Military Review

Russian scientist-economist urged to return to the practice of five-year plans

61
Russian scientist-economist urged to return to the practice of five-year plans

The liberal economic model introduced in Russia after the collapse of the USSR did not justify itself and became the cause of most of the current problems caused by attempts to pursue such an economic policy. This opinion was expressed by the head of the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Albert Bakhtizin.


According to the scientist-economist, at present, the market economy is not able to solve the tasks facing the state, therefore, it is necessary to switch to indicative planning and return to five-year plans, which proved to be effective during the Soviet era. This is reported RIA News.

Bakhtizin noted that under the conditions of the existing market-oriented economy, it is advisable to introduce elements of strategic planning with a clear designation of goals that differ from the state planning system used in the USSR.

The economist stressed that the use of such an economic model in the People's Republic of China ensured rapid development and allowed the country to take a leading position in terms of GDP in the world.

Similar calls for a return to the planned system of the economy were also made by the scientific director of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ruslan Grinberg. He stressed that the most complex economic system was created in the USSR, which was primitive after the collapse of the country.

However, in full measure, according to experts, it is not worth returning to the state planning model, but some of its elements must be introduced through the customs and tax systems.
Author:
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  1. Nikolay310
    Nikolay310 4 January 2023 14: 07
    -12
    but what's the difference how to puff out your cheeks and make promises? once every five years or once every 6 years for elections??? and airplanes and shoes can be produced without five-year plans ...

    "it's better to be than to seem" (c) ... in other words, it's better to work than endlessly chat
    1. Machito
      Machito 4 January 2023 14: 16
      +10
      There is a war on the destruction of Russia, and not some kind of SVO. A planned economy is the basis of victory. But for the implementation of plans, the responsibility of leaders is necessary. And there is no responsibility. Only the rank and file bear responsibility for the stupidity of their superiors with their lives.
      1. Nikolay310
        Nikolay310 4 January 2023 14: 52
        +13
        and Putin introduces a planned economy??? ahem, I haven’t heard ... well, and how much, according to Putin’s plan, should Abramovich buy tiramisu for the Azov people ???

        You are right about the planned economy. A five-year plan is a definite plan. and ASKED for its implementation ... and what do we have? Doubling of GDP completed? no ... did you fulfill the endless May decrees? no... has the 2020 strategy from EdRa been completed? no ... but at the same time, all the Manturovs, Nabiulins, Siluanovs are on duty ... the Gaidar battalion, which was not banned in Russia, both created chaos and continues to do so ...

        Well, what is the connection between Putin and the Soviet five-year plans, except for endless promises to repromise what was promised???
        1. sdtreew
          sdtreew 4 January 2023 19: 37
          +1
          Quote: Nikolay310
          and Putin introduces a planned economy???

          Putin does not have the authority to introduce a planned economy, Putin is not a tsar and not a god. Good morning.

          You can introduce any number of years you want and develop any plans you like, but as long as the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is not subordinate to Russia, it simply will not give you money for all these plans of yours.

          Therefore, first of all, the people need to wake up and understand that without the restoration of sovereignty and the reform of the first chapter of the Constitution - the abolition of external administration (written in Article 15, paragraph 4), economic growth cannot be ensured, even "planned", even "without plan".
          1. Il'nur
            Il'nur 4 January 2023 20: 02
            -1
            Putin does not have the authority to introduce a planned economy,

            What are you talking about, starting a CVO, extending the term of office has the right, can change the Constitution for its tasks, but it means no to change economic policy, and this is with a manual EP, the government formed by him, and the Constitutional Court and other power structures can formally not obey, but if necessary, they will do it right ...
            while the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is not subordinate to Russia

            And who prevents the President from subordinating the Central Bank of Russia, maybe the shadow world government, the IMF, the World Bank? So he began the SVO, he didn’t ask anyone and was not afraid ...
            1. sdtreew
              sdtreew 5 January 2023 22: 37
              +1
              Quote: Ilnur
              maybe they don’t formally obey him, but if necessary, they will do it right ...

              or they won’t do it ... it depends only on their desire what they will do and what not, because they are subjective (they are independent and independent) and they have no responsibility for not fulfilling Putin’s wishes.
              and since they signal that “they didn’t give a damn,” then breaking them through the knee creating an internal conflict is unreasonable, despite the fact that the people for the most part do not understand what is happening and will not support this process.
              Quote: Putin
              We will do all this only if people want it.

              - but people themselves do not understand what they want, in a conflict situation it will be impossible to rely on them, which means that the alignment of forces is not on Putin’s side, which means it is unreasonable to create an internal conflict.
              and about the SVO, firstly, Putin is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and is not such, for example, in the economy (all this is spelled out in the Constitution),
              secondly, in this way we do not particularly strive for offensives, because it is unreasonable to attack at the front with a fifth column in the rear. Having a fifth column in the rear cannot be defeated, the fifth column must first be cleared.
              Quote: Ilnur
              And who prevents the President from subordinating the Central Bank of Russia

              for this it is necessary to change the First Chapter of the Constitution, not the President, not the State Duma does not have such powers.
      2. sdtreew
        sdtreew 4 January 2023 19: 43
        +1
        Quote: Bearded
        responsibility of leaders.

        - It's all empty talk.
        the basis of victory is sovereignty - that is, the right to make decisions.
        Russia was deprived of sovereignty in 91, and in 93 this was formalized de jure through the adoption of the colonial Constitution.
        Quote: Putin
        2022 is ending. It was a year of difficult, necessary decisions, the most important steps towards gaining full sovereignty of Russia

        - sovereignty is still ahead, now it is not there yet.
  2. dmi.pris1
    dmi.pris1 4 January 2023 14: 08
    +11
    I wonder how much these economists will be "eaten" by the gentlemen from the HSE, well, or "hiss" For me, they made a sensible proposal
    1. Ulan.1812
      Ulan.1812 4 January 2023 14: 13
      +7
      Quote from: dmi.pris1
      I wonder how much these economists will be "eaten" by the gentlemen from the HSE, well, or "hiss" For me, they made a sensible proposal

      At the HSE, the word planning is feared like hell.
      Although elements of planning exist even now.
      For example, a government order.
      So the suggestion is correct.
      It's about strategic planning, not how many toothbrushes and socks to produce.
      1. nikon7717
        nikon7717 4 January 2023 15: 15
        +3
        At the HSE, the word planning is feared like hell.

        Some of the elements of strategic planning have been adopted by the capitalists and are actively used when compiling development strategies for global corporations.
        You understand correctly that the HSE, as a conductor of liberal ideas and goals for the development of the Western system, blocks any correct views that can improve the independence of the Russian Federation.
  3. StarWarrior
    StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 12
    +2
    The quality of public administration and service discipline in the Russian Federation, the quality of coordination and control over the implementation of state programs in the Government of the Russian Federation, departmental interaction is simply disgusting!

    It is necessary to restore the State Planning Committee of the Russian Federation with the functions of the USSR State Planning Committee, the USSR Gossnab and the USSR State Committee for Prices and the USSR People's Control Committee for the development and control of the implementation of state federal five-year plans for socio-economic development plans of the Russian Federation, coordination of all plans and programs of economic development, all ministries and authorities RF of all levels of public authority, all sectoral and intersectoral balances of the economy, to mobilize the economy, urgently transfer it to the mass production of military products.

    Decrees and orders of the State Planning Committee of the Russian Federation, according to federal law, must be strictly binding on all authorities of the Russian Federation, officials, enterprises, institutions and organizations of any form of ownership.

    This body should be headed by the Chairman in the position of First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation with emergency powers.

    It is urgent, immediately to develop and adopt the first five-year state plan for the forced reindustrialization of Russia!

    State five-year plans for the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation should have the force and form of a federal law as a law on the budget and be approved by both chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, budgets at all levels should also be approved for five years.

    According to the federal law, the tasks and targets of the state five-year plan for the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation must be absolutely binding on all public state and municipal authorities of the Russian Federation, all officials and citizens of the Russian Federation, all enterprises, organizations, institutions of any form of ownership throughout the territory of the Russian Federation .

    The accelerated reindustrialization of the Russian Federation should be carried out first and foremost through direct state budget financing of state-owned federal enterprises, and secondly through honest-state partnerships with the attraction of capital from private individuals and legal entities of Russia - tax residents of the Russian Federation.

    The task of accelerated reindustrialization should be clearly set - over the next 10 years (in two five-year periods) the Russian Federation should produce from 100% domestic components at enterprises with 100% Russian capital the entire range of industrial high-tech products that are produced today by the USA, Germany, Japan.

    The Russian Federation should reach the absolute first place in the world in terms of quantity, volume, quality, product range of machine tool building, mechanical engineering, aircraft building, automotive, shipbuilding, energy, electronics!

    For sabotage, sabotage, sabotage, non-fulfillment by officials of the Russian Federation of five-year plans for the development of Russia, criminal liability in the form of real imprisonment for a term of 10 to 25 years with complete confiscation of all the property of the perpetrators must be established!

    The Central Bank of Russia should be transformed into the State Bank of Russia as a structural unit of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, all banking activities in the Russian Federation should be declared a state monopoly, all banks in the Russian Federation should be 100% nationalized, any microfinance organizations are strictly prohibited.

    In part 2 of Art. 75 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal law on the State Bank of the Russian Federation, it should be clearly stated that the main function of the State Bank of the Russian Federation as a structural unit of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation is financial support for steady economic growth, improving the welfare of citizens of the Russian Federation and providing financial resources for the implementation of state five-year plans for the socio-economic development of Russia .
    1. filibuster
      filibuster 4 January 2023 14: 20
      -1
      The Russian Federation should reach the absolute first place in the world in terms of quantity, volume, quality, product range of machine tool building, mechanical engineering, aircraft building, automotive, shipbuilding, energy, electronics!


      History doesn’t teach you anything, it will turn out again like in Raikin’s speech “Tell me, does your product immediately go to the scrap or through distribution networks ...”
      1. Volodin
        Volodin 4 January 2023 14: 23
        +1
        Quote from: filibuster
        History doesn’t teach you anything, it will turn out again like in Raikin’s speech “Tell me, does your product immediately go to the scrap or through distribution networks ...”

        And in China, too, is everything "according to Raikin" or not? ..
        1. filibuster
          filibuster 4 January 2023 14: 39
          -1
          This is the second misfortune of our uryakolok, in China in its purest form capitalism and a market economy.
          1. sdtreew
            sdtreew 4 January 2023 19: 53
            +1
            In China, the dictatorship of the CCP, not the capitalists,
            - this means that the process of price formation (and economic rules in general) is influenced primarily by the CCP, and not by the capitalists.
            The CCP orders music, and the capitalists dance to it, and not vice versa.
            By controlling the sphere of legislation, you can turn any capitalist into a horn, if the capitalist has this control, then he will turn you into a horn ...
      2. StarWarrior
        StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 34
        -1
        For some reason, the products of Chinese five-year plans are readily bought all over the world.
        1. filibuster
          filibuster 4 January 2023 14: 40
          -1
          For you, I will also repeat in China the most terry capitalism and market economy.
          1. StarWarrior
            StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 50
            -3
            Well, no need to invent - first read the Constitution of the PRC of 1982, which is 90% written off from the Constitution of the USSR of 1977:
            https://chinalaw.center/constitutional_law/china_constitution_revised_2018_russian/

            Article 6 The basis of the socialist economic system of the People's Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of production, that is, public property and the collective property of the working masses. Socialist public property abolishes the system of exploitation of man by man, implements the principle "from each according to his ability, to each according to his work."

            At the initial stage of socialism, the state supports an economic system in which social ownership dominates and other forms of ownership develop in parallel, adheres to a system in which distribution according to work dominates when coexisting with other distribution methods.

            Article 7 The sector of the economy based on state ownership, that is, the socialist economy based on the system of public property, is the leading force in the national economy. The state guarantees the strengthening and development of the sector of the economy based on state ownership.

            Article 9. Subsoil, waters, forests, mountains, virgin lands, shoals and other natural resources are state property, that is, public property. The exceptions are forests, mountains, steppes, virgin lands and shoals, which, by law, are collective property.

            The state guarantees the rational use of natural resources, protects valuable species of animals and plants. It is prohibited for any organizations and individuals to appropriate or destroy natural resources by any means.

            Article 12 Socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.

            The state protects socialist public property. It is forbidden for any organization or individual to appropriate or undermine state and collective property by any means whatsoever.

            Feel the difference with the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993!
            1. filibuster
              filibuster 4 January 2023 14: 55
              +2
              And how does this constitution prevent China from being a capitalist country with a market economy, oligarchs, billionaires (China, by the way, is among the leaders in the number of billionaires), have you ever been to China, been to their factories, at least some?
              1. frog
                frog 4 January 2023 15: 36
                0
                Why are you so cruel?)) As soon as someone cries out on the topic of the Celestial Empire, "Come on, brother, let's renounce, come on, brother, let's soar ..." so you immediately with a dull real ??)) Well, at least get a new one years would have been a little sorry for the mriists)). Otherwise, you’ll also voice how their privatization took place ..... In the so-called. communist state...
                Right now you want to destroy the remnants of the bonded mri .....
          2. sadam2
            sadam2 4 January 2023 20: 24
            -1
            I also don’t understand what China and the plan for the economy have to do with it ... remember 20 years ago, on their knees, a month later they did everything that was in the slightest degree in demand in Vladivostok. From hooks to bras... everyone was laughing at their quality... and now we're all shopping on aliexpress
        2. stelltok
          stelltok 4 January 2023 15: 02
          0
          For some reason, the products of Chinese five-year plans are readily bought all over the world

          The Chinese have 1 billion people.
          Secondly, the Chinese have cheap products.
          In the third, the Chinese work 996. From 9 am to 21 pm for 6 days.
          What will really help raise GDP is the robotization of all enterprises.
          This is when robots assemble cars and not people.
          Here Elon Musk has created a robot that will collect Tesla cars without human intervention.
          https://3dnews.ru/1075112/ilon-mask-prodemonstriroval-chelovekopodobnogo-robota-tesla-kotoriy-budet-predlagatsya-po-tsene-menee-20-000

          Or, a robot has appeared that will collect laptops.
          https://3dnews.ru/1078993/kontsept-ekologichnogo-noutbuka-dell-concept-luna-mogno-razobrat-za-schitannie-minuti-bez-instrumentov
          How is the product assembled in the Russian Federation?
          Hand assembled in single copies.
          Maybe it's time to invest in microelectronics and robotization?
          China also has manual assembly. But China has 1 billion people they can. And the Russian Federation has 140 million.
          Even Zhirinovsky said that a strong growth of the Russian economy is possible only if there is robotization.
    2. for
      for 4 January 2023 17: 38
      0
      Quote from StarWarrior
      Need to restore

      This, then restore, and who will work there and, most importantly, manage.
  4. Pharmacist
    Pharmacist 4 January 2023 14: 13
    +2
    Return to the practice of five-year plans? Seriously? Didn't he offer to return to socialism? Under the current oligarchic capitalism, what kind of Soviet five-year plans can be. It was necessary at least to choose the Chinese path of development - socialism with the preservation of private property. And now it's too late to rush about.
    1. zontov79
      zontov79 4 January 2023 14: 36
      -2
      Did you only read the title of the article?
  5. amr
    amr 4 January 2023 14: 16
    +2
    We will have capitalism with a state budget face!

    Before making any economic plans, you need to first decide on the fundamental points, namely ideology and politics, otherwise everything is in a fog with us, we’re just sailing somewhere where and why the current owners of the boat, who are quietly sitting on the shore, know and on the monitor they look where our raft is sailing!
    1. StarWarrior
      StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 26
      -3
      It's time to start catching up with socialist China!
      1. Iris
        Iris 4 January 2023 14: 59
        +5
        Pomnitsa, about 30 years ago, the task was to catch up with Portugal. One of the most crowded outskirts of Europe. How are you, market liberals?
  6. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 4 January 2023 14: 18
    -7
    Why, why five-year plans again? Those who fulfilled the plan pay for those who did not. We passed. Now there is a capitalist plan - GDP growth.
    1. StarWarrior
      StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 21
      +3
      GDP is too late to grow - more than 170 centimeters will not.
    2. Bingo
      Bingo 4 January 2023 14: 25
      -4
      Quote: tralflot1832
      Those who complete the plan pay those who do not.

      Exactly. Populists prefer to forget that it was the State Planning Committee that slammed the light industry in the USSR to almost zero, and even with heavy vehicles ... What is the story of the plant that produces caravans ... They built ... With such productivity that for every car in the USSR there are pieces 10 had...
      And it’s also cool to consider productivity as a state plan ... Or, in relation to you, it’s a catch. Fucking complicated, the weather is going according to the whistle from the State Planning Commission, schools of fish are also swimming according to the line and according to the schedule ...
      The five-year plan and the State Planning Commission do not solve shit by themselves - they are all the same, in the arena, as now. But here the main thing is to crow in time
      1. StarWarrior
        StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 37
        0
        It is necessary to restore the method of increasing efficiency developed by L. Beria - MPE


        1. filibuster
          filibuster 4 January 2023 14: 43
          +1
          Now the Americans will not come to us to build factories, as they did during the period of industrialization.
          1. StarWarrior
            StarWarrior 4 January 2023 14: 55
            -2
            But the Germans will go - industry is being liquidated in Germany now
            1. Overlock
              Overlock 4 January 2023 15: 06
              +3
              Quote from StarWarrior
              But the Germans will go - industry is being liquidated in Germany now

              Fluddle or confirm. How is our native Siemens doing there?
              1. StarWarrior
                StarWarrior 6 January 2023 03: 49
                0
                Gas is very expensive. Go to the site finobzor.ru and read for yourself how the German industry feels.
      2. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 4 January 2023 15: 39
        +2
        With a catch to the point, the most important thing for the captain is to get into the five-year striker’s order, and at least the grass doesn’t grow there. Starfall is guaranteed.
  7. PPD
    PPD 4 January 2023 14: 27
    -1
    Everything new is well-forgotten old..
  8. zontov79
    zontov79 4 January 2023 14: 29
    -1
    Properly called !! the text of my comment does not make sense according to the site
  9. rocket757
    rocket757 4 January 2023 14: 38
    +1
    Russian scientist-economist urged to return to the practice of five-year plans
    clear planning, whatever you call it, has its advantages!!! But don't forget about the pitfalls!
  10. Alexander Ra
    Alexander Ra 4 January 2023 14: 38
    +4
    The cooperative "lake" and the State Planning Commission?.. Better National projects - we will plan ourselves, we will budget ourselves, we will control, evaluate, report, reward ourselves.
  11. Iris
    Iris 4 January 2023 14: 57
    +2
    Give me more galoshes! When we only made galoshes, no one in a nightmare could imagine banning the passage of a letter plane with an official visit by the head of the Foreign Ministry. And today different Poles are already threatening. Pre-reformed
  12. Overlock
    Overlock 4 January 2023 15: 04
    +1
    Experts are good - smart advice, not realizable, it is impossible to check the result. There is a completely granite, reinforced concrete reality - the authorities will not and will not be able to change ANYTHING. Get used to living in this paradigm and don't flood. The country simply will not survive any revolution.
  13. Olegsv
    Olegsv 4 January 2023 15: 13
    +3
    This economist is as far from the economy as we are walking to Beijing!
  14. parusnik
    parusnik 4 January 2023 15: 16
    +3
    From national projects, they will make five-year plans and what will change?
    1. frog
      frog 4 January 2023 15: 39
      0
      Congresses will return. The plans were adopted at the congress, EMNIP ....
  15. Joker62
    Joker62 4 January 2023 15: 19
    -2
    Russian scientist-economist urged to return to the practice of five-year plans

    Yes, the liberals will not let them return to the Soviet planning system like a five-year plan!
    Only willpower can do this. And there are practically none ... if there are, then very few ...
  16. YOUR
    YOUR 4 January 2023 15: 20
    +2
    This requires a planned economy and state ownership of the means of production. Like millionaires who have captured Russian factories, give out a plan for the production of something.
    1. filibuster
      filibuster 4 January 2023 15: 39
      0
      Millionaires will gladly sit on the state plan, the state will give them the task and funding for five years to produce one hundred thousand machine tools, they will make them for you, another issue is quality, price, etc., but who cares, the plan was fulfilled, the money was received.
      1. YOUR
        YOUR 5 January 2023 02: 35
        +1
        They are funded anyway. Look why Shoigu went to the Voronezh aircraft factory a few years ago, the money mastered the planes.
  17. Artunis
    Artunis 4 January 2023 15: 30
    -1
    When I studied at my university (in Soviet times). a lady from the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was invited to us for several lectures on political economy. Of course, I don’t remember my last name, it doesn’t matter. So she told an interesting story about the Amers space lunar program. When they (the Americans) began preparing their lunar program, they had a bunch of different companies that worked on this topic completely inconsistently and in discord, each blew its own tune, the projects did not fit into each other either in terms of time or technical compatibility. At NASA, the hair on the back of the point was torn and did not know what to do. And then there was one not the most stupid person who asked himself the question - how do the Russians do it all at home in the sense of organizing the whole process. We sent a delegation to our State Planning Commission, learned something, asked around. We returned to our place and introduced a planning system into this lunar project (well, of course, in relation to our conditions). Everyone knows the result - they fucked us in the lunar program. This is a bit oversimplified, of course, but that's the gist of it. So GOSPLAN and its necessity in a modern way can be denied either by a complete or an outright saboteur and enemy - Chubais, Gaidars and other silanonaibulins.
    1. filibuster
      filibuster 4 January 2023 15: 42
      -1
      And here is the time of cat-lamp stories, the entire American Lunar program is open, if you wish, you can find everything to the last nut. I recommend that you read the Skunk Works book, this is not about the lunar program, but about aircraft design in order to understand how production in the USA worked / works.
    2. Expert
      Expert 6 January 2023 01: 14
      0
      They may have “fucked” you, as you put it, but they were not on the moon. Only after receiving practically free of charge Soviet and Russian technologies, now they are going to fly there in 2024.
  18. zenion
    zenion 4 January 2023 15: 39
    +3
    It is high time to switch to five-year seven-year plans. Then, in three seven-five-year plans, real feudalism will be built without any deviations into apes.
  19. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 4 January 2023 16: 08
    +1
    Mdaaa...! For liberals, either socialism was a stepfather ... then the Soviet government was a stepmother! But now the times have come ... heaps of capitalism and bourgeois power in abundance! But the country and the people have not become happier and more prosperous! So maybe it's not about socialism or capitalism, and not about what kind of power!And who is in power!?How not to climb a cow with apples on a birch, there will still be no pears on it! No matter how you feed the wolf, he'll run away to poop anyway! As the objective Matroskin said ...: there are funds, but there is not enough mind! How not to "draw" an economic model on paper, you still get a fic! No matter how you plan a five-year plan, a smart and literate one will have enough of a three-year plan, but dypaku will eat up manure even after seven years! recourse
    1. Barberry25
      Barberry25 4 January 2023 19: 21
      -2
      and what does Matroskin have to do with it? It’s not the name that matters, but the content, you can call it five-year plans, but you can call it Targeted federal programs, the question is implementation.
  20. Antokha
    Antokha 4 January 2023 19: 21
    +1
    China has serious economic problems. If Mr. Scientist does not know them, and simply argues on the basis of one-day newspaper notes, his proposal is worthless. Only those who want us to become like in the USSR can offer to introduce the planned system of the USSR. Those who do not know how it was in all the details, it is better to let them study first. There is only one sound idea here - strategic planning is needed. But the Americans, with their capitalism, also have it.
  21. runway-1
    runway-1 4 January 2023 19: 26
    -1
    The maximum possible in the current conditions is strategic planning. However, it is unlikely to be implemented ...
  22. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 4 January 2023 19: 30
    -1
    The current liberals are right - you can’t see beyond your nose. What 5 years can you talk about with them? Yes, and the planned economy is a legacy of the USSR, at the mention of which the compradors in power have panic and diarrhea.
  23. iouris
    iouris 4 January 2023 23: 11
    +1
    "It all depends on your abilities. Here I have one friend, also a scientist - he has three classes of education, and he draws a top ten in half an hour - you can't tell it from the real one!"
  24. Svetlana
    Svetlana 5 January 2023 09: 25
    +1

    Today Russia is a capitalist society, and the capitalist economy, where capital rules, read, manages, plans can only be at the level of capital owners.
    This scientist did not teach the conduct of society, which he taught in Soviet schools.