Military Review

December 26 - Air Defense Day of the Russian Ground Forces

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December 26 - Air Defense Day of the Russian Ground Forces

This year, the air defense of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation is celebrating 107 years since its inception. The date of celebration of the Military Air Defense Day is December 26 - the countdown goes from 1915.


In the midst of the First World War, the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, Mikhail Alekseev, signed an order to form the first artillery batteries for firing at air attack. Rapid development aviation, airships, balloons, demanded from the military-industrial complex of the country an early and worthy response. Aircraft of the German and Austro-Hungarian empires were the first targets of guns firing "at the zenith". By the way, hence the name of the emerging anti-aircraft artillery.



Without thinking twice, they decided to modernize the most famous and well-established 76,2 mm divisional gun, the famous "three-inch" model of the early 5th century. Artillery officer Captain Vasily Tarnovsky and engineer of the Putilov plant Franz Lender placed the gun on a pedestal installation and mounted it on the platform of a 65-ton vehicle of the American White company. As a result, the anti-aircraft gun, with the possibility of circular fire and an elevation angle of 3 degrees, was put into service under the name "1914-inch anti-aerostatic gun of the 1914 model of the Putilov factory on an automobile installation." The first air defense units were batteries of four guns. It was these anti-aircraft guns that covered the sky over Petrograd in November XNUMX.



The first major losses from anti-aircraft artillery fire were suffered by German aviation in the spring of 1915. In just a day, Russian anti-aircraft gunners of the North-Western Front shot down 4 aircraft of Kaiser Germany. During the years of the First World War, Tarnovsky-Lender anti-aircraft guns were installed on armored trains and critical facilities. They were also deployed to protect Tsarskoye Selo, but already in the spring of 1918, they covered the sky over the Kremlin when the Lenin government moved to Moscow. After October 1917, the Bolsheviks got about 70 anti-aircraft guns, but during the Soviet era more than 1000 were produced, and they were used in the flesh until the end of the Great Patriotic War.



The interwar period became a stage in the rapid development of the anti-aircraft artillery of the Red Army. The air force was definitely perceived as a decisive factor in the coming war. In 1930, the Air Defense Directorate was formed, which by 1941 was transformed into the Air Defense Forces. Modern for that period radar detection and gun guidance, aircraft radars and artillery anti-aircraft fire control devices were created and put into service. By the beginning of World War II, Soviet air defense units were armed with 3329 medium-caliber anti-aircraft guns (76,2 and 85 mm), 330 small-caliber guns (37 mm) and 650 anti-aircraft machine guns. In addition, 45 radar stations, more than 1500 anti-aircraft searchlights and about 850 air barrage balloons were in service. In total, more than 182 personnel served in air defense units and formations. During the war years, air defense forces shot down 7313 enemy aircraft.



After the end of the Great Patriotic War, with the development of jet aircraft and unmanned aerial attack vehicles, the air defense forces received further structural and qualitative development. On August 6, 1958, all ground assets and forces of the military air defense were withdrawn from the combined arms artillery and merged into an independent branch of the army - the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces. Modern anti-aircraft missile systems were put into service. A landmark indicator of the combat readiness of the USSR air defense was the American high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-1 shot down on May 1960, 2. Two S-75 air defense missiles hit their target in the sky over Sverdlovsk.



To date, organizationally, the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces consist of military command and control bodies, air defense command posts, as well as anti-aircraft missile (rocket and artillery) and radio engineering formations. They are able to repel an enemy attack in the entire range of altitudes and flight speeds. Protection against air attack is provided by two types of troops: the air defense troops of the Ground Forces and the air defense-missile defense troops of the VKS. They have a common purpose, but different tasks. The Air Defense Forces protect the country's airspace, and the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces provide air cover for ground forces and facilities during military operations.
Author:
Photos used:
official website of the Ministry of Defense
35 comments
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  1. Victor_B
    Victor_B 26 December 2022 11: 53
    +8
    Semi-Military Organization!
    We don’t fly and we won’t let others!
    Colleagues happy holiday!
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 26 December 2022 12: 00
      +5
      They are able to repel an enemy attack in the entire range of altitudes and flight speeds.
      Fly in the ointment: Engels airfield.....
      1. Victor_B
        Victor_B 26 December 2022 12: 01
        +3
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        Fly in the ointment: Engels airfield.....

        They screwed up...
      2. fa2998
        fa2998 26 December 2022 12: 22
        +8
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        They are able to repel an enemy attack in the entire range of altitudes and flight speeds.
        Fly in the ointment: Engels airfield.....

        This airfield, in fact, should be a priority cover object. The air unit of the Nuclear Triad is based there. Moreover, there have already been attacks. And attacks not by "stealth" but by Soviet drones. The events are strange.
        1. Appraiser
          Appraiser 26 December 2022 13: 28
          0
          There is nothing strange here, the flight to the airfields is the usual "bungling" of our air defense and not only the RF Ministry of Defense .... Remember Rust's flight to Red Square. It is high time to put up an air defense barrier along the entire border of Russia, it is necessary to strictly ask specific people for this span ....
      3. vovochkarzhevsky
        vovochkarzhevsky 26 December 2022 12: 29
        +7
        It would be necessary to collect fragments of the UAVs that had broken through and cast medals from the resulting metal to reward the "distinguished", as well as the leadership of the air defense and the armed forces.
      4. alekc73
        alekc73 26 December 2022 12: 34
        +3
        To deal with the culprits, the former brothers are a cruel answer. While we chew snot, they will beat. This is a strategic nuclear facility.
      5. Foundling
        Foundling 26 December 2022 12: 37
        +1
        Didn't hit the target again? Swifts are a typical polygon target
  2. Maximus19
    Maximus19 26 December 2022 11: 58
    +7
    Of course, I respect air defense ... But they sent a noble gift to Engels today ...
    1. dmi.pris1
      dmi.pris1 26 December 2022 12: 04
      +11
      The holiday is, the air defense of the battlefield is military air defense. And there is objective. But in principle, you are right, there is sediment. Now, if you fought with hundreds of tomahawks? What would happen?
    2. Paul Siebert
      Paul Siebert 26 December 2022 12: 28
      +1
      Quote: Maximus19
      Of course, I respect air defense ... But they sent a noble gift to Engels today ...

      So after all, they shot down a drone after all ... Let it be too late ... Above the air base ...
      And the planes are intact! ..
  3. dmi.pris1
    dmi.pris1 26 December 2022 11: 59
    +4
    Graduates and cadets of the Air Defense Academy named after Marshal Vasilevsky in Smolensk with the Holiday!
  4. Dmitry Potapov
    Dmitry Potapov 26 December 2022 12: 01
    +1
    Already the neighbors have reminded quite in an intelligible form! Congratulations after what happened are extremely inappropriate!
  5. fax66
    fax66 26 December 2022 12: 02
    +8
    When Rust landed on Red Square, I was serving in the SA. Although not in air defense, it was a shame to look into the eyes of people on the streets ....
    1. Petr_Koldunov
      Petr_Koldunov 26 December 2022 12: 24
      +7
      Quote: fax66
      When Rust landed on Red Square, I was serving in the SA. Although not in air defense, it was a shame to look into the eyes of people on the streets ....

      Exactly! And the responsibility was terrible! The entire army elite flew away - starting with the Minister of Defense of the USSR Sokolov himself (You, Sokolik make fun - and sign the order to us ... who remembers of course :))). He flew head over heels - almost retired. All his life later he worked part-time as some near-military advisers. Deputy ministers, too, by the way, were removed.
      And this is for the PEACEFUL arrival of a PEACEFUL German, who did not threaten the security of the state in any way! And not for the ongoing unpunished arrivals of combat strike aircraft at our strategic airfields from time to time!
    2. alekc73
      alekc73 26 December 2022 12: 37
      0
      In vain. Politicians were not allowed to shoot down after the events of 1983. There was no determination. And the marked one took advantage - he dispersed many honored generals.
  6. Kaufman
    Kaufman 26 December 2022 12: 03
    -1
    In the Russian imperial army, soldiers and officers did not rely on helmets, here you can also see in the photo. According to St. Nicholas 2 in helmets, they did not look valiant ..
  7. Uprun
    Uprun 26 December 2022 12: 04
    +11
    From the outskirts, even before dawn, they congratulated ........... They messed up somewhere at the top, and the whole branch of the military flows around.
    Land of unlearned lessons.
  8. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 26 December 2022 12: 05
    +4
    Unfortunately, the holiday was overshadowed by another raid by a Ukrainian drone on the airfield in Engels.
    "This has never happened before, and here it is again" - and here again the ukrodron flew almost 700 km without being noticed. How so ? Once - an accident, the second time - a coincidence. Wait 3 times? After the first time, the RF Ministry of Defense did not draw conclusions?
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 26 December 2022 12: 58
      0
      There is no continuous air defense there, and they will continue to fly and bomb quietly.
    2. private person
      private person 26 December 2022 13: 03
      +1
      Unfortunately, the holiday was overshadowed by another raid by a Ukrainian drone on the airfield in Engels.

      Do you represent the principle of operation of the air defense of the SV? There are a lot of civilian flying objects around the airfield, and there is also a civil airport nearby. And what to shoot down everything? There is such an NRZ unit in the SV air defense system, and so not all civilian aircraft can respond.
    3. GRIGORIY76
      GRIGORIY76 26 December 2022 13: 10
      +1
      After the first time, the RF Ministry of Defense did not draw conclusions?


      Conclusions were made, on the airfield they made the inscription “death to the Nazis” from people. Notable pro-about.
  9. Dronza
    Dronza 26 December 2022 12: 13
    +4
    Ukrainians congratulated me in the morning... Just sent a drone, which was previously used as a target, for training. There was such a chance ... Eh ... If this time no one is removed from the air defense, then I don’t know what should happen for them to stir. Arrival in Moscow?
  10. Petr_Koldunov
    Petr_Koldunov 26 December 2022 12: 13
    +4
    And Ukraine congratulated - sent a clapper. With confetti. Three died.
  11. evgen1221
    evgen1221 26 December 2022 12: 15
    +3
    Ukraine Engels has already congratulated on the holiday. We are waiting for them to start supplying tomahawks or long-range atakmas.
  12. Foundling
    Foundling 26 December 2022 12: 36
    0
    Looks like they've been congratulated. All range
  13. sanik2020
    sanik2020 26 December 2022 12: 39
    +1
    Well, what can I say, the enemy guessed with a gift and it’s not the fault of those who serve, but the fault of those who command, this is not the first case.
    In general, happy holiday to you servicemen, YOU and not your generals, good luck to you.
  14. alekc73
    alekc73 26 December 2022 12: 44
    +2
    All recent events will force us to work on the bugs. Air defense is weak, focal. There are gaps. Even the airfield of strategists is not covered. We missed the old Soviet swifts a second time (of course, converted by NATO and with real-time space reconnaissance). After the defeat of the 90s, air defense has not been restored. If you trample the waves of tomahawks, you don’t want to think. Here is such a holiday.
  15. Rusfaner
    Rusfaner 26 December 2022 12: 44
    +2
    Today in Engels the pvoshnikov were congratulated!
    They held a face on the battery - the second time and in the same place! The spirit of Rust hovers over the airfield.
    Most of all, it's a shame for the soldiers and air defense officers who serve "in the field"! The "upper" commanders actually betrayed them!
  16. Venara
    Venara 26 December 2022 13: 06
    0
    Happy holiday to all who served in the air defense of the Ground Forces! There were several air defense schools for the SV, they reduced everything except Smolensk, where they also placed the Academy! For reference: the Air Defense Academy of the SV was in Kyiv on Povitroflotsky Prospekt, military schools were in Leningrad, Orenburg, Smolensk, Poltava and Kyiv. Only Smolensk remained. The airfields, having spawned air defense, did not cover the air defense, this is the task of the air defense of the country / object. Holes in the system of radar surveillance and anti-aircraft missile cover did not appear today, because we didn’t have enemies and we didn’t need air defense! Something like this.
  17. Nick2591
    Nick2591 26 December 2022 13: 13
    0
    To achieve victory for Ukraine in the conflict with Russia, an alliance between the Germans and the French, as well as other European countries that want to grab at least some piece of Russia, is quite possible. With such possible scenarios and taking into account the real problems of our army, which was shown by the course of the NMD, then in order to avoid a catastrophe, Russia will be forced to use nuclear weapons. But the current political leadership is unlikely to go for it. It's ready to lose
  18. PC
    PC 26 December 2022 13: 27
    0
    There is no desire to congratulate. Today, our air defense demonstrated their training again. Drones of the Armed Forces of Ukraine are again in Engels. Mess!
  19. valera75
    valera75 26 December 2022 14: 02
    +1
    On the birthday of the main bridge, they blew up on the air defense day, they launched an old Soviet piece of iron, for the second time along the same route, and it reached the goal by flying several hundred kilometers with impunity. Now Ukrainians will screw surprises on each date. Although we have surprises almost every day, they burn shopping malls and other buildings, and in half the cases, why is she sure that this is not a safety violation, but arson. If this continues, sooner or later it will be much more serious, because this is all probing the soil. What effect will a successful arrival to the side have the capital? Yes, the clown is not only showered with bucks in gold for this, the loot and weapons will flow in rivers 5 times stronger than usual, and the morale of the Ukrainians will raise such that there and the children will be ready to go to war. Well, the Anglo-Saxons will conclude that our air defense is solid holes and cartoons and impudence on their part will be twisted to the very maximum that exists. it’s quite real to expect surprises. The feeling inside is somehow ashamed and dumb and humiliating, in my opinion, putting it all together is somehow such a bad feeling.
  20. RoTTor
    RoTTor 26 December 2022 16: 47
    +1
    The main celebration today is at the Engels airbase
  21. Sergei N 58912062
    Sergei N 58912062 26 December 2022 20: 47
    0
    Ukrainians have already congratulated our air defense on the holiday! First, a blow to the oil depot in the Crimea. And then on the airfield in Engels.