Military Review

Nicaraguan channel: does the project have a future?

Western media pretend that the project of the Nicaraguan channel does not exist. None of the major newspapers in the United States, Britain, Germany can find materials on this topic. No, not that there are none at all: small notes come across - say, that some investors showed interest in the Nicaraguan channel, but they will still think, think long and hard ... And then there should be a hint that there is nothing: there is the Panama Canal.

Nicaraguan channel: does the project have a future?

There are no headers with exclamation marks: “The project of the century!” Or “Join hands, friends!”

That's it - friends. And the project has some friends.

Western states are not listed not only as friends of Nicaragua, but also as partners. Very much independent Comrade Ortega, standing in this country at the helm. Greetings to Chavez by the hand. And with Castro. In general, a socialist. This comrade constantly ignores the instructions of Washington, as if he, that is, Washington, does not exist at all. Well, and Washington, in strict accordance with the Old Testament, meets Ortega according to the ancient commandment - according to the one in which it says about the eye, a tooth and a fracture.

So they ignore each other while Comrade Ortega is looking for capital. Searches, as noticed in passing in Huffington PostBecause Nicaragua does not have enough money for such a project, so the country will have to seek the attention of international investors.

October 30 President Nicaragua confirmed that Russian companies will take an active part in the construction of the inter-oceanic canal connecting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. He said that with the return to power of the Sandinista National Liberation Front of Nicaragua, long-standing relations with Russia resumed in 2007, and this cooperation in all areas greatly appreciates the Nicaraguan people.

The law on the construction of a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through Nicaragua was signed by Ortega back in July. Earlier, a grand project was approved by the parliament of the country. It is assumed that the channel will be wider and deeper than the Panamanian counterpart. (By the way, the Panama Canal with its congestion, traffic jams — vessels wait for a week to go through the canal — it is undergoing reconstruction, which should increase its carrying capacity).

The cost of construction of the Nicaraguan channel, according to calculations, will be more than 30 billion dollars. It is assumed that the Nicaraguan government will have an 51% stake in the joint venture for the construction of the canal, and 49% will belong to countries or companies that will win the tender.

But only few people are eager to win it.

Information about the project is spread by very few media today. If you do not talk about Nicaraguan, it is a few media of some Latin American countries. In Cuba, Prensa Latina enthusiastically writes about the channel. In Russia, the project is covered in a variety of media - from paper to electronic, including in English. Languages ​​are written about him by the Foundation for Strategic Culture, Russian Today, The Voice of Russia.

Another month after the law was signed by the president, project director Eden Pastor said that the Nicaraguan government held talks with potential foreign partners, including Japan, China, Russia, Venezuela, Brazil and South Korea.

West and does not smell.

30 billion is not much. Terrain favors the construction of the channel: there are no high elevations in the territory, and there is an opportunity to use Lake Nicaragua.

“It is also important,” writes Alexey Pilko, “that the implementation of such a grand project will finally bring to the agenda of the international community, which has recently been tormented by a search for a way out of all kinds of conflicts and crises, a truly creative project that will have a beneficial effect on the development of world economy. It is clear that Nicaragua itself will not be able to “pull” the construction of the canal either financially or in engineering terms. Therefore, the money, if the implementation of the project starts in practice, will be given by international investors. ”

The new transoceanic artery will become international and neutral in the full sense of the word. This cannot be said of the Panama Canal: until 1999, it remained under the control of the “world hegemon”.

Neil Nikandrov ("Fund of Strategic Culture") notes that from the point of view of the State Department, the Pentagon and the American special services, the need for an alternative channel between the oceans is overdue: the Panama Canal is functioning at the limit of possibilities. But the trouble is: the Nicaraguan president is perceived in Washington as a politician from a hostile camp, cooperation with which is impossible.

Ortega, the analyst writes, pursues an independent policy, ignoring the shouts of Washington about the "inadmissibility" of certain actions. The implementation of the channel construction project would strengthen the position of the Sandinistas in the country and expand the influence of the ALBA block (Alliance of Peoples of Latin America). The President of Nicaragua is not tired of repeating that the construction of the canal should be a common cause for the countries of Central America.

"Join hands, friends?"

No, we will not take. The channel is a threat to US interests. Ortega has too much independence. There are too many Latin American and even international - even more dangerous - friendships. And at the same time a lot of benefits. No no and one more time no.

“… In May 2012… Phyllis Powers arrived in Managua… Her diplomatic career was dynamic: she served in Russia, Poland, Peru, Colombia, Panama. <…> It was the Panamanian experience that determined her direction to the post of ambassador to Nicaragua. The construction of the interoceanic canal is a priority topic for the US Embassy in Managua. The tasks were set specific: collecting information, working out recommendations to prevent the implementation of the project, as well as preparing theses of a propaganda campaign regarding its "unpromising".

These theses are already widely circulating in the mass media. They say, the government of Ortega, from “tactical considerations”, underestimates the amount of investment required for the project: costs will amount to 50-60 billion dollars. After the completion of construction, it will take several decades to recoup the costs, if they can be recouped at all. Nicaragua claims to have a 51% stake in the future consortium, leaving investors with the entire 49. Potential construction participants (Brazil, China, Japan, Venezuela, South Korea and others) should seriously weigh the project's profitability. There are no guarantees that the Nicaraguan channel will be loaded with work, since the Panama after modernization will retain most of its traditional customers. It is best for Russia to refrain from the Nicaraguan project, because for her it is more important to activate the Northern Sea Route and modernize the Trans-Siberian Railway. ”

The project of the Nicaraguan Canal is truly grandiose. With its construction supposed to be extracted 2,7 bcm m of soil. Its length will be 286 km (for comparison: the length of the Suez Canal is 171 km, and of Panama 82 km), the depth is 22 m (Suezky 13 m), the maximum width of the fairway is 12,5 m (in Suez 114 m m, in Panama - 60 m).

Thanks to the described parameters, large-tonnage sea vessels with a payload capacity of up to 270 thousand tons could use the Nicaraguan water corridor (a Panamanian competitor can skip transports with a deadweight of no more than 70 thousand tons, and after upgrading, which should be completed by 2015, no more than 130 thousand t).

Today in the world there are only 900 vessels with deadweight of more than 130 thousand tons. Members of the Nicaraguan commission believe that by the 2019 year - the channel “launch time” - there will be three times more of them.

The project of the channel in several variants is made up now two Dutch companies. Design cost - 720 thousand dollars. At the beginning of 2013, it will be ready.

There is viewthat for the sake of building a canal and at the same time reducing unemployment in Nicaragua, the government of Daniel Ortega can make a deal with its worst enemies - the Americans. American investors are supposedly ready to invest almost half of the necessary funds, while the other half will come from Japan, Brazil, South Korea, perhaps Russia and (almost indisputably) China.

In order to get at least some answer to the "American" question, let's listen to the original source.

The construction manager of the Greater Inter-Ocean Canal of Nicaragua, the co-chairman of the Russian-Nicaraguan Intergovernmental Commission on Trade, Economic and Scientific-Technical Cooperation, Manuel Coronel Cowts, gave an interview in November "International Life"in which he told who would supposedly take part in the grand construction of the century:

“We held talks with Russia, Brazil, Venezuela, China and Japan. There is a preliminary agreement with a number of other states. But they will have to show political will, provide economic support to the project, acquire shares and become owners of a part of the established consortium. We assume that each share will cost one thousand dollars. Any private person can also become a shareholder ... ”

Manuel Coronel Cowts indicated that the construction would give work to approximately one million Nicaraguans. He also noticed:

“... And with the United States, we have no problems. There are American companies that are willing to participate in the project. Part of the shares we will place on the US stock exchange, approximately 2 million 200 thousand shares - on the New York Stock Exchange. In addition, we intend to hire a management company, either American or Russian, through a competition. Technicians and scientists can enter it. She will manage the entire construction process. To date, our project in its scope has no equal in the world. This is truly the project of the century. And we are determined to implement it. "

Thus, a political game is one thing, and an economic project is another. If the American government considers it necessary to put sticks in the wheels of Ortega, then private American capital may have its own opinion. Ortega, like his friend Hugo Chavez, has not yet been included in the list of international terrorists.

However, perhaps, ardent comrades Ortega and Cautes overestimate the attention of private American contractors. Shares can be placed, but the main thing is to sell them.

"... It can be assumed - пишет Columnist Alexander Moiseev - that in ten years, when the Great Inter-Ocean Canal of Nicaragua enters into service, and the first heavy cargo vessels pass through it from the Atlantic to the Pacific and vice versa, the new waterway will be named Augusto Cesar Sandino, who once dreamed of freedom and independence of their homeland, dreamed of the channel, fought and gave his life for it. He dreamed of building an inter-oceanic canal. Therefore, it would be quite logical to appear on the world map of the Sandino Channel. But the decision on this subject to take only the Nicaraguans themselves. "

It is difficult, of course, to imagine that the channel, named after the “father of the anti-imperialist people's democratic revolution,” will be built by American contractors ...

Observed and translated by Oleg Chuvakin
- especially for

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. bask
    bask 10 November 2012 08: 11
    The opening of the Nicaraguan Canal will put an end to the US monopoly on the Panama Canal Canal .. (((Which amers, under any pretext, will not be given to Ponama)))))
    1. Captain Vrungel
      Captain Vrungel 10 November 2012 09: 12
      On December 31, 1999, the United States transferred the Panama Canal to the Government of Panama. Currently, the administration of the canal and maintenance personnel, including pilots and tug crews, are citizens of Panama. (Our specialists also work as part of the crews, but with a Panama passport (a prerequisite of the contract).
      Iran also wants to build a channel of the Caspian Sea-Persian Gulf with a large number of locks.
      Maybe we can build the channel of the Sea of ​​Azov-Sea of ​​Japan. We will solve so many problems right away. We will save Iran from the construction of locks. Fill the Aral Sea. We bring the Caspian to the level of the world's oceans. . We will make Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan island states. Let's turn a couple of Siberian rivers (there was such a project) to feed the canal. How much work. How many workers. And the neighbors will not remain unemployed. From morning till night they will wave shovels, build dams, well, just like in Holland. What ship traffic will go. Only collect channel fees.
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 10 November 2012 09: 17
        Excellent written - read with pleasure!
      2. bask
        bask 10 November 2012 11: 22
        Captain Vrungel on ,,, paper ,, the United States handed it over to Panama. But the Amer’s military bases are scattered along the entire channel ... De facto, not on paper, it belongs to the Amers. And at any time they need to block it. And no one, no government of Panama will not ask !!! The construction of the Nicaraguan Canal, this is a big, count, in the ass amers ..
        1. Kaa
          Kaa 10 November 2012 15: 37
          Quote: bask
          . De facto, and not on paper, it belongs to the amers. And at any moment they need to block it.

          In my opinion, it’s a good idea to invest petrodollars in a canal, military infrastructure ... to fight pirates, land. sea ​​and air (who knows what they will be in 20 years). And as for the Panama existing nearby, it’s like the competition of Ukraine and Romania for shipping fairways along the Danube, who is better with bandwidth and cheaper. You can dump at first. For a long time, great people have been thinking about the shortest route from the Pacific to the Atlantic ...
          1. Kyrgyz
            Kyrgyz 10 November 2012 16: 52
            Quote: Kaa
            invest petrodollars in the canal, military infrastructure

            In whose infrastructure? Nicaragua is an unstable country of seduction; they go to the Russians tomorrow to the Americans, while there is no constant contingent to protect investments, there’s nothing to think of such adventures, it’s better to carry out their industrial R&D with this money, but you can collect a normal fleet of $ 30 billion
            1. Kaa
              Kaa 10 November 2012 23: 50
              Quote: Kyrgyz
              Nicaragua is an unstable country

              Cuba in 1959, too ... was unstable ...
              Quote: Kyrgyz
              while there is no permanent contingent to protect investments

              ... and here it is necessary to try, in this, as Stanislavsky used to say, this is the project's super task ... and so that future aircraft carriers and submarines pass freely, and the sense of the fleet near their shores, the adversary should be met at distant approaches in the warm seas ... soldier
 11 November 2012 21: 50
          The Americans, of course, have their hand on the pulse of the Panama Canal. But...:

          At one time, the Panamanian government announced an international tender for the management of two ports through which container traffic is carried out through the canal. The tender was won by the Chinese firm Hutchison Whampoa. It is owned by Mr. Li Jiacheng, who is considered the richest man in Asia. A 1998 US military intelligence report stated that "Li has direct ties to Beijing and is willing to use his influence in business to support the political goals of the Chinese leadership."

          So the channel is now de facto controlled by the Chinese under the control of the government of Panama. And the reconstruction of the Panama Canal is carried out at the initiative of China. China needs the Panama Canal to import Venezuelan oil, Brazilian ore and other raw materials from South and Central America. And export your goods in the opposite direction.

          So the influence of the Americans is already significantly undermined. It is unlikely that they will come to a direct conflict with China in the near future.

          China is also considering projects for a "land canal" - a railway in Colombia. And he is probably interested in the Nicaraguan Canal. The Chinese, apparently, want to lower prices by increasing competition, and to receive profits by participating in all projects.

          Nicaraguan Canal itself is interesting in that if you use Lake. Nicaragua and p. San Juan, which is navigable for ocean freight ships with almost no additional work, you need to build a canal with a length of just over 20 km. You can immediately, so as not to be trifled, build 4 threads. Yes, the trouble is, the San Juan River is a border river with Costa Rica, with which the Sandinists have not had a good relationship. But Costa Rica has good relations with the United States. So on this version of the channel, Americans can easily put an end to. So there are other options using other Nicaraguan rivers. These options, of course, are not very encouraging for investors. But the need for an alternative channel is growing.

          As for our participation, I think it should be like this: if the channel is really going to build, we will participate. In proportion. It’s better to have some of the dividends from him than nothing. In the meantime, only conversations are going on - we are participating in an important form in the discussions, will not lose us.
      3. petro
        petro 10 November 2012 15: 52
        The Sea of ​​Azov, this is the inland sea of ​​Russia and Ukraine, according to the Russian version, so that the fairway becomes common. So for the construction of the channel you described, you will need the consent of Ukraine. And we have unemployed people, the same is enough. So the channel will have to start somewhere Melitopol begin and through the whole of Azov and further along your route.
    2. datur
      datur 11 November 2012 12: 47
      it is logical ---- America hell there who will miss !!!!!! belay yes
      1. Dinver
        Dinver 12 November 2012 00: 50
        I advise everyone to watch the interview with Daniel Ortega that he gave RT recently.

        1. studentmati
          studentmati 12 November 2012 00: 59
          Good interview. I'd like to believe that Ortega, Chavez, Castro, and their associates will be able to survive! In fact, it seems to me that these countries are assigned the last role in the Third World War! When Russia, China and Europe collapse, then .....
  2. predator.2
    predator.2 10 November 2012 08: 36
    an interesting project, and the price is not sky-high (we invested more in Sochi -2014) and the equipment is now more powerful than during the construction of the Suez and Panama Canal.
    1. bask
      bask 10 November 2012 08: 48
      Russia would invest in this project in cooperation, Venezuela, Boltvia, Brazil, Argentina. The money spent now. Worked on Russia for centuries .. As now on the Amer on the Panama Canal .. Here's a promising investment of government funds. !!! Fortunately, pro-Russian politicians have power in Nykaragua ... Profits are billions, without pumping out their energy resources. And military control in such a strategic region .. Amerikans would have behaved in such a rude way .. GIVE A NICARAGUAN CHANNEL ---. the future prosperity of Russia. And also to create a naval base in Nicaragua, then a fairy tale ...
      1. petro
        petro 10 November 2012 15: 56
        And it doesn’t come to your mind that as soon as the canal is built, the government of Nicaragua will become sharply pro-American.
        1. core
          core 10 November 2012 19: 00
          and special. services will not have to sit idle. it was not the Sandinists who came to power, we give them the Orange Revolution as a gift, and again the Sandinists are in power. less cumbersome is necessary if something like that and an ice ax isn’t shameful in the head or a box of chocolates stuffed with explosives. everything can be solved.
        2. aksakal
          aksakal 11 November 2012 22: 01
          Quote: petro
          And it doesn’t come to your mind that as soon as the canal is built, the government of Nicaragua will become sharply pro-American.
          - Petro, you will laugh, but Nicaragua is a democratic country, this is what infuriates the Amers most of all - you won’t get to the bottom of Hugo, where Ortega won the elections very honestly for several years in a row. Let me remind you of the story - the Sandinists took power in Nicaragua somewhere in the 80s of the last century. But then there was a serious run over by the States, such as conduct elections. In the elections, the Sandinista lost and went into opposition, and the woman who won the election, God forbid, Pereira, I’ve scoffed for 8 years, so that since then only Sandinists have won. So Nicaragua can become pro-pro-American only as a result of elections. And then, the Agreement can be drawn up so competently that the owners of the channel and their profit should not depend on a change in political power
      2. Kyrgyz
        Kyrgyz 10 November 2012 16: 56
        Quote: bask
        Russia would invest in this project in cooperation, Venezuela, Boltvia, Brazil, Argentina. The money spent now. Worked on Russia FOR AGE .. As now on the amers on the Panama Canal

        If it were at a flying distance of attack aircraft of frigates or a march of ground troops throwing, they could have worked for centuries in Russia, and so they will work for those who are closer
    2. Kyrgyz
      Kyrgyz 10 November 2012 16: 53
      Quote: predator.2
      we invested more in Sochi-2014

      But Sochi is with us, and Nicaragua is in the middle of nowhere
  3. Lavrik
    Lavrik 10 November 2012 08: 40
    Of course, the new channel is a good click on the nose of the United States. But do we need to get involved in this business? In my opinion, Russia has a lot of problems at home. And it is better to put money into circulation inside the country.
    1. Professor
      Professor 11 November 2012 09: 32
      Of course, the new channel is a good click on the nose of the United States.

      Quite the opposite. If there is a new channel (which I doubt very much), this will sharply reduce prices for the transit of goods from the east to the west coast of the United States and vice versa, thereby strengthening the American economy.
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 11 November 2012 13: 04
        From my point of view, the new channel is utopia, but if it is built, freight turnover through Russia will probably drop - from Asia to Europe it will be cheaper through the new channel and it will be much easier to carry goods than with all rail congestion ......
        1. bask
          bask 11 November 2012 13: 16
          Brother Sarych. If the Nicaraguan Canal is controlled by Russia. The United States will lose its monopoly on inter-ocean transport. And this is in Russia's favor anyway. And if you place military bases along the canal (((for protection))). This fundamentally changes the geopolitical distribution in the South .America in favor of Russia. CHANNEL is not only an economically profitable transport artery. But even more important, for Russia, is to violate the US hegemony in Central America !!! Political devidents outweigh here, purely economic ...
          1. Brother Sarych
            Brother Sarych 11 November 2012 13: 36
            The new channel will be uniquely controlled by the USA! Russia is not able to influence the situation in Nicaragua, it does not control anything more closely!
            1. bask
              bask 11 November 2012 13: 46
              With you in practical terms, for today’s day., I agree .. (((((at the top, political impatience ,,, d .... and total corruption ,,, plunder everything without starting construction ..... . ((((((And I want Russia to become GREAT again .. !!!!!
              1. I think so
                I think so 11 November 2012 15: 53
                So that Russia was great, it is not necessary to choose small leaders ... Both literally and figuratively ...
          2. Allegedly
            Allegedly 12 November 2012 02: 10
            As soon as the Russian Federation starts, say, digging this new channel, Angloamerica will set fire to all the zones of instability in Russia. The Caucasus, Tatarstan, Bashkiria, even Yakutia will be reared. They will set up against all of its neighbors against the Russian Federation; in theory, they are almost all of its six. They will finance the exit of the Far East, riots in the Kaliningrad region, I can still list and list, but why?

            If you look impartially, there is no USA and WB, there is one octopus mutant, and this is Angloamerica. She understands thinks only in three categories -

            1. Collateral damage
            2. Hmm ... acceptable damage
            3. Unacceptable damage

            From this it follows that we must first invent a new relationship algorithm that guarantees something when amers with thieving shaving will piss from fear at the thought of shitting ...
            1. bask
              bask 12 November 2012 21: 50
              Yes, Otto is all in the top ten !!!
  4. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 10 November 2012 09: 00
    I think that nothing will be built - the existing channel in Panama is coping, and no increase in load is expected!
    And is it worth it to simplify the transfer of US carrier groups?
  5. Slevinst
    Slevinst 10 November 2012 09: 07
    how few grand projects right now, let's see what happens
  6. Oleleg
    Oleleg 10 November 2012 10: 48
    Let's dump 30 billion in Nicaragua !!! In Russia, excellent medicine, the best education in the world, wonderful infrastructure and ..... the best in the world ROADS !!!! Let's dump 30 billion in Nicaragua, Russia is so rich and it has absolutely no problems ...
    1. heretic
      heretic 10 November 2012 11: 43
      The entire channel costs 30 billion, I think our contribution will be (if any) no more than 5-6 billion. Taking into account the latest gifts from North Korea and Africa (forgiven debts), not much. And along the ABM channel in the form of "Topol-M" from. ..well let's say the nuclear weapons of the Mexican drug cartels.
  7. Volkhov
    Volkhov 10 November 2012 12: 58
    Serious investors have serious awareness - they invest in Afghanistan and Ecuador, Switzerland.
    And then why dig if the isthmus breaks apart in the spring of 13, then there will be a strait ... there are maps "Earth after the Flood".
  8. Kostyanich
    Kostyanich 10 November 2012 13: 55
    sell yachts and cars at abromovich
    take away all property from Luzhkov and his wife
    and a couple of channels is enough
    and missile defense from North Korean and Iranian missiles is better to put in Cuba
    APASUS 10 November 2012 14: 30
    Western states are not only listed as friends of Nicaragua, but also as partners. Comrade Ortega, who is at the helm in this country, is very independent. Chavez greets the hand. And with Castro. And generally a socialist. Washington’s instructions are constantly ignored by this comrade.

    And his fate will not befall MANUEL NOREGA who was first a friend, and then the United States invaded Panama for his arrest !!
    First, Ortega will build the Nicaraguan Canal, and then the United States does not have an excuse to eliminate it.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 11 November 2012 13: 05
      A natural development event - and thank you Russia for taking the trouble to invest even more in the US economy!
    2. I think so
      I think so 11 November 2012 16: 05
      If you put everything in the United States wisely and do not pick it up. But the presence of the Russian armed forces in this region will be mandatory. And there is nothing wrong with that. On the contrary, the proceeds from the canal will be used to maintain an efficient army. It pays for itself. And 30 billion for Russia is such a penny that it’s a shame for this money to remember, given that now Russia is sponsoring the US for 500 billion (!) Holding its (?) Reserves in their bonds ... Well, there are no brains of Russian rulers, so what can you do ...
  10. MstislavHrabr
    MstislavHrabr 10 November 2012 19: 10
    First, the Russian military base in Nicoragua, and then, investments ...
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 11 November 2012 13: 06
      Well, why? In Cuba, the bases were not needed, but Nicaragua - can’t we eat straight?
  11. wax
    wax 10 November 2012 22: 21
    What will be the power in Nicaragua in the future, the issue is important, but not economic. It is important to saddle a horse while they give it to do. In addition, of course, the economic presence should be supported by a serious military presence for the reliable protection of Russian property. Missile defense required. The project is of great importance. Personally, I’m ready to save up for one share of the channel: my grandchildren will say thanks. Interestingly, Putin will go to the underbelly of the United States, or will we rake for centuries in his underbelly only? China, I think. will go. Interesting. Such geopolitical opportunities do not often happen.
  12. Professor
    Professor 11 November 2012 09: 28
    30 of billions is not so much.

    As usual, they will begin to build and it turns out that it is really necessary 10 times more.

    The Panama Canal operates at the limit of possibilities.

    The author forgot to mention that Panama itself is already building a channel parallel to the existing one, which will be wider than the current one and will have greater bandwidth.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 11 November 2012 13: 31
      If a parallel one is being built, then you can immediately forget about Nicaragua ...
  13. arthur_hammer
    arthur_hammer 11 November 2012 17: 34
    An alternative to the Panama Canal is needed)))
  14. homosum20
    homosum20 11 November 2012 18: 22
    Yes, we steal more at a time. For such a penny insert a chip amer-God ordered. I'm not even talking about economic attractiveness. This is so damaging to the logistics of world relations (including military ones) that Amer does not know how many grandmas will have to spend to bring everything back to the old denominator.
  15. studentmati
    studentmati 11 November 2012 23: 40
    Daniel Ortega remembers Grenada 1983-1984 perfectly! Doesn’t look like a suicide? Hence, just politics, earning points.
  16. 11 January 2015 23: 01
    Quote: Kaa
    t cross on the US monopoly on the Panama Canal Channel .. (((Which the Americans, under any pretext, will not when will not be given to Ponama)))))

    in 2015, the topic became even more relevant, the picture is nishtyak!