiently high density and ductility and does not belong to the class of particularly expensive and definitive materials, provides penetration within 8 ... 9 charge calibers [d], which is not completely to the extent meets modern requirements. An increase in penetration without any design changes in the charge can be achieved using tantalum, molybdenum and niobium (about 10 calibers). However, these materials are quite scarce and, accordingly, expensive for serial use.

        Such metals at high density provide a very high coefficient of ultimate elongation of the cumulative jet (CS), but their use in its pure form has not yet found real application. Materials such as tungsten, titanium, and partially depleted uranium, due to their significant brittleness, do not create a monolithic CS and are sprayed during movement, creating a stream of particles of a sufficiently large diameter, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of action against dense and strong barriers of considerable thickness.

        High-density and ductile lead also does not form a continuous jet, scattering already at the initial stage of jet formation due to strong compressibility and low bulk strength. An analysis of foreign information and patent sources [1] indicates the prospect of using a copper-tungsten alloy (Cu-W) as a material for CO, which can increase the armor penetration of HEAT warheads up to (10...12) d . The mixed copper-tungsten jet combines the high density of tungsten and the high ductility of copper. However, the implementation of this idea requires the selection of the optimal components of these metals and their optimal placement along the CO (inside - tungsten, outside - copper).

        The use of combined or multilayer (mainly bimetallic) CRs consisting of different metals has certain prospects [2]. In this case, individual parts or layers of traditional copper and steel CRs can be made from niobium, tantalum, zirconium and other metals, and various alloys can also be used ... "


        From an article by Vorotilin M.S. "The concept of creating a shaped charge with record penetration characteristics" published in the journal "Proceedings of the Tula State University. Technical Sciences" Issue 2 for 2011.

        And a patent for a purely steel cladding ... there are patents for a perpetual motion machine, a patent is not an invention, it is a stakeout of an idea that has not yet been. You can get a patent for a combined shell, steel interspersed with diamonds. Pay money and there will be a patent. Only there will be no effective penetration.
        1. -8
          14 January 2023 08: 43
          The best uranium cladding ever! Sorry, I'm not smart enough to write a normal comment
          1. +6
            14 January 2023 09: 03
            Heavy uranium is good, but it is fragile, read my comment, dear Vyacheslav.
            Materials such as tungsten, titanium, and partially depleted uranium, due to their significant brittleness, do not create a monolithic CS and are sprayed during movement, creating a stream of particles of a sufficiently large diameter, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of action against dense and strong barriers of considerable thickness.

            Uranium is good for sub-caliber shells, not cumulative ones.
            1. +1
              14 January 2023 23: 25
              Quote: Konnick
              And the patent for pure steel cladding...
              I read from our cumulative shells in service. What I noticed: two identical-looking shells differed only in the metal of the funnel (steel and copper). A projectile with a copper funnel has more penetrating power than a steel one. The question immediately arose: why fire a projectile with a steel funnel if it is worse?
              There was another topic on funnel shapes. After all, they are not only a classic cone. I remember one of its shape: a very narrowed cylinder, moreover, the narrow end of the cylinder was directed forward. I don’t remember whether it was written about it or not, but during the explosion of one of them, there were processes with the appearance of radioactivity.
              I wanted to refresh this material in my memory, but I did not find this topic on the Internet (according to the forms of cumulative funnels)
        2. 0
          18 January 2023 15: 10
          Most likely, the most promising alloys are not described in the article, there is not even a hint of them. For example, iron, with a small admixture of carbon...?
    2. +5
      14 January 2023 07: 48
      As I understand it, "steel that behaves like a liquid" is about armor steel. It is she who begins to "flow" under high pressure in the direction of the cumulative jet. The very material of the cumulative jet turns in the opposite direction. This is discussed below the quoted place.
      1. +2
        14 January 2023 08: 37
        As I understand it, "steel that behaves like a liquid" is about armor steel. It is she who begins to "flow" under high pressure in the direction of the cumulative jet. The very material of the cumulative jet turns in the opposite direction. This is discussed just below the quoted place.
        .
        Well, how else to understand, steel is a liquid, it penetrates the armor. You don’t have to argue with the author, it’s only the first paragraph, he just posts from the Internet on various topics, from culture to technology. You can discuss with our esteemed historians Shpakovsky and Vashchenko, namely only in history.

        steel, behaving like a liquid, penetrates armor several calibers of attacking ammunition thick.

        In modern KOs, a bimetallic shell is used, the inner layer is steel on the side of the charge, and the outer layer is copper. The jet, the so-called pestle, is formed from copper, and steel plays a role in the formation of this pestle, while it itself crumbles and does not participate in breaking through. And the jet is not liquid, the temperature of copper is 400-450 degrees, the pestle is solid.
        1. +1
          14 January 2023 09: 13
          Quote: Konnick
          In modern KOs, a bimetallic shell is used, the inner layer is steel on the side of the charge, and the outer layer is copper. The jet, the so-called pestle, is formed from copper, and steel plays a role in the formation of this pestle, while it itself crumbles and does not participate in breaking through. And the jet is not liquid, the temperature of copper is 400-450 degrees, the pestle is solid.

          The metal of the facing of the COP does NOT penetrate the armor. It creates pressure at the edge of the armor. Read the explanation of people from MSTU. Bauman.
        2. +8
          14 January 2023 09: 30
          And the jet is not liquid, the temperature of copper is 400-450 degrees, the pestle is solid.
          Nikolai, at these pressures, the temperature does not matter, the material behaves like a liquid. See the course of the TFKP Academician M.A. Lavrentiev, who, in fact, created the theory of a cumulative jet in our country.
          1. +1
            14 January 2023 23: 34
            Quote: Aviator_
            Nikolai, at these pressures, the temperature does not matter, the material behaves like a liquid.
            In some articles they write "processes are underway according to the laws of hydrodynamics."
            1. +2
              15 January 2023 11: 34
              Quote: Bad_gr
              processes according to the laws of hydrodynamics

              Exactly. At impact velocities that are greater than the speed of sound in materials, temperature does not matter, everything behaves like a liquid.
              That is why, at any angle of the arrival of meteorites into the Moon, the craters are exactly round, there are no oval ones.
              alternative protection in the form of inert substances - alabaster, chalk, wood and plexiglass.

              It is a pity that we did not immediately try the puff made of porcelain stoneware and polyethylene, there would have been a surprise 50 years earlier.
              1. 0
                18 January 2023 15: 18
                Quote: eule
                ...
                It is a pity that we did not immediately try the puff made of porcelain stoneware and polyethylene, there would have been a surprise 50 years earlier.

                And it is a pity that they forgot that at first the shaped charges were without any lining. And only later it was discovered that the metal cladding increases the penetration of the charge ...
    3. +1
      14 January 2023 08: 39
      Quote: Konnick
      steel, behaving like a liquid, penetrates armor several calibers of attacking ammunition thick.
      In my opinion, just an unsuccessfully formulated thought, that's all.
      1. +1
        14 January 2023 08: 58
        Of course unsuccessful

        The metal of the funnel is compressed at a speed of 1–3 km/s, so it does not have time to melt, but only heats up to t=(450–600) °C. In this case, the metal behaves like an incompressible liquid, but while maintaining the structure of the solid state.
    4. 0
      14 January 2023 14: 35
      Quote: Konnick
      steel behaving like a liquid

      But this is true.

      Quote: Konnick
      I didn’t read further ... actually copper

      Actually, copper-based special alloys.

      Until now, among those interested in armored vehicles there is no consensus regarding the mechanism of action of the cumulative jet. Simply put, does it flush or does it burn through?

      Neither one nor the other. She her proceeds.
      Elementary Physics. Roughly speaking, almost any material with a crystalline structure, when a certain threshold of kinetic action is exceeded, shows signs of fluidity.
      The jet itself and the armor behave like plasticine. During detonation, the copper part does not melt, there is not enough energy for this, it exhibits superplasticity.
      Superplasticity is a state of a material having a crystalline structure, which allows deformations that are an order of magnitude greater than the maximum possible for this material in its normal state.
  3. -7
    14 January 2023 08: 41
    Lieutenant General of the Tank Forces Hamazasp Babajanyan did not allow this idea to develop to serial implementation - as I put on a harp, I get dumber and dumber ...
    1. 0
      April 6 2023 03: 54
      A spontaneously exploding body kit of military equipment is capable of halving the personnel of any military unit, up to and including the marshal.
  4. +6
    14 January 2023 09: 02
    In the second case, the engineers assumed that

    “The countercharge is equipped with a separate detonator; due to the presence of a special synchronizing device, the detonation of the countercharge can take place at a given distance from the armor and at a given time in relation to the moment of the explosion of the cumulative mine.

    As time has shown, the second approach did not justify itself - it is almost impossible to undermine the projectile at a strictly defined distance from the armor.

    And yet, attempts to refute such an impossibility continue!

    Called SMART-PROTech, the new armor consists of modules, each of which contains a sensor and one or two countermeasures, depending on the size, position and orientation of the module. Two countermeasures are installed - one from the top, directed downward, and the second from the bottom, turned upward, always at an angle, the tilt is provided by the physical form of the module; the impact surface has an angle of about 30 ° from the vertical and contains a sensor. It is insensitive to shells of small and medium caliber, so it does not work in cases where the shells can be stopped by passive armor of the machine. The SMART-PROTech module is equipped with a light protective cover, which avoids damage to system elements by external objects. When a tandem warhead gets into the car, the effect of the primary charge is neutralized by passive armor; the shock activates the corresponding countermeasure, which generates sharply directed energy, which destroys the main cumulative charge even before it detonates, thereby preventing penetration. wink
    1. +1
      14 January 2023 23: 44
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      And yet, attempts to refute such an impossibility continue!
      Called SMART-PROTech,.............

      As I understand it, according to the second option from the article, a modern KAZ works (to shoot down a threat on approach).
      And the fact that on the schematic (SMART-PROTech) I would attribute to a type of remote sensing, since it works after the projectile hits the defense.
      1. 0
        16 January 2023 23: 25
        Actually ... SMART-PROTech works after the leader "hit" into the "defense"! But not the projectile itself! This can be seen from the "illustration"!
  5. +5
    14 January 2023 09: 33
    Until now, among those interested in armored vehicles there is no consensus regarding the mechanism of action of the cumulative jet. Simply put, does it flush or does it burn through?
    Eugene, there is a consensus - this is the effect of pressure, not thermal exposure. See the works of Academician M.A. Lavrentiev for 1947.
  6. +5
    14 January 2023 14: 14
    It might be easier.
    At high pressure during the explosion, the material of the short-circuit lining and the mechanism of armor penetration are described by hydrodynamics.
    Therefore, we can consider the cladding of the short circuit as a liquid, the piercing armor is also a liquid. Then the penetration depth will depend on the speed of movement of the short-circuit cladding (its energy of motion) and the ratio of the densities of the cladding material and armor. The hardness of the armor does not play a role here.
    This is on the fingers, and then the nuances went.
    The short-circuit jet should be as narrow and long as possible and continuously affect the armor being pierced. Hence the use of heavy, ductile and durable materials (most often copper), the use of composite linings, the use of tantalum, molybdenum and niobium (expensive solutions for us), the formation of the optimal short-circuit explosion distance from the armor, playing with the short-circuit funnel shape.
    And the protection of the tank is trying to reduce the optimal conditions for the formation of a cumulative funnel.
    Screens - not the optimal distance to the main armor.
    Lattices - (hope that the fuse will slip past the rod and he will have time to crush the short circuit lining before the explosion, or break the wire of the piezoelectric element).
    Explosive throwing of a metal plate (dynamic protection) to deform and deflect the cumulative jet.
    Composite armor (chobham) - steel, ceramics (we have fiberglass), air gap, etc. The density changes and the cumulative jet dissipates at the boundary of the row.
    Active influence on the shaped charge when approaching the armor ("Trophy", "Afganit", "Drozd").
  7. 0
    14 January 2023 15: 37
    Interestingly, in the course of preliminary research at the institute, it was found out that the form of the countercharge does not really matter.

    How so ? The effect of the cumulative action itself indicates the importance of the form of the charge, while the form of the countercharge is not important?
    It is likely that the location of the detonation center relative to the shape of the charge matters, and in the case of the detonation of a countercharge from an arriving jet, it is impossible to place it in the right place - in depth. In the case of using new sensors of the SMART-PROTech type, this problem is solved.
  8. +1
    14 January 2023 23: 00
    It is curious that Blazer is a surname. Which is not surprising.
  9. 0
    15 January 2023 14: 40
    Traditionally, the jet and armor are considered as the interaction of two incompressible fluids. Many dissertations have been defended on this.
    1. 0
      15 January 2023 23: 09
      It is known that only a continuous cumulative jet has the maximum effect of penetrating armor, and if for some reason it breaks up into separate fragments, then the effect sharply weakens. The optimal conditions for the existence of a continuous jet is a homogeneous medium in which it moves, in other words, the walls of the channel in homogeneous armor are, as it were, guides, and if the armor is critically inhomogeneous, then the jet breaks up and the efficiency drops., The conclusion suggests itself that if, say, a closed volume is densely filled with a mixture porcelain and rubber balls, then such an environment will not be homogeneous and, as a result, not optimal for the advancement of a cumulative jet.
      1. 0
        16 January 2023 16: 26
        And better porcelain balls in BB. The balls at the same time will be shaping for the countercharge.
  10. +1
    15 February 2023 13: 25
    44-85 years ... And how does the author comment on this - at the end of the forties (yes, the unforgettable terrible great Stalin), an assignment was issued to design a nuclear propulsion unit, and the result was voiced by no less great and terrible GDP in his famous "cartoons"?
  11. 0
    8 March 2023 19: 51
    "There is no consensus on the mechanism of action of the cumulative jet. Simply put, does it flush or does it burn through?" Let me explain on my fingers - pissing on snow or ice (displaying your name and straining your bladder to increase the pressure of the outgoing jet) you reproduce the physics of the action of a cumulative ammunition.
  12. 0
    14 March 2023 17: 33
    As the legend goes, Lieutenant General of the tank troops Hamazasp Babajanyan did not allow this idea to develop to a serial implementation with the famous expression:

    “Not a single gram of explosives will be on the tank!”

    All the same, Comrade Babajanyan is right.
    When an HE shell hits, dynamic protection enhances its action and hits the infantry accompanying the tank. And the infantry is the best defense of the tank.
  13. 0
    April 26 2023 22: 00
    It is very interesting to look at the behavior of a non-Newtonian fluid as a counter to a cumulative jet