Military Review

How did Western expansion begin?

39
How did Western expansion begin?
Ship Bartolomeu Dias



They called this process beautifully - "great discoveries", the spread of "civilization". because history written by Westerners themselves. It was somehow ugly to call yourself predators, robbers, pirates and slave traders.

Beginning of Western expansion


Decay of the Catholic, Western World (The Renaissance and the Decay of the Western World) coincided with the start of a successful western expansion. The so-called Great Geographical Discoveries. At the first stage, they were carried out under Catholic slogans and with the direct patronage and interest of the Roman popes.

It should be noted that this is not the first time the Western world has expanded, trying to rob and seize foreign lands. Ancient Rome did this, creating its great empire on the blood and bones of neighboring civilizations, peoples and tribes. This slave-owning matrix was also inherited by the second Rome - the papal throne, which claimed "universal" power.

Catholic Rome quite successfully mastered most of the territory of Europe, expanded to the North and East. Suppressed and almost "digested" the Celtic civilization, destroyed the Slavic world in the center of Europe ("Slavic Atlantis" in Central Europe). For example, almost all ancient cities and villages in Germany, Austria, parts of Scandinavia are former Slavic-Russian settlements and villages. Few now remember and know that there were no Germans, no Danes, no Austrians, no French, but there were already Russians. And they had writing, faith, "a country of cities." Developed spiritual and material culture.

Rome was able to crush and assimilate the western branch of the Rus during the centuries-old bloody battle. Some Slavic-Russian clans became "Germans" - dumb, having lost their language, history and culture, others retained their language, part of the culture, but adopted Catholicism and became enemies of other Slavs (for example, Croats and Poles). Many have gone east. In particular, the genus Rurik-Falcon.

But the eastern branch of the Rus survived. She created her own empire. The pressure on the East was repelled. The Crusaders were also unlucky in the south. Moors-Arabs-Saracens fought back. The crusaders plundered the Middle East and Byzantium well, but got away.

The Western world, without an influx of fresh blood, ideas, gold, quickly decayed. Then the Roman throne, as the custodian of the remnants of the knowledge of ancient civilizations, allowed the "discoverers" to find new worlds and tribes across the Atlantic, in Africa and Asia. They called this process beautifully - “great discoveries”, the spread of “civilization and progress”. Because history was written by Westerners themselves. It was somehow ugly to call yourself predators, robbers, pirates and slave traders.


Juan de Castro. Portuguese carracks, galleon, redonda caravel and galleys during an expedition to Egypt in 1540.

portuguese pirates


The Portuguese were the first to create their colonial empire. Portugal was limited by strong Spanish kingdoms and could not develop expansion towards Europe. There were strong Muslim opponents in northern Africa. The only way to make capital was the sea. Their main occupation was piracy, the robbery of the trading cities of North Africa. In the wars with the Moors, Portuguese sailors adopted the ability to build caravels, to handle navigational instruments - a compass, an astrolabe.

In 1415, the Portuguese captured Ceuta, a city on the northern coast of Morocco directly across from Gibraltar, from the Arabs. This city became an outpost for the Portuguese to advance along the western coast of Africa. Since 1419, the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) began to actively equip expeditions to Africa. First, the Portuguese mastered Madeira ("Forest Island"), the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands.

Moving south along the coast of Africa, the Portuguese discovered that other peoples lived behind the Muslim states. There are less protected and developed places where you can land, plunder or trade profitably, if you cannot immediately subjugate the local peoples. The Portuguese quickly realized that information is power and wealth. They did not want to share with anyone and, with the help of Rome, they established their monopoly.

In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the bull Romanus Pontifex, which confirmed the previously sanctioned right of Christian powers to enslave non-Christian peoples and approved further colonization. It also forbade other Christian powers from encroaching on the rights of the Portuguese in West Africa.

A large role in the colonization of non-Christian peoples was played by the Catholic orders of chivalry, which were headed by the Portuguese kings. The Order of St. Bennet of Avis (Avisian Order), which, after the end of the reconquista, began the "crusades" in Africa. And the Order of Christ, who was the heir to the famous Templars. The residence of the Grand Master of the Order was the Tomarsky Castle, hence the second name of the Order - Tomarsky.

With the growth of the Portuguese colonial empire, the Avis and Tomar crusader knights turned from warrior-monks into colonial landowners.

Slave traders in search of the "land of spices"


It is clear that little Portugal did not have the material and human resources to colonize the vast Africa. In Black Africa, there were also fairly developed strong states - Mali, Songhai, Bornu, Mosi, Oyo, Benin, Nupe, Congo, Luba, Ethiopia, etc. They lived their own lives, had their own economy and armies, fought and traded. Often these were warlike, powerful peoples and tribes that created and maintained their statehood.

Therefore, the Portuguese did not go deep into the continent. They captured the islands, making them transit points and springboards for further expansion. And on the coast of the continent they were looking for areas occupied by less powerful, developed tribes. Introduced by cunning or force, or combined methods. At first they came as merchants, looked around, founded trading posts, exchanged gold, ivory and slaves on the islands of Cape Verde. Conducted reconnaissance and, if possible, became the masters. They pitted the local tribes, supported one against the other, so that they would capture people for them to be sold into slavery.

The Portuguese wanted to get to the main treasures - spices and silk. The roads to the East through the Mediterranean were controlled by the Italians, further communications were under the Muslims, the Ottomans. Therefore, they were looking for a way around Africa. In the second half of the XNUMXth century, Portuguese scouts reached India by land and confirmed that it was quite possible to reach the "country of spices" by sea, circumnavigating Africa.

In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias, in search of a sea route to India, was the first European to circumnavigate Africa from the south, discover the Cape of Good Hope (it was called the Cape of Storms) and enter the Indian Ocean.

Spanish predators


At this time, the Portuguese had a strong competitor. As a result of the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile (1469), the Spanish kingdoms were unified. The Spaniards captured the Canary Islands, exterminating and selling into slavery most of the indigenous population - the Guanches. In 1492, Spain defeated the last Muslim state on the peninsula - the Emirate of Granada.

The militant thugs who had been engaged in war for centuries were left "out of work." Then the Genoese Columbus suggested that Ferdinand and Isabella find a western road to India. During his First voyage (1492), Columbus once again discovered America, thinking that he had reached the "Western Indies" (West Indies). The "development" of America by Spanish predators began.

This caused a serious conflict between Spain and Portugal. The Portuguese pointed to their priority and monopoly to plunder new lands. The Spaniards objected that Portugal's monopoly only applied to Africa. To resolve the dispute, they turned to Pope Alexander VI Borgia. The Pope was a suitable spiritual leader of the West - "the pharmacist of Satan", "the monster of depravity". The head of the Roman church received bribes from both sides and decided everything fairly. In 1493, he divided the globe along the "papal meridian", which lies 100 leagues (about 500 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands. What lay to the west was taken by the Spaniards, to the east by the Portuguese.

This did not sit well with Portugal, who could not lay claim to the lands she had recently discovered to the east of this line. The Portuguese king Juan II entered into negotiations with the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella to move the border to the west. An agreement was reached in 1494 with the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the world between the two countries. The Portuguese received in the fiefdom of land east of the line passing 370 leagues (1 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands. That is, getting Africa, Asia and the eastern part of America into its sphere of influence (Brazil was discovered by Pedro Cabral in 770). The Spaniards received all the lands west of this line.


Colonial demarcation lines between Spain and Portugal in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
39 comments
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 28 December 2022 05: 17
    +1
    How did Western expansion begin?
    There was no one to rob nearby - they dragged themselves all over the ball!
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 28 December 2022 06: 15
    +14
    And what should be called the fact that the Ottoman Empire, by the XNUMXth century, conquered all the South Slavic lands, Greece and stretched out its hands to Central Europe, a great missionary mission?))) Yeah, that's different ..
    1. Luminman
      Luminman 28 December 2022 09: 21
      -5
      Quote: parusnik
      And what should be called the fact that the Ottoman Empire, by the XNUMXth century, conquered all the South Slavic lands, Greece and stretched out its hands to Central Europe
      Ugh, that's different..

      This is actually different.
      The Ottoman Empire is a classical and ever-expanding empire. In such empires, all ethnic groups inhabiting it are equal, of course, except for the titular ethnic group. In classical empires, every nation, even the smallest, feels protected. In classical empires, a representative of any nation can occupy the highest position in the hierarchical ladder (subject to loyalty), except, of course, the highest position. Remember the empires - Byzantine, Austro-Hungarian, Russian. And if you rewind a little back, then the same device was in Persia and China. Remember the USSR - also an empire, only it was called differently. By this I only want to say that not all empires are bad.

      But there are other empires - colonial ones. This is a completely different calico! All of them are built on the robbery of territories and people. The British Empire, the French and Dutch colonial systems are classic colonial, and therefore predatory empires ...
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 28 December 2022 19: 54
        -7
        These you show your illiteracy by confusing empires and republics. The classical empire is always the exploitation of its colonies.
        1. Kuziming
          Kuziming 31 December 2022 08: 16
          +1
          You shouldn't get excited. The Roman Republic destroyed the Etruscans, the empire of Alexander gave equal rights to the Persians.
          In my personal opinion, there are two models:
          Roman model with division into citizens and non-citizens.
          Alexander's model with the equality of included peoples.
          The Anglo-Saxons followed the Roman model.
          Russia and the USSR - the model of Alexander the Great.
          Between these models there is a thousand-year confrontation.

          I do not consider here the Chinese model.
    2. Mike_E
      Mike_E 28 December 2022 11: 02
      +7
      And what should be called the Russian expansion into Siberia, for example? Or Central Asia?
      It's probably different too.)
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 28 December 2022 11: 19
        -2
        Quote: Mike_E
        It's probably different too.)

        Yes, different. Why different? See above...
    3. Seal
      Seal 28 December 2022 13: 20
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      And what should be called the fact that the Ottoman Empire, by the XNUMXth century, conquered all the South Slavic lands, Greece and stretched out its hands to Central Europe, a great missionary mission?))) Yeah, that's different ..
      What about the Austrian Empire? A small duchy by the 20th century conquered a significant part of the West Slavic and South Slavic lands, as well as Hungary. Moreover, it did not just stretch out its hands to central Europe, but stretched out and captured central Europe back in the 15-17 centuries. Is this the great missionary mission of Austria?
      What about Britain and France?
      The territory of the British Empire before the First World War was larger than the territory of the Russian Empire.
      And the territory of the French Republic is not much smaller than the territory of Russia.
      Are these their great missionary missions?
      And what about Spain, which by the 17th century captured about half of the New World, as well as the Philippines? Is this the great missionary mission of Spain?
      And what about Portugal, whose occupied territories were 50 times more than Portugal itself? What, is this the great Portuguese mission?
  3. depressant
    depressant 28 December 2022 08: 03
    +3
    The Portuguese king Juan II entered into negotiations with the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella to move the border to the west. An agreement was reached in 1494 with the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the world between the two countries.


    Interesting article.
    Thank you, Mr. Samsonov!
    I learned about the "papal meridian" for the first time.
    1. setter
      setter 28 December 2022 16: 46
      -2
      Interesting article.

      A spirit-uplifting delirium for characters who skipped geography lessons at school. Has nothing to do with history. Except the names.
      The reaction to Samsonism is a very good indicator of intellectual degradation.
  4. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 28 December 2022 08: 30
    +2
    in 1494 with the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas
    Between 1580 and 1640 the treaty was meaningless, since the Spanish king was also the king of Portugal.
    1. Luminman
      Luminman 28 December 2022 09: 05
      +1
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      Between 1580 and 1640 the treaty was meaningless

      This treaty has become meaningless since Walter Reilly established a permanent settlement in North America in 1585 on the orders of the Queen of England.
      1. kor1vet1974
        kor1vet1974 28 December 2022 09: 44
        +1
        Walter Reilly founded a permanent settlement in North America in 1585 by order of the Queen of England.
        in 1580 Spain and Portugal became a single state, so when did it become meaningless in 1580 or 1585? laughing
        1. Luminman
          Luminman 28 December 2022 10: 55
          0
          Quote: kor1vet1974
          so when did it become meaningless in 1580 or 1585?

          As soon as the first non-Catholic settlers landed on the land of America ... Five years make any weather?

          PS After. It became meaningless when Protestantism began to establish itself in Britain and other countries ...
          1. kor1vet1974
            kor1vet1974 28 December 2022 11: 34
            +1
            As soon as the first non-Catholic settlers landed on American soil...
            Once again, Portugal and Spain divided the world..So? In 1580 they united .. So? Did the agreement lose its meaning after the merger? Before the landing of the British? Or not lost? laughing Or did it make sense when they united, but lost it when the Protestants landed? Explain the meaning of the agreement, when the states united into one, what did they share? laughing
            1. Luminman
              Luminman 28 December 2022 11: 43
              -1
              Quote: kor1vet1974
              Once again, Portugal and Spain divided the world..So? In 1580 they united .. So? Did the agreement lose its meaning after the merger?

              The thing is that other countries simply did not care about all these agreements and the division of the world. As well as not giving a damn about Spain, Portugal, the Pope and all the bulls that he published there. And this was before the two Pyrenean kingdoms united. Long before the first permanent settlements, there were pirate raids and exploration of the coast. Of course, without the consent of Spain ...
              1. kor1vet1974
                kor1vet1974 28 December 2022 12: 25
                +1
                You still say, after the unification, the agreement on the division of the world, and even the undiscovered lands, that was concluded earlier lost its meaning or not? If not, why not? The fact that other countries do not care is not the answer .. We are talking about the fact that, before the unification, Spain and Portugal "divided" the world, after the unification of these states, was there any point in this agreement? laughing
                1. Luminman
                  Luminman 28 December 2022 13: 38
                  0
                  Quote: kor1vet1974
                  We are talking about the fact that, before the unification, Spain and Portugal "divided" the world, after the unification of these states, was there any point in this agreement?

                  If you narrow the question down to such a framework, then no.
                  1. kor1vet1974
                    kor1vet1974 28 December 2022 14: 31
                    +1
                    So my comment is:
                    Between 1580 and 1640 the treaty was meaningless, since the Spanish king was also the king of Portugal.
                    in a narrow sense and was written, without such a broad sense as the article and your comments on mine .. hi All the best.. Happy New Year..
                    1. Luminman
                      Luminman 28 December 2022 15: 40
                      +2
                      Quote: kor1vet1974
                      All the best.. Happy New Year.

                      So are you!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. nerd.su
      nerd.su 30 December 2022 02: 01
      0
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      Between 1580 and 1640 the treaty was meaningless, since the Spanish king was also the king of Portugal.

      And what is its meaninglessness at this time? Has he stopped working? Did the Spaniards and the Portuguese cease to observe it? At this time, the borders of the Portuguese and Spanish colonies crossed the line of demarcation? Why, then, did treaties specifying the boundaries between the colonies appear 200 years later than this period?
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 30 December 2022 17: 59
        0
        Quote: bot.su
        And what is its meaninglessness at this time? Has he stopped working? Did the Spaniards and the Portuguese cease to observe it? At this time, the borders of the Portuguese and Spanish colonies crossed the line of demarcation?


        There was a conflict of interest between the nationalists of these countries, which was delimited by an agreement (a treaty of independent nationalists). The fact that the king alone did not prevent the feudal lords from conflicting. Then the same elites clarified it when the need arose.
  5. Illanatol
    Illanatol 28 December 2022 09: 26
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    And what should be called the fact that the Ottoman Empire, by the XNUMXth century, conquered all the South Slavic lands, Greece and stretched out its hands to Central Europe, a great missionary mission?))) Yeah, that's different ..


    Other. Rather, an analogy (mirror reflection) of the crusades.
  6. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 28 December 2022 09: 37
    +2
    Some Slavic-Russian clans became "Germans" - dumb, having lost their language, history and culture, others retained their language, part of the culture, but adopted Catholicism and became enemies of other Slavs (for example, Croats and Poles).
    We know, we know. And those who did not accept, found themselves under the rule of the priests - "the memory of the fathers who betrayed", except for the priests - "the memory of the fathers who value")))
  7. BAI
    BAI 28 December 2022 10: 32
    0
    For that matter, the western expansion did not begin with Rome, but with Alexander the Great
    1. Luminman
      Luminman 28 December 2022 10: 57
      +2
      Quote: BAI
      Western expansion did not begin with Rome, but with Alexander the Great

      To be completely accurate, then from the Dorians. Or from the "peoples of the sea" ...
  8. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 28 December 2022 10: 39
    +4
    What does the expression mean?
    Columbus once again discovered America.
    Does he open it several times?
    Yes, if I'm not mistaken, he made 4 voyages, and every time he opens it again?
    Bullshit.
  9. Luminman
    Luminman 28 December 2022 10: 58
    0
    Quote: Blacksmith 55
    Columbus once again discovered America.
    Does he open it several times?

    Each time he opened new territories...
  10. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 28 December 2022 11: 04
    +2
    Catholic Rome quite successfully mastered most of the territory of Europe, expanded to the North and East. Suppressed and almost "digested" the Celtic civilization
    Which catholic? Antique, damn it, and this civilization actively used sacrifices on an industrial scale. Therefore, the Romans, who were tolerant of other cults, destroyed them.
    For example, almost all ancient cities and villages in Germany, Austria, parts of Scandinavia are former Slavic-Russian settlements and villages. Few now remember and know that there were no Germans, no Danes, no Austrians, no French, but there were already Russians.
    Only the Slavs poured into these lands, freed from the Germans, when the Germans first poured into the weakened Roman Empire, which had previously held them back for centuries. You know the Great Migration of Nations.
  11. Mike_E
    Mike_E 28 December 2022 11: 09
    +1
    For example, almost all ancient cities and villages in Germany, Austria, parts of Scandinavia are former Slavic-Russian settlements and villages. Few now remember and know that there were no Germans, no Danes, no Austrians, no French, but there were already Russians.

    Poor, poor, rootless Germans and French. And even more unfortunate and downtrodden by wild Roman barbarians Russ.
  12. Pravodel
    Pravodel 28 December 2022 15: 38
    -1
    They called this process beautifully - "great discoveries", the spread of "civilization".

    Historical mistake. Robbing peoples under the guise the spread of "civilization" began long before the great geographical discoveries.
    For reference.
    Process the spread of "civilization" from the split of Christianity in 1054 into Orthodoxy and Catholicism and the first crusade in 1099, which took place under the slogan of protecting the Holy Sepulcher, but in fact was an ordinary robbery in favor of the Catholic Church - Rome.
    During the time of great historical discoveries, robbery, the robbery of peoples took on a systemic character, in which not Catholic orders participated, as during the Crusades, but entire Western states.
  13. Fangaro
    Fangaro 29 December 2022 00: 16
    0
    Sometimes Samsonov's "articles" are interesting to read. There is a point of view of the author, you can mentally argue with him.
    This can be read.
    Personally, I didn't like it.
  14. Fangaro
    Fangaro 29 December 2022 21: 48
    -3
    Ancient Rome enslaved the "Russians".
    Samsonievism, not history.
  15. Alex013
    Alex013 30 December 2022 18: 38
    0
    It would be better if Samsonov and K wrote about the Tartarians and Aryans ... a joke. Under the pseudonym of the author (beginning under the heading History, by the way), a group of authors writes to the campaign. Some of the material is very interesting. And these...
  16. Kuziming
    Kuziming 31 December 2022 08: 38
    0
    The expansion of the Western type began from the moment when Rome stopped giving citizenship rights to the conquered tribes. When the legionnaires began to receive the land of the captured peoples. After Rome went beyond the borders of central Italy, a new type of expansion began, with the division of the land, and the expulsion / destruction / enslavement of the natives. A high incentive to get a land allotment ensured the highest motivation of the troops.
    (The exception was for the Greeks - they were given citizenship, for the sake of the gates to Asia - through Pergamum and other colonies on the Asian side of the sea, although officially - because of the admiration for their high culture)
    Until the Romans turned to complete parasitism, the empire steadily expanded.
    In the process of this struggle, tactical moves were developed that are still used today:
    - divide and rule;
    - support for "fairness";
    - observance of "universal" laws.
  17. Illanatol
    Illanatol 31 December 2022 13: 54
    -1
    Quote: Stirbjorn
    Antique, damn it, and this civilization actively used sacrifices on an industrial scale. Therefore, the Romans, who were tolerant of other cults, destroyed them.


    Yes, the citizens of the Romans stood up for human rights, for the innocent victims of the totalitarian cult of the Gaul-Celts. The Romans were such humanists, they slander them about the cruel treatment of slaves, passion for gladiator fights and other things. laughing

    However, the conquest of Gaul was due to more prosaic reasons than the fight against the cruelty of the Druids. Too these Gauls earlier annoyed Rome (sometimes they even demanded tribute from the Romans), which the Romans did not forget. And there was too much gold in Gaul ... up to 200 tons of gold was mined by the Gauls annually, according to some Western historians.
    How, under such circumstances, to close one's eyes to sacrifices? So Caesar had to carry out his "humanitarian intervention".
  18. Illanatol
    Illanatol 31 December 2022 14: 02
    -1
    Quote: Stirbjorn
    Only the Slavs poured into these lands, freed from the Germans, when the Germans first poured into the weakened Roman Empire, which had previously held them back for centuries.


    Who were these Germans whom Rome held back is a big question. It is doubtful that they correspond to the current Germans. The flow of "gushing Germans" was actually not very full-flowing, we are talking about tens of thousands, but certainly not about millions. Probably, not everyone gushed, since the Germans did not have a centralized state, and each clan-tribe independently decided whether to gush, where to gush or stay at all, recognizing the hegemony of the Huns (or someone else).
  19. Ivanov_Vanya
    Ivanov_Vanya 3 January 2023 21: 27
    -1
    They called this process beautifully - "great discoveries", the spread of "civilization". Because history was written by Westerners themselves. It was somehow ugly to call yourself predators, robbers, pirates and slave traders.

    the West has long been (500 years) world killers, robbers and spiritual pardoners - today it is still cans, microns and English and German (God simply) men and women
  20. nepunamemuk
    nepunamemuk 6 January 2023 21: 57
    -2
    these are all descendants of the "peoples of the sea"
    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%8B_%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%8F
    back in the Bronze Age they were still thugs sad