Military Review

Reds vs. whites - the educated prevailed

36
Reds vs. whites - the educated prevailed



Fedor Fedorovich Raskolnikov


One of the most famous members of the RVSR, the revolutionary sailor Fyodor Raskolnikov, whose real name is Ilyin, on his mother's side, was a descendant of the hero of the Battle of Chesme Dmitry Ilyin. It was his fireship that set fire to the first of the Turkish battleships and laid the foundation for the defeat of the Turks.


The future red commissar, and then one of Stalin's most famous opponents, was brought up in the orphanage of Prince Oldenburg. He studied, although without much success, as an archaeologist at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.

At the beginning of World War I, against which, as a Bolshevik, he actively opposed, he enrolled in separate cadet classes, which in fact saved him from the real experience of naval battles. In February 1917 he became deputy chairman of the Kronstadt Soviet, and in July he was arrested.

In the days of October, F. Raskolnikov participated in repelling the offensive of Krasnov and Kerensky on Petrograd and in the battles in Moscow. His authority in Tsentrobalt and Trotsky's sympathies predetermined the appointment of the sailor as Deputy People's Commissar for the Navy, and then as a member of the RVSR.


The brother of the sailor-revolutionary Alexander Ilyin-Zhenevsky, who took a pseudonym in the place of emigration, is best known as the organizer of chess life in the USSR. The legendary "chess fever", international tournaments and an invitation to Moscow for ex-world champions E. Lasker and X-R. Capablanca is his merit.

It remains to be recalled that this was not the sailor Zheleznyak or Dybenko at all, but F. Raskolnikov officially announced the withdrawal of the Bolsheviks from the Constituent Assembly, and then its dispersal. However, "the guard is tired, he didn't say.

Arkady Pavlovich Rozengolts


The son of a poor Vitebsk Jewish merchant Arkady Rozengolts enrolled in the Bolsheviks in 1905, when he was only 16 years old. Behind Rozengolts, who, unlike his fellow tribesmen, never used pseudonyms or party nicknames, at first there was participation in the leadership of the Moscow December uprising.


And only then did he study at the Kiev Commercial Institute, which, judging by open sources, he never finished. In Moscow, he once again participated in the battles - already in 1917, his main task was the formation of Red Guard detachments.

Rosengolts was not only listed, but also worked in several bodies of Soviet power at once, including, although for a very short time, in the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. Just in those days, the chairman of the RVSR Trotsky wrote the following to his address:

“A telegram from the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs has been received in the name of the Presidium of the Central I.K. comrade Trotsky, in which the latter informs that a member of the military council of the Kazan sector, comrade Rozengolts, sent to the line of fire, spent several hours there. Under this fire, he took out the wounded and, with a revolver in his hands, returned the cowards. The bullet pierced Rozengolts's hat, grenade fragments fell near him.

Alexey Ivanovich Rykov


Future Stalin Prime Minister Alexey Rykov, albeit, as is commonly believed, and temporary, was introduced to the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic at the personal insistence of Lenin. This fact is not documented, but only by the memoirs of contemporaries, but I see no reason to dispute it.


A. Rykov was listed in the RVSR for a very short time - less than two months, although he was introduced there after a kind of purge, when eight of its members were either reduced or fired at once. The notorious collegiality of the RVSR demanded a majority on key issues, but when so many members were at the front, this caused unexpected conflicts.

However, this is not about that here - Rykov, the first People's Commissar of Internal Affairs in the Council of People's Commissars, headed by Lenin, studied at the same Kazan University, and also as a lawyer. His purely revolutionary combat experience began during the May Day demonstration in 1902, when he was severely beaten by the gendarmes.

He spent the years of the First World War in exile. Returning in February, he was immediately elected to the Moscow Soviet, worked in the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, participated in all congresses of Soviets. The appointment of Rykov as People's Commissar was almost as unexpected as later - and in the RVSR. But there he was listed, I repeat, not for long, leaving a memory of himself only in a large number of regulatory documents.

Leonid Petrovich Serebryakov


The presence of Leonid Serebryakov in the RVSR is confirmed only in the mentioned book edited by D.P. Nenarokov, but not in online sources or published documents. Nevertheless, in 1919 he headed the political department of the RVSR for almost six months.


The participation of Serebryakov in the meetings of the RVSR - this main body of military control, can be judged from the verbatim reports. I’ll note right away that the participation is not the most significant, but for the sake of justice and for the sake of statistics I will inform you that L. Serebryakov did not have any diploma, which at that time did not really bother anyone.

L. Serebryakov graduated only from the primary city school, but the Bolsheviks were quite satisfied with his high level of self-education, and the fact that he, drafted into the army quite late - in 1917, managed to make a whole regiment - the Kostroma Reserve - revolutionary. We will consider this as the presence of combat experience.

Ivar Tenisovich Smilga


Ivar Smilga was the son of a Latvian forester, who was shot by the tsarist punishers in front of his relatives. By the revolution of 1917, Smilga was not yet 25 years old, but he was already considered an experienced revolutionary. In the RSDLP from the age of 14, he studied at a real school and at the law faculty of Moscow State University, although he was formally enrolled at Shanyavsky University (only a little over a year).


After the exile, I. Smilga conducted revolutionary work in Finland, from where in October 1917 he transferred reliable revolutionary units to help Petrograd. He was a representative of the republic in Finland, but after the defeat of the Bolsheviks there, he became a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of several fronts at once. I. Smilga was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic throughout the Civil War, and was responsible there mainly for working with commissars of all levels.

Ivan Nikitich Smirnov


A native of a family of poor Ryazan peasants, he graduated from the City School in Moscow, Ivan Smirnov joined the Social Democrats back in 1899, and from 1903 did not leave the Bolshevik faction. He did not count seven arrests, six years in prison and four years of exile, as well as underground work, strike battles, and the organization of Red Guard detachments.


I. Smirnov received rare compliments from the People's Commissar of the Navy and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council Trotsky for participating in the battles for Kazan in August 1918. He became a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, one of his workhorses. Despite the obligation to travel around the fronts, he showed perhaps the most stable participation in the meetings of the RVSR and its current work.

Most likely, it was I. Smirnov, along with Trotsky's deputy Ephraim Sklyansky, who became the very cog that ensured the smooth functioning and effectiveness of the RVSR. It was Ivan Nikitich Smirnov who was called the “Siberian Lenin” when he headed Sibrevkom for two years.

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin


Joseph Dzhugashvili, even then invariably Stalin, in the role of an ordinary member of the RVSR during the Civil War, showed himself exactly as representatives of the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command acted during the Great Patriotic War. Much more is known about his education than about combat experience.


Joseph Dzhugashvili graduated from the Orthodox Theological School in his native Gori and completed almost the full course of the Tiflis Theological Seminary, leaving it shortly before the final exams. But Stalin's combat experience is, of course, a topic for a separate study.

Here I will confine myself to stating that the organization of revolutionary “exes”, of which Joseph Dzhugashvili did not have as many as it is believed, is not much inferior in complexity to large military operations. No one, including Chairman Trotsky, had any doubts about Stalin's appointment to the RVSR.

Lenin more than once called I. Stalin his own broom and even a mop in the RVSR, which, of course, could not help but irritate Trotsky. It is noteworthy that Stalin had working relations with almost all members of the RVSR, and he considered the purge of the Revolutionary Military Council in July 1919 a serious mistake.

In the RVSR, as a collegiate body, a lot of things were decided by voting, and a majority of all members was often required. And if the large Council was characterized by difficulties with efficiency, then the small composition almost turned into the fiefdom of Trotsky, where there was no place for scrupulous analysis, broad discussion and debate.

I. Stalin turned out to be the only member of the RVSR who was returned to its composition already in May 1920. Only a year later, S. Gusev was reinstated in the RVSR, who, however, did not fall under the July purge. A. Antonov-Ovseenko and A. Rozengolts also returned to the council, but much later.

Ilya Konstantinovich Yurenev


Ilya Yurenev - such a pseudonym was adopted by Konstantin Konstantinovich Krotovsky, the son of a railway watchman from Dvinsk, who graduated from a real school there. He went to his first link at the age of 20. Returning from there, he wrote a lot in Pravda and the Enlightenment magazine.


Instead of the Bolsheviks, I. Yurenev joined the “mezhrayontsy”, whom Trotsky himself would actually bring into the RSDLP (b) in the revolutionary 1917. Yurenev evaded the call to the world war, but for some reason he was acquitted in court - for lack of evidence. His revolutionary career was, one might say, ordinary - the Petrograd Soviet, congresses, membership in the Military Revolutionary Committee, but the main thing is that before that Yurenev was the chairman of the bureau of the General Staff of the Red Guard in Petrograd.

It was from these people, who were also well known to the People's Commissar of the Navy and Chairman Trotsky, that the Revolutionary Military Councils of the armies of the fronts and the entire Republic of Soviets were formed. I. Yurenev is another workhorse in its composition, with parallel membership in the RVS of the Eastern and Southwestern fronts.

RVSR - such is the statistics


Let us sum up the brief statistical results of our study, which will surely seem somewhat superficial to many. So, among the 23 members of the RVSR during the Civil War, only three had a higher military education, although V. Antonov Ovseenko, who graduated from the St. Petersburg Infantry School, can be added to them, albeit with a stretch.

Higher education, although not always confirmed by a diploma (the case of Stalin), was in 12 people from the RVSR. It is interesting to note that law graduates have been quite successful in collaborating on the board with those who graduated from commercial and technological universities.

Finally, six more members of the RVSR had an education at the secondary or secondary technical level, and only one had an elementary education. There were definitely no completely uneducated in its composition.

The educational level of the members of the RVSR was significantly higher than the real combat experience, which one way or another, sometimes with a stretch, could only boast of seven. However, practically everyone had a revolutionary experience of strikes, battles on the barricades, etc. among the rest.

Based on the results of the Civil War, we have to admit that the red RVSR, which consisted mainly of professional revolutionaries, although in the majority - amateurs in military affairs, as a governing body showed itself, if not better, then certainly more effective than the headquarters and numerous rates of the whites .

Apparently, in those unique conditions, the ability to think and act not according to a pattern, but systematically and creatively, turned out to be much more important than a rapidly outdated set of purely specialized knowledge and skills. No less, more precisely, even more importantly, the RVSR relied on highly professional middle management.


This refers not only to the field headquarters of the RVSR, but also to the headquarters of the fronts and armies, almost completely staffed by regular officers. It is impossible not to quote here one of the comments to the second of the articles on the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of Soviets:

“In the Red Army, in 100% of units and formations, the chiefs of staff were officers of the tsarist army. And among the whites, they just didn’t put anyone in these positions, and merchants-sponsors, and nobles without a military education, etc.

... In military terms, the Red Army was more professional than its opponents, the result is appropriate.”

The commentator refers to the notorious Bushkov, who is still an authority, however, the data of A. G. Kavtaradze mentioned by the author do not differ much from such an assessment.
Author:
Photos used:
wikipedia.org, historyrussia.org, voenspez.ru, pesotskiy.livejournal.com, fishki.net, cyclowiki.org, myslide.ru, specsluzhby-all.ru, libmir.com,
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  1. bya965
    bya965 8 January 2023 04: 20
    +8
    Thank you for the unbiased presentation of information.

    An article by a deceased friend, only about the fleet

    TSAR ADMIRALS - FOR SOVIET POWER
    https://cont.ws/@bya965/736983

    According to Prosyannikov's research, at the beginning of 1917 there were about 8 officers in the Imperial Russian Navy. During the years of the Revolution and the Civil War, more than six and a half thousand of them went over to the Reds and began to serve the Soviet government. The Naval General Staff, almost in its entirety, went over to the side of the Soviet government and led the Red Fleet throughout the Civil War.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 8 January 2023 04: 53
      +9
      ... In military terms, the Red Army was more professional than its opponents, the result

      And from the taiga to the British seas,
      The Red Army is all stronger!
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 8 January 2023 05: 06
        +2
        The machine gun hit.
        The White Guard
        Head smashed
        And the Red Army
        Nobody will break

        In fact, the Red Army was on the verge of defeat from the Whites several times, and only discord in the camp of the Whites and the genius of Lenin, who managed to organize the defeat of Denikin, Kolchak, Krasnov, Yudenich and many other White Guard generals, saved the young Soviet Republic from defeat.
        At the head of the Red Army army were commanders who quickly figured out what needed to be done to defeat the White Guards without any bureaucratic obstacles to make the necessary decisions.
        1. Civil
          Civil 8 January 2023 14: 46
          +7
          And most importantly, the Red Army had motivation from commanders to Red Army soldiers. They knew what they were fighting for. And against whom.
          1. Eule
            Eule 18 January 2023 21: 55
            0
            Quote: Civil
            Red Army soldiers. ... knew what ... they were fighting for

            That's it!
            The propaganda, slogans and plans of the Reds were simple and understandable, and most importantly - FOR what to fight.
            White, like some people in our time, fought AGAINST - that is, White could not offer any idea what to do later, after the victory. "Bread for the British, hunger for the peasants" - somehow does not sound like a slogan, does it?
        2. place
          place 9 January 2023 12: 05
          -1
          Quote: Lech from Android.

          In fact, the Red Army was on the verge of defeat from the Whites several times, and only discord in the camp of the Whites and the genius of Lenin, who managed to organize.

          In fact, the Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army was Trotsky. He organized. And he defended the independence of the RSFSR. And Lenin was the head of the government. That is, he held the position of Mishustin.
          By the way: the whites created "as if Russian" armies in the territories occupied by foreign states. Just like now, the "like Ukrainian" army exists thanks to the actual occupation of Ukraine. Only more than a hundred years ago, the Germans were the occupiers, and now the Americans.
      2. Doliva63
        Doliva63 8 January 2023 15: 03
        +1
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        ... In military terms, the Red Army was more professional than its opponents, the result

        And from the taiga to the British seas,
        The Red Army is all stronger!

        It's undeniable! drinks
    2. Silver99
      Silver99 8 January 2023 06: 33
      0
      At least half of the command staff of the Red Army were tsarist officers and generals who had completed the training and experience of the 1st World War, the same orderly Chapaev, represented in the film by the broken Petka, was staff captain Peter Isaev (by the way, on the front of the 1st World War he was the commander of a fighter Chapaev), and General Slashchev, the sworn enemy of the Soviet government, was not in vain invited to teach at the "Shot" courses, where he ironically disassembled the actions of peasant commanders and taught them to reason, Stalin called the chief of the General Staff Shaposhnikov only by his first name and patronymic, and he was royal general, General Karbyshev, the genius of fortification, was a tsarist general and remained faithful to Russia to the end, the same Zhukov, Rokosovsky, Vasilevsky ........ gained their first experience in the tsarist army. It was a real civil war, where the Russians destroyed the Russians for the sake of the Jewish philosophy of the world revolution, as Trotsky said, it was brushwood ((((((((
      1. paul3390
        paul3390 8 January 2023 07: 01
        +15
        But the future Marshal Govorov - generally managed to fight for Kolchak for a year .. Then he went over to the side of the Reds .. And what is surprising - with such and such a biography, not only was he not repressed by the type of bloody regime, but he also rose to the highest rank ..
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 8 January 2023 08: 01
          -9
          Quote: paul3390
          was not

          Even the most frequent broom leaves garbage on the floor!
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 8 January 2023 16: 19
          +2
          But the future Marshal Govorov - generally managed to fight for Kolchak for a year .. Then he went over to the side of the Reds ..
          And not alone, but with their batteries. But without guns - they could not be taken away.
      2. DNS-a42
        DNS-a42 8 January 2023 15: 47
        +3
        Quote from Silver99
        It was a real civil war, where the Russians destroyed the Russians
        It was a war with the interventionists and their lackeys. The White Guards fought for the interests of the landlords and foreign partners.
        as Trotsky said
        Trotsky didn't say that.
        it was sickness
        But it turned out to be a superpower.
      3. BecmepH
        BecmepH 9 January 2023 11: 42
        +2
        Quote from Silver99
        where the Russians destroyed the Russians for the sake of the Jewish philosophy of the world revolution,

        In my opinion, a controversial conclusion. It is enough to dig into history, to understand the attitude towards Jews in Russia, and then it will become clear why so many Jews rose up against the monarchy and were at the head of the revolutionary movement.
        Anticipating your conclusions, I will clarify that I am Russian. I'm just for justice in history.
        1. Ulan.1812
          Ulan.1812 9 January 2023 21: 23
          -1
          "... I am for justice in history. "- good quality. I am also for fairness and objectivity.
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor 8 January 2023 04: 48
    0
    The author ironically mentioned a certain Bushkov. If this is Alexander Alexandrovich - a writer, prose writer, historian, then irony, at least, is not appropriate. He is an artist, he sees it this way, like the respected Author of the above post.
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 8 January 2023 06: 29
    +1
    Apparently, in those unique conditions, the ability to think and act not according to a pattern, but systematically and creatively, turned out to be much more important than a rapidly outdated set of purely specialized knowledge and skills.

    And if the bearer of this "set of special knowledge" has also ceased to study his own business, then it's all seams. What we are now seeing to some extent.
  4. Amateur
    Amateur 8 January 2023 07: 27
    +4
    Where is Vatsetis? Where is S.S. Kamenev? Ah-ah. It's Podymov!
    We play here, we don’t play here, but here they wrapped the fish.
    1. Ulan.1812
      Ulan.1812 9 January 2023 21: 24
      0
      Quote: Amateur
      Where is Vatsetis? Where is S.S. Kamenev? Ah-ah. It's Podymov!
      We play here, we don’t play here, but here they wrapped the fish.

      I also wanted to write this.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 8 January 2023 07: 56
    +3
    The future red commissar, and then one of Stalin's most famous opponents, was brought up in the orphanage of Prince Oldenburg.
    His father was a popular clergyman in St. Petersburg, his mother was a general's daughter. But due to conventions, they could not marry, so Fedor and his younger brother Alexander lived with the stigma of illegitimate. And they were given to the orphanage of the mentioned prince.
    revolutionary sailor Fyodor Raskolnikov
    During the First World War, Raskolnikov entered the school of midshipmen. Yes, he studied at the Polytechnic University together with V. Molotov, and it was he who involved him in the revolutionary struggle.
    1. Nafanya from the sofa
      Nafanya from the sofa 9 January 2023 07: 56
      0
      In addition to the sexual revolution with A. Kollontai, he was not marked by other military successes.
  6. kalibr
    kalibr 8 January 2023 07: 59
    -3
    Excellent material about whites and reds! I never delved into this topic, but I thought it was like that. And now, confirmation of this, and even well written!
  7. tatra
    tatra 8 January 2023 09: 00
    +7
    As in the Civil War, the "Reds" fought FOR, and the "Whites" fought AGAINST, and all 100 years after the creation of the USSR, the "Reds" FOR the USSR, and the "Whites" AGAINST the USSR. The "whites" have never had anything and no one good FOR themselves, and FOR their country and people.
  8. ee2100
    ee2100 8 January 2023 09: 58
    -5
    Supplement to the article "Reds vs. Whites - the educated prevailed"
    Ivar Tenisovich Smilga 1937, shot
    Fedor Fedorovich Raskolnikov 1939, jumped out of a window in Nice
    Arkady Pavlovich Rozengolts 1938 was shot
    Alexey Ivanovich Rykov 1938 was shot
    Leonid Petrovich Serebryakov 1937 was shot
    Ivan Nikitich Smirnov 1936 was shot
    Ilya Konstantinovich Yurenev 1938 was shot
    Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin 1953 death from a stroke, but there is an opinion that they "helped"
    No comments.
    1. tatra
      tatra 8 January 2023 10: 58
      0
      Well, yes, world history proves that this happens after coups / revolutions. French revolutionaries for 10 years and chopped off each other's heads.
      And the enemies of the USSR, who captured the USSR, hate both the Soviet people and each other, repress, kill each other.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 8 January 2023 12: 49
        -4
        "world history proves" (c)
        This is justification for the struggle for power.
        There is no point in arguing with you, but the people whose names are listed in the article, except for the temporary detention center, saw the society for which they fought during the civil war as different and they were not afraid to express their opinion and defend it.
        For which they paid.
        1. tatra
          tatra 8 January 2023 14: 55
          +3
          Yes, and among these people is also Trotsky. Are you for him?
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 8 January 2023 15: 14
            -1
            No, I don't know Trinity. And I don't know him personally. And you?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 January 2023 15: 31
              +3
              I don't know Trinity.


              And napgasno, my friend, the most curious personality and the worst person. laughing


              Hi Sasha! drinks
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 8 January 2023 18: 57
                +1
                Hi Kostya!
                With holidays past and present.
                I will not be banal, but we know the history of our country, which was all.
                But the people who made the revolution and won the civil war probably had their own ideals and they could imagine peaceful life in a different way.
                Trotsky is a complex figure, but he made a huge contribution to the victory of the Bolsheviks in the civil war, like the characters in this article.
                Did you end well?
                They told us fairy tales under socialism, and even now, so that they were at the helm. But this is the same subjunctive mood. Banality.
                What is done is done. And to justify, as well as to denigrate, everything can be.
                The article seems to be patriotic, only the heroes in it are all enemies of the people (before rehabilitation).
                But in fact, what they did, what they wanted, we do not know and will not know.
                Health, success. drinks
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 January 2023 20: 01
                  +2
                  Health, success.


                  And you too, and your children and household members. smile drinks

                  I'm just wondering, did Raskolnikov jump out of the window himself, or did they help him? I remember that we also claimed that Savinkov himself jumped out of the window on the Lubyanka. laughing
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 8 January 2023 20: 19
                    0
                    He was declared insane, but I do not believe that a crazy person will end his life by suicide. It doesn't make sense anymore. Yasen stump helped.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 8 January 2023 21: 00
                      +1
                      I did not believe in his suicide. A year later they finished Trotsky, it is strange that they did not publish it, as if he cracked himself with an ice pick on a pumpkin in a state of violent insanity. wassat laughing
                      1. ee2100
                        ee2100 8 January 2023 21: 30
                        0
                        In relation to modern realities, authorities were removed.
        2. place
          place 9 January 2023 16: 22
          0
          Quote: ee2100
          This is justification for the struggle for power.

          Question ; And specifically for what kind of power?
          The Soviet government gave the bosses food rations from the district committee buffet, a dacha, and a company car. And what - because of this, wars and huge repressions began?
          I believe that the struggle was against the Soviet government, for the anti-Soviet government. To move billions. And they have been successful!
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Nafanya from the sofa
    Nafanya from the sofa 9 January 2023 07: 53
    -2
    And why not M.V. Frunze? Forgotten or disliked?
    1. place
      place 9 January 2023 16: 26
      +1
      They couldn’t just kill everyone right away ..... It was impossible for anyone to just die?