Som submarines

Along with the development of the project for the first domestic combat submarine, the Dolphin’s specialists, the Ministry of the Sea, were closely following the world development of this class of vessels, including in the United States. Founded in 1 by John Holland (life years 1895-1841), the Holland Torpedo Boat Company in 1904 built the first autonomous submarine Holland 1899, which entered the US Navy on April 7, 11. Next year by a company for fleet The USA built 6 submarines of the Adder type, the seventh Fulton boat was built with the money of the company for advertising and testing new equipment.

Great interest in the Holland submarine was shown in St. Petersburg by the board of the Nevsky Shipbuilding and Mechanical Plant; The negotiations ended with 12.09.1903 signing the contract. For a nominal fee at 1 ruble (the cost of stamp duty, since both parties could not determine the value of the dollar), the board acquired the right to build submarines for the Russian fleet for a term of 25 years. The ITC meeting already 10.02.1904 considered the proposal of the Nevsky Plant to build the Holland 7p submarines; It was decided to “recognize the acquisition of 1-2 such submarines as desirable.” The Russian-Japanese war demanded a rapid strengthening of the fleet, and the 27.02.1904 GUKiS issued an order to the Nevsky Plant for the manufacture of five submarines with the delivery of the first by August, and by September the rest. It was assumed that the ships would be built from domestic materials, individual units and assemblies were allowed to order abroad, if their manufacture in Russia was difficult and could delay the entry of submarines into service. For each submarine was offered to pay 400 thousand rubles after the test on spec. program that included 16 items.

The board of the Nevsky plant 28 on April 1904 of the year notified the GUKiS about the purchase of the almost the same type Fulton submarine for half a million rubles. June 13 submarine on the English ship "Menatik" was sent to Kronstadt, where 1 June she arrived. Immediately after the descent, Fulton was transferred to the Nevsky Zavod for the final assembly, which ended on September 6. The sea trials, which took place in Björkö-zound, were completed successfully, and the submarine Som (by order of the Marine Ministry a new name was assigned to 31 in May 1904 of the year) transferred to St. Petersburg. November 11 by rail she departed for Vladivostok. After arriving (29.12.1904) and assembling, the Som submarine was incorporated into the Separate detachment of the destroyers, but the entry into service was delayed due to the lack of torpedoes brought from St. Petersburg only at the end of March of the following year. Being with the submarine "Killer Whale" and "Dolphin" in the area of ​​the Transfiguration Bay, the submarine "Som" 29 of April attempted to attack two Japanese destroyers who, having detected the submarine, went south at full speed. This episode is the only combat clash between submarines of the Vladivostok detachment and the enemy over the entire period of hostilities.

Documentation preparation at the Nevsky Zavod began on March 1 of the year 1904, and all 10 ships were laid on May 5. Shipbuilding engineer Gavrilov IA became the supervisor of the construction, and lieutenants A.A. Andreyev became the submarines in service. and Riznich I.I. Due to the lack of experience, the building went extremely slowly, the plant did not meet the contract terms. The first submarine (Pike) launched 15 on October 1904 of the year, 5 took another 10 months to assemble the mechanisms, only 15 on June 1905 of the year, sea trials began in Bjerke-Zund, which ended two days later by signing the acceptance certificate. At the end of the sea trials (July XNUM), the submarine Schuka was once again examined by a commission under the leadership of Rear Admiral Tikotsky KM, the head of the mine training unit. In its conclusion, the commission noted that "these successes in such a short time are due to the fact that all the ranks were in the construction and assembly of all mechanisms, without taking due care." Submarine "Schuka" immediately after its transition to St. Petersburg was put on a railway transporter to be sent to Vladivostok.

The cigar-shaped hull of each submarine (19,8 meters in length, 3,6 meter diameter) was dialed using the following lines: index systems made XnUMX concentric frames (42-9 frames) made only 17 mm, 16 The outer shell of the hull consisted of ten 34-millimeter poyas, in the upper part riveted a bronze sheet with a thickness of 89 mm. A lightweight superstructure was assembled on top of a strong hull to increase seaworthiness (skin thickness of 76,2-9,5 millimeters), the frame of which was assembled from the corners of 76,2x76,2x9,5 mm; for the manufacture of all hull structures used soft Siemens-Martin steel. Even on the stocks, the hull of each boat was tested by hydraulic pressure, which corresponded to 457 meters. In a positional position for observing the situation, a solid wheelhouse was used, equipped with eight portholes and a manhole intended for the exit of personnel. Loading torpedoes in disassembled form and elements of the battery was carried out through the second hatch, made in the bow of the submarine.

The diving system on Holland submarines differed from that adopted by submarines IG Bubnova. - all ballast tanks were placed in a robust case, which made it possible to blow them with compressed air at the maximum depth. Ballast tanks were placed as follows: in the middle section (between 18-35 frames) - the main ballast tank with a capacity of 14 tons; in the lower part of the main tank there was an auxiliary tank (4,5 tons); medium (0,5 tons) - from the starboard; trim - in the bow (0,9 tons) and aft (0,45 tons). To compensate for residual buoyancy, 6 equalization tanks were used (on each side of 3 units, the capacity of each 0,24 tons). The main, auxiliary and medium tanks were filled through the Kingston and were blown with high-pressure air (3,2 kg / cm2), the leveling and trim tanks were filled through the main line, and were blown with low-pressure air (0,64 kg / cm2). Water could not only be flushed, but also pumped out with the help of two electric and one manual pumps.

Som submarines

The main engine is a four-cylinder petrol 160-strong Otto-Deutz engine; fuel supply at 9,6 nodes speed - at 30 hours of travel, at 7,2 node speed - at 60 hours. The movement under water was provided by an 70-strong electric motor and rechargeable batteries with a capacity of 1900 Ah (autonomy in energy storage at a speed of 7,5 nodes - 3 hours, at a speed of 5,5 nodes - 6 hours). The batteries, which also fed the 60В voltage network and auxiliary mechanisms, were manufactured in Philadelphia, the spare ones were ordered by the St. Petersburg Dufflon factory. Two pairs of horizontal and vertical rudders, located crosswise behind the propeller screw, significantly improved control. The combination of horizontal rudders and filled ballast tanks reduced the time of the submarines to be submerged to 1-2 min.

Each submarine "Holland 7p" was installed nasal tubular torpedo tube manufactured by the plant "Lessner GA." One 450 mm Whitehead mine was stored in a torpedo tube, and 2 spare ones were stored on special trolleys along the sides of the nose (torpedo tubes reload time — 15-20 min.). For observation and firing at the periscope depth, the Foss system's periscope was used.

The weight load was distributed as follows:
Team and supplies - 0,79 tons;
Supply and practical items - 1,68 ton;
Fuel - 1,907 ton;
Lead ballast - 2,2 tons.
Armament - 5,45 tons;
Felling - pipeline, kingston, hatches - 9,5 tons;
Mechanisms - 12,32 tons;
Rechargeable batteries and electrical equipment - 27,4 tons;
Body - 45,1 tons.

The total displacement at the metacentric height 40 mm and the average draft of the 2,9 meter was 124,1 tons.

Crew - 2 officer and 7 "lower rank".

Nevsky Plant to 25 May 1906, passed the submarines Peskar, Beluga, Sterlet and Salmon, which were then sent to Libau, and the Sterlet submarine was sent by rail, and the rest went under its own power, accompanied by ships; they joined the diving training squad. For testing, an approved program was used, and only the Beluga submarine which passed without a single breakage to Libava 2 on May 1906 of the year was accepted into the treasury on the basis of the report of Rear Admiral E. Shhensnovich, the head of scuba diving.

In addition to the selection committee of the Maritime Ministry, submarines were examined by more senior persons; after the tests, Vice-Admiral AA Birilyov, the Minister of the Sea of ​​the Russian Empire, visited the submarine "Salmon"; the next day the submarine maneuvered in front of Nicholas II, who was watching from the Tranzund steamer. True, the unfortunate incident could not have done - the commander of the submarine, Lieutenant Andreyev A.A. did not calculate the maneuver and broke the back of the periscope, leaning on the destroyer "Defeating". However, this little nuisance did not affect the favor of the monarch to the submariners.

The board of the Nevsky plant 4 July 1907 of the year appealed to the MTC and offered to purchase the sixth submarine "Holland-7"; "Good" was received from the diving department, and the submarines were transported to Sevastopol. After conducting extensive tests, the 22 submarine in November 1907 of the year was credited to the fleet lists as “Sudak”, and, together with the submarine “Salmon”, were transferred by rail from Libau. These submarines on the Black Sea formed the first semi-division of submarines.

Submarine "Sudak" type "Som" after lifting with EPRONom in 1932

Submarines "Sudak" and "Salmon" after lifting by EPRON in 1932

The submarines that entered service were intensively used for combat training and personnel training; the concentration of four submarines of the same type at once in Libau made it possible to begin working out the tactics of the division, the commanders were trained in joint actions at night and in the afternoon. To some extent, the Libavskii division became the prototype of the "wolf packs" of the Second World War. Submarines "Holland-7" made independent transitions to Helsingfors and Revel, which was a great achievement for ships of coastal action. Competent operation of the equipment made it possible to avoid the death of submarines or serious accidents, which at that time were a frequent occurrence in the submarine forces of different countries. The exception was the case with the submarine Peskar, which on the night of 05.02.1906 almost sank near the board of the Khabarovsk transport, when water began to flow through the faulty valve of the auxiliary pump, and Shmelev, the motorman who had fallen asleep on the watch, did not take proper measures. More serious consequences were avoided thanks to the actions of Lieutenant VA Merkushev, a senior officer of the Sig submarine standing nearby, who turned his attention to the big trim aft and called the command of the submarine Pescari. Restoration of the propeller motor failed by a month.

In the process of combat training and the development of technology, minor flaws were eliminated, as well as modifications were made: for example, the Foss periscopes were replaced with more advanced Hertz systems. A lot of trouble was brought to the Som submarine commander by a lot, which significantly worsened management and visibility. In the winter of 1908-1909, the workers of the Xenia transport workshop and the workshops of the Vladivostok port remade the superstructure along the lines of the submarine of the Neva plant.

The most serious disadvantage is the use of gasoline engines - the personnel got angry, fire and explosion risks increased, the cost of gasoline was higher; All this prompted GUKiS to appeal to the largest machine-building plants 1 June 1909 of the year with a proposal to create an internal combustion engine for which heavy grades of fuel were used. The following requirements were imposed on engines:
- power at 360 revolutions per minute - 160 hp;
- the presence of underwater exhaust;
- power when working on a dynamo machine - 80 hp;
- start the engine by air;
- mandatory reverse;
- weight - up to 5,5 tons.

The overall location of the submarine of the type "Som. 1, 8, 9 - high pressure air tanks; 2 - torpedo replacement tank; 3 - compass; 4 - main ballast tank; 5 - bilge pump; 6 - battery pit; 7 - 96 numbe - one battery; - torpedo tube; 10 - trim tank; 11 - leveling tank; 12; 13 - auxiliary tank; 18 - kingston; 14 - Otto-Deutz gasoline engine; 15 - coupling, 16 - thrust bearing; 17 - ratchet;

Foreign and Russian factories responded to the proposal: Kolomna, L.Nobel, Tilmans, Tilmans, Nikolaevsky, Duflon, Izhora, Felzer, Lange, Krupp, Aunsburgsky, Curting, Sabate. However, none of the proposed sample did not satisfy GUKiS. Specialists of the mechanical plant "L.Nobel" in the current situation in the shortest possible time have created a 6-cylinder lightweight diesel engine with a piston diameter of 200 millimeters and a stroke of 240 millimeters. The maximum mass of the diesel was 3,3 tons. Considering that the same company manufactured diesel engines for the Akula and Minoga submarines, GUKiS 23 of October 1909 of the year issued an order to create 5 engines. But during operation, it turned out that these excessively lightweight engines do not have an adequate margin of safety - often the cylinders' cooling shirts burst, the connecting rods, various parts and assemblies failed; personnel needed to spend a lot of time for repair, which significantly reduced the combat capabilities of submarines. On the submarine "Beluga" mounted the kerosene engine of the company of the brothers Curting, which turned out to be quite reliable, even despite twice the mass (6,6 tons).

As soon as World War I began, the Pike and Som submarines were transported from the Far East to the Black Sea and then to the Baltic Sea. During the fighting on the Baltic submarine "Holland-7" equipped with 37-millimeter guns. They, like other small submarines, were mainly used for the patrol service at the approaches to the bases.

25 June 1916, in conditions of poor visibility, the Som submarine rammed the Swedish steamer Ingermanland. The submarine died. The rest of the submarines went to St. Petersburg on their own, where in the summer and autumn at the Baltic Shipyard they were overhauled. It is interesting that these works were led by marine engineer Malinin B.I. - The future designer of the first Soviet submarines of the type "Decembrist". The submarines "Holland-7" 1917-1918 in the winter were repaired in Reval, and everything ("Pike", "Sterlet", "Pescari" and "Beluga") remained in the port. 24 February 1918, they were captured by the German invaders. Subsequently, the submarines were taken out for disassembly of the metal.

The submarines Sterlet and Sudak, which were part of the active fleet throughout the war at the end of April 1918, captured the German troops in Sevastopol, and in November of the same year they fell into the hands of the Anglo-French troops, which hastily left the Crimea. 26 April 1919, the Anglo-French forces flooded all 12 submarines stationed there. In the summer of 1935, EPRON specialists discovered, and later raised, the salmon and Sudak submarines, which had already completely lost their combat significance; the work was done solely for the training of personnel and the testing of new ship-lifting equipment.

The correctness and simplicity of the design solutions, the high reliability of the mechanisms and systems allowed the Holland-7р-type submarines to be in service throughout the 13 years, becoming a kind of long-livers of the Russian submarine fleet.

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  1. Witch
    9 November 2012 10: 32
    Thank you. Interesting.
  2. +1
    9 November 2012 18: 35
    The names of the submarines smiled, -right, the whole ichthyofauna gathered. For their time, they were quite good fish. smile I thought that they would quickly become obsolete and scrapped, but no, they served well and the fate is interesting. Thanks to the author, you need to know the predecessors of "Boreyev" and "Ash".
  3. freedom
    9 November 2012 23: 33
    Good luck to all divers.
  4. +2
    16 December 2013 13: 25
    Thanks to the author, it's interesting. To this - "+"!
  5. 0
    28 July 2015 06: 15
    The mini-submarine found by divers off the coast of Sweden is the Russian submarine Som, which disappeared during the First World War. This was told to "" by military experts.

    The fact that the submarine found - "Catfish", in particular, indicates part of its name. One of the pictures shows a solid sign used in the Church Slavonic language that was in use in Russia before the revolution.

    In addition, the submarine resembles a “Catfish” with its appearance with a characteristic dome. In addition, as experts noted, the place of its discovery is not far from the alleged location of the death of the Russian submarine.

    Earlier it became known that the Swedish divers found on the bottom of the Baltic Sea in the territorial waters of the kingdom a foreign mini-submarine, presumably belonging to Russia. A submarine about 20 meters long and three meters wide was allegedly discovered using a remotely controlled submarine. On her case were found inscriptions in Cyrillic.

    The Som submarine, which became the leading submarine in a series of similar submarines of the Russian fleet, was built in the USA according to the project of John Philip Golland in 1901. The length of the hull of the submarine was 19,3 meters, width - 3,5 meters.

    In July 1915, the Som was transferred from the Black Sea Fleet to the Baltic. May 10, 1916, while patrolling in the area of ​​Olandsgaf, she died in a collision with the Swedish steamship Ingermanland. None of the crew of the submarine - two officers and 16 lower ranks - survived. Http: //