Military Review

Anna Leopoldovna. Forgotten ruler of Russia

76
Anna Leopoldovna. Forgotten ruler of Russia
A. Matveev. Princess Anna Leopoldovna. Between 1733 and 1739



In a recent cycle dedicated to the reign of Empress Anna Ioannovna, the arrest of her niece Anna Leopoldovna (mother of the infant Emperor Ioann Antonovich) and her husband Anton Ulrich were briefly mentioned. In two short articles we will talk about the life of Anna Leopoldovna and her short reign, the palace coup in favor of Elizabeth Petrovna, and tell about the sad fate of the Braunschweig family.

Dynastic crisis in Russia


The power of Anna Ioannovna, who broke the “Condition”, was strong and was not questioned. However, the fate of the dynasty was not determined and caused great concern. The empress did not have legitimate children (but, as we remember, with a high degree of probability, there was an illegitimate child from Biron - Karl Ernst, born on October 11, 1728). However, he was not considered heir to the throne.

But in Kiel, a boy from a rival branch of the Romanov (Petrovich) dynasty was growing up - Karl Peter Ulrich, Hereditary Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Schleswig, Anna's nephew. Peter I, as you know, had two daughters - smart Anna and "cheerful" Elizabeth. They unsuccessfully tried to marry the "merry" to the future Louis XV, and Duke Karl Friedrich of Holstein-Gottorp married the smart one.

Everyone really liked Anna in Holstein, but she caught a cold and died immediately after giving birth. Her son, being the grandson of Peter I and Charles XII, became the heir to the crowns of Russia and Sweden. According to the secret protocol drawn up at the conclusion of the marriage contract, Peter I or his heirs had the right to take the boy born from this marriage to Russia.

Contrary to later testimonies left by the murderers of this emperor, he received a very good education (Catherine II was a pitiful dropout compared to him) and was not at all an alcoholic and a degenerate. However, he did not inherit from his great ancestors the main qualities of any ruler - firmness and willpower, which ultimately killed him.

But this child did not suit the empress and her supporters: they wanted to secure the throne for the Ioannoviches.

On the other hand, Anna Ioannovna’s cousin, the “merry” Elizabeth, was in St. Petersburg, but no one seriously considered her candidacy. Firstly, everyone remembered who her mother was, who had gone through an unprecedented path from the accommodating "soldier's port" to the empress. During the life of Peter I, she was a modest and inconspicuous "mouse", but she changed dramatically after the death of the emperor. I. M. Vasilevsky called Catherine I

“a wonderful housekeeper, a very good maid, one of those who have been considered devotees all their lives and only in old age manage to steal a tidy sum from the benefactor who trusts her.”

The acquaintance of Peter I and Marta Skavronskaya dates back to the autumn of 1703. Catherine at that time was 19 years old, and she was no longer under Sheremetyev, but under Alexander Menshikov: their first “night of love” dates from this time and Franz Villebois, author of the book “Stories about the Russian Court”, claims that the tsar honestly paid Martha 10 francs. This episode of the "acquaintance" of Peter and Catherine was included in the novel by A. N. Tolstoy "Peter I", only this author was ashamed to report payment for the services rendered.

After that, Marta was in the service of Menshikov for another two years, and in the spring of 1705 he did not really distinguish her from other concubines. In 1704 and 1705, the future empress gave birth to two boys, Peter and Paul, who died shortly after birth.

Only in 1705 did Peter I take Marta away from his favorite, sending her to live in the village of Preobrazhenskoye, the estate of his sister Natalya. In 1707 (according to other sources - in 1708), she was converted to Orthodoxy, and Tsarevich Alexei became her godfather - after his name she received a patronymic. Since that time, she has been practically inseparable under Peter I, including in the Prut campaign, when she was seven months pregnant.

In 1711, her secret wedding with the emperor took place, on February 19, 1712 - the official marriage. At the same time, the illegitimate daughters of Peter and Catherine - 4-year-old Anna and 2-year-old Elizabeth walked around the lectern with Catherine, after which they were declared "married".


A. Zubov. Wedding of Peter I and Catherine in February 1712

And only in May 1724 was the coronation ceremony.

After that, the emboldened Catherine began to feel so free and confident that she took a lover, who was not just anyone, but Willem (Wilhelm) Mons - a lieutenant of the guards, a participant in the battles near Lesnaya and near Poltava, the brother of the famous favorite of Peter I, a former adjutant emperor. Upon learning of the betrayal, the shocked Peter practically broke off all relations with Catherine and only before his death did he reconcile with her - thanks to the efforts of his daughter Elizabeth.

Elizaveta Petrovna had no supporters at court and took after her mother: she was by no means a highly moral girl. At first, she tried to seduce her nephew, the teenage emperor Peter II, and he was so carried away by her that he ordered her chamberlain, A. B. Buturlin, whom he reasonably suspected of having a relationship with his aunt, to be sent to Ukraine.

Then, the ensign of the Semenovsky regiment, Alexei Shubin, turned out to be in her bed, to whom Elizabeth wrote love poems and even, according to some authors, gave birth to two children from him. The connection between the daughter of Peter I and the ensign was known to everyone. Anna Ioannovna, in order to avoid scandals, at first ordered Shubin to be sent to Revel, but the ardent ensign, apparently, did not let up, because a year later he was already exiled to Kamchatka.

In 1743 he was returned to St. Petersburg and "for innocent suffering" he immediately received the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, the rank of Major General, and also became Prime Major of the Semyonovsky Regiment. In addition, he was granted an estate in the Nizhny Novgorod province with two thousand serfs.

Elizabeth managed to be in the arms of Semyon Naryshkin, who, seeing the fate of Shubin, chose to flee to Paris. But already in 1731, Elizabeth consoled herself with the young church choir singer Alexei Razumovsky, whom, as many are sure, she even secretly married, and they had a daughter.

It is believed that such was a certain nun Dosithea, who in 1785, by the personal command of Empress Catherine II, was placed in the Moscow John the Baptist Convent, founded by Elizaveta Petrovna in 1761, “for the care of widows and orphans” of noble and honored people of the empire. The windows in the two rooms allocated to Dosithea were always closed with curtains, and only the abbess and Dosithea's personal confessor had the right to visit her.

Only after the death of Catherine II, guests began to be allowed in to the prisoner, who invariably turned out to be extremely high-ranking persons, however, as a rule, they were retired. After the death of Dosifei in 1810, Moscow vicar Bishop Augustin of Dmitrovsky was buried, and some retired nobles in ceremonial uniforms and orders were present at the burial. It was her name that the mysterious impostor, who entered the history, as "Princess Tarakanova" (actually - Daraganova, this is the name of Razumovsky's nephews).

That is, the candidacy of Elizabeth for the strict Anna Ioannovna was doubly unacceptable: both for dynastic reasons and for moral issues.

However, in Russia since 1722 (according to another version - since 1723), Anna's older sister, Catherine, Duchess of Mecklenburg and Schwerin, lived in Russia, who left for her homeland with her daughter from her tyrant husband.


Catherine, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Portrait by an unknown master

Initially, they settled in Izmailovo at the court of Catherine's mother, Tsaritsa Praskovya Feodorovna. Peter I called this estate "a hospital of freaks, hypocrites and idle talkers." And the chamber junker F. W. Berkhholz in his diary dated October 26, 1722 wrote about the nasty game of a “half-blind, dirty bandura player” and the dances of “some barefoot, ugly and stupid woman.”

But Ekaterina Ioannovna was not at all a “dark” and uneducated lady, she spoke and wrote fluently in Russian, German and French, knew arithmetic, had an idea of ​​​​history and geography. In 1730, after the death of Emperor Peter II, she was considered as a contender for the throne, but the "supreme leaders" decided that Anna Ioannovna would be more submissive and obedient. In addition, they feared that her husband would interfere in Russian affairs.

Anna Ioannovna decided to appoint as her heir the unborn son of the 14-year-old (and, of course, unmarried) daughter of her sister, Elena Katharina Christina, who spent the first years of her life in Rostock and was a Lutheran.


Anna Leopoldovna in the portrait of I. Vedekind, 1732

In 1733, the girl was baptized according to the Orthodox rite, giving a new name - Anna Leopoldovna. The second son of the Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel Ferdinand Albrecht, Anton Ulrich, was chosen as her fiancé.


Anton Ulrich in the portrait of I. Wedekind

This prince arrived in Russia in June 1733, but the bride met him more than coldly. Much more she liked the 40-year-old Polish-Saxon envoy Count Moritz-Karl Linar.


A. Song. Count Moritz Karl Linar, 1737

Having learned about such interest, the empress immediately demanded the recall of Linar. Anna Leopoldovna, suffering from separation from him, became close to the maid of honor Juliana Mengden - so much so that at court they began to talk about their unconventional relationship. However, Anna Leopoldovna, of course, was not unconventional, which is proved both by her love for Linar and the birth of children from her husband.

The wedding of Anna Leopoldovna and Prince Anton Ulrich took place in July 1739. About a year later, on August 12, 1740, the heir to the throne, John Antonovich, was born, the boy was strong and absolutely healthy.


Colonel of the Semyonovsky regiment John Antonovich on the engraving by L. Leopold, 1740

And 4 months before the coup, Anna also gave birth to a daughter, Catherine. In general, it seemed that the fate of the dynasty was assured. However, the unexpected death of Anna Ioannovna on October 17 sent Russian history down a different path.

Fall of Regent Ernst Johann Biron


Biron was appointed regent for the young emperor, according to a petition drawn up by the Cabinet Minister A.P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin. Anna did not want to sign this document for a long time. Endorsing him, she finally told her favorite of many years that she had signed his death warrant.

Biron, as we remember from the series of articles about Anna Ioannovna, was neither a monster nor a villain. Moreover, he did not steal from the treasury and did not take bribes, and later they could not even bring adequate charges against him. However, he quarreled with the emperor's parents, which Field Marshal Minich cleverly took advantage of.

Having secured the consent of Anna Leopoldovna, already three weeks later, on the night of November 9, 1740, he, at the head of only 80 soldiers, organized a daring attack on the Summer Palace, where the regent was located. The decisive role in Biron's arrest was played by the field marshal's adjutant, Christoph Hermann von Manstein, who seized the regent in his own bedroom. Soon Biron was sent to distant Pelym.

Alas, this coup did not bring any benefit to Minich, but, on the contrary, led first to the resignation of the brave field marshal, and then to his arrest and 20 years of exile.

Ruler Anna Leopoldovna


Many unpleasant and mostly false words have been said about Anna Leopoldovna. V. Pikul made a huge contribution to denigrating her image in his novel Word and Deed. Anna Leopoldovna is traditionally represented as a “German”, and Elizabeth, who overthrew her, is “Russian”. At the same time, the share of Russian blood in both was exactly the same. It is impossible to reproach Anna for neglecting Orthodoxy: baptized in childhood according to the Lutheran rite, she became a sincerely believing Orthodox Christian.

Ernst Johann Munnich, son of field marshal retired by Anna Leopoldovna, wrote:

“She was diligent in her law, but she was excluded from all superstition.”

The people accepted the new ruler quite favorably, and the French envoy, the Marquis de Chétardie, who did so much to organize a conspiracy against the people of Brunswick, wrote about the reaction of ordinary Petersburgers:

“There has never been an example of so many people gathering in the local palace, and that all this people showed such genuine joy as today.”

The beginning of the reign of Anna Leopoldovna was unusually gracious. H. Manstein recalled:

“No one had reason to complain, since Russia had never been ruled with greater meekness, as during the year of the reign of the Grand Duchess. She loved to show mercy, and was, apparently, the enemy of all severity.

The Prussian envoy A. von Mardefeld agrees with him:

"The current government is the softest of all that have been in this state."

P. I. Panin (a nobleman of the times of Catherine II) states:

“All the Russian people felt a beneficial change in government; the compassionate and merciful heart of the ruler rushed to alleviate the plight of the unfortunate...
Every day she looked through the cases of the most important exiles, submitting to the Senate to ease the fate of others. The number of every rank of people languishing in captivity extended to many thousands of people. Those who were under torture in St. Petersburg were immediately released.

Moreover, it was Anna Leopoldovna who ordered to find and return to St. Petersburg the previously mentioned lover of Elizabeth, Alexei Shubin (as we remember, he was able to get from Kamchatka to the capital only in 1743). In every way she demonstrated her disposition towards Elizabeth herself: in December 1740, in honor of the princess’s birthday, she was presented with a gold bracelet from the ruler and a snuffbox adorned with precious stones from the baby emperor, and also paid debts for 40 thousand rubles.

As a thank you, Elizabeth said, having come to power:

"She (Anna) is badly brought up, does not know how to live."

At the same time, Anna was very responsible in her duties as a ruler. The modern historian I. V. Kurukin wrote that Anna Leopoldovna:

“One could be accused of anything, but not of laziness ... The set of documents of the imperial cabinet, which passed through the hands of the ruler, contains hundreds of her resolutions.”

By the way, the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire recorded 185 legislative acts adopted under Anna Leopoldovna in a year: from November 1740 to November 1741.
Ernst Munnich recalled Anna:

“She didn’t get bored at any time to listen to and decide matters, and so that poor people could better represent their needs to her, one day a week was appointed, on which everyone was allowed to submit their petition to the cabinet secretary in the palace.”

His father, a field marshal, offended by Anna Leopoldovna, writes:

“She was by nature slovenly, tied a white scarf around her head, going to mass, did not wear tanks and appeared in public in this form.”

This woman, like her aunt Anna Ioannovna, did not attach much importance to luxurious outfits. Moreover, she tried to limit the luxury of St. Petersburg aristocrats and even issued a decree on December 17, 1740 “On not wearing rich dresses with gold and silver, and from other silk brocades and damasks”:

“So that from now on, again rich with gold and silver and from other silk brocades and damasks, none of Our subjects would dare to make and wear dresses more expensive from three to four rubles, and whoever has such a dress, it is allowed to wear it again without an increase” .

Foreign merchants were forbidden to bring in "excessive" quantities of rich brocades and other goods. True, an exception was made for officials of the first three classes and foreign nationals in the Russian service (and their wives).

Agree, for the head of state, his clothes are far from the most important advantage. But for the state treasury, such unpretentiousness of the ruler was a boon. Not like the exorbitant appetites of Elizabeth, who left behind about 15 thousand dresses, 2 chests of silk stockings and more than 25 thousand pairs of shoes.


G. K. Groot. Elizabeth in fancy dress, 1748

However, Elizabeth also loved men's costumes, arranging strange balls in a modern European style: men had to come to them in dresses, and women in men's clothes.


Louis Caravaque. Portrait of Elizabeth in a man's uniform, mid-1740s.

And Elizabeth was also convinced that she was the best dancer in Russia, and the ladies of the court carefully tried not to “dance” her somehow by chance: the empress publicly, right during the ball, beat her too skillful rivals on the cheeks with an old shoe. This shoe was generally a favorite "weapons» Elizabeth - like the famous club of her father.

But Anna Leopoldovna did not forget her first love either. Moreover, Maurice Linard returned again and Petersburg - this time with the Austrian Marquis de Botta. It was conceived to fictitiously marry the Saxon to the girlfriend of the ruler - the same Juliana Mengden.


Juliana Mengden with the baby Emperor. 1741

Linar went home to settle all matters before the final move to Russia, but he was no longer destined to see Anna.

The next article will tell about the conspiracy, after which Elizabeth came to power in Russia, the sad fate of the Brunschweig family and the terrible fate of Emperor John Antonovich.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 21 December 2022 06: 03
    +4
    However, the unexpected death of Anna Ioannovna on October 17 sent Russian history down a different path.
    The men intervened, did not let it flow smoothly along the existing channel ..
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 21 December 2022 09: 13
      +3
      The history of "tsarist-imperial" power in Russia keeps many mysteries. Alternatives write that everything that is called "official history" on this matter has nothing to do with real events. Fig knows. Maybe they are right... request
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 21 December 2022 18: 14
        +6
        - Ah! Are you a historian? Berlioz asked with great relief and respect.
        - I am a historian, - the scientist confirmed and added neither to the village nor to the city: - Tonight there will be an interesting story at the Patriarch's Ponds! (with) hi
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 December 2022 06: 58
    +6
    Thanks, Valery! Sometimes the history of any country is best described by anecdotes. They are in the article - a fair amount. However, who will say that our life is not a joke.

    Elizaveta Petrovna inherited from you. However, Talleyrand is always remembered: "If people knew who rules them."
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 21 December 2022 07: 50
      +1
      Quote: Korsar4
      Elizaveta Petrovna inherited from you

      Yes, it caught my eye too, I didn't like it.
      A devout entertainer and a cheerful spoiler, lazy and careless, Russian in everything, she is all a glorious type of Russian character ...... everyone who cherishes national testaments cannot help but love her and admire her.
      Not said by me, but I agree completely.
      1. know
        know 21 December 2022 08: 16
        +8
        Curious. That is, the "lazy and careless" Russian lady is the ideal of the Russian queen? I would prefer to "admire and admire" other statesmen.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 21 December 2022 08: 21
          0
          Quote: vet
          Curious. That is, the "lazy and careless" Russian lady is the ideal of the Russian queen?

          What is interesting here?
          That's right, she was beautiful - like, Nefertiti
          1. VLR
            21 December 2022 08: 51
            +2
            beautiful was

            Love fat women? smile
            Pay no attention to portraits. Already in 1741, at the age of 32, Elizabeth was so fat that she could not walk long and fast. Therefore, the guards carried her in their arms to seize power.
            1. bober1982
              bober1982 21 December 2022 08: 59
              +3
              Quote: VlR
              Love fat women?

              When you yourself are aged, then you don’t pay attention to it - fat or thin, On the drum.
              Maybe Nefertiti was a fat woman?
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 December 2022 09: 28
              +5
              Love fat women?

              Valery, good morning! drinks And to the rest of the honest company - good morning!
              I recall a joke:
              A very tall and plump lady married a dwarf. The next day, he comes out of the bedroom covered in bruises. She is asked:
              - He beat you, didn't he?
              - No, at night he ran over me, and enthusiastically shouted: "This is all mine! This is all mine!"
              fellow wassat

              P. I. Panin (a nobleman of the times of Catherine II)

              Do you mean General Pyotr Ivanovich Panin, brother of the teacher Pavel Petrovich? hi
              1. VLR
                21 December 2022 09: 31
                +3
                Yes, of course, this Pyotr Ivanovich Panin.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 21 December 2022 11: 12
                  +4
                  Yes, of course, this Pyotr Ivanovich Panin.

                  Here's what I remembered.
                  A certain tsarist professor Bayov wrote:
                  In 1774, Tsarevich Pavel presented the Empress with a note entitled "Reasoning about the state in general, regarding the number of troops required to protect it and regarding the defense of all limits." This note was nothing more than a cruel criticism of the current reign, which began in 1762. Catherine, guided primarily by the interests of the state and recognizing in this case it was impossible to convince her son, finally decided to remove him from business.
                  I didn't find the note myself. Apparently, I didn't search well.
                  But in the "Russian Antiquity" for 1882, his correspondence with Pyotr Ivanovich Panin (who was his good friend from childhood), carried out in 1778, is given. It is on the subject of the organization of troops. Apparently, he also used his "Reasoning" there.
                  1. setter
                    setter 21 December 2022 12: 57
                    +3
                    I didn't find the note myself. Apparently, I didn't search well.

                    If you are interested in Paul I, how did you miss this book? Open it on page 265.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 21 December 2022 13: 43
                      +4
                      If you are interested in Paul I, how did you miss this book? Open it on page 265.

                      Good afternoon! Thanks a lot for the lead. yes I just downloaded the book from the internet. Yes, that's right. hi
                      In general, the quotations given in the book repeat the letters from Pavel Panin of 1778 ("Russian Antiquity", February 1882). About the organization of troops, dividing them into parts - "divisions", etc. Initially, judging by the text of the letter, Pavel consulted with Repnin (later field marshal).
                      But the original of the note itself - "Reasoning", submitted to Catherine in 1774, apparently, if not lost, then lies somewhere deep in the archives, and few people have seen its full text. hi
                      By the way, I even found a book by Kobeko, to which Peskov refers.
                      http://history-fiction.ru/books/all_1/section_1_1/sort_3_2_56/region_0_1/book_3306/
                      1. setter
                        setter 21 December 2022 14: 02
                        +3
                        But the original of the note itself - "Reasoning", submitted to Catherine in 1774, apparently, if not lost, then lies somewhere deep in the archives, and few people have seen its full text.

                        In Russia, where history has been turned from science into a prop for propaganda since ancient times and has "fluctuated along with the party line," familiarity with the archives is an undesirable phenomenon and therefore extremely problematic.
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 21 December 2022 14: 13
                        +7
                        where history, from ancient times, has been turned from science into a propaganda stand and "fluctuated along with the party line"

                        One way or another, all countries sin with this ... hi
                        phenomenon is undesirable and therefore extremely problematic

                        The point, I think, is not in "hesitation", but in the overbureaucratization of access procedures. Who knows how - works. hi
                      3. setter
                        setter 21 December 2022 14: 24
                        -7
                        One way or another, all countries sin with this ...

                        I had the opportunity to get acquainted with the issue in different countries, I can compare.
                        What kind of history can be discussed in a country where it is forbidden by law under threat of criminal punishment to doubt the "officially approved" version of history?
                      4. VLR
                        21 December 2022 14: 40
                        +12
                        What country do you mean? Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia? Where is the official prosecution for doubting the official version of the "Soviet occupation".
                        Romania, Austria, the Czech Republic and some other countries? Where you can rake for doubting the Holocaust.
                        Ukraine? Where for any positive feedback about Russia and the USSR you may not live to see the trial - the local Nazis can handle it themselves.
                        Any other country?
                        Or Russia? In this case, surprise:
                        I personally have never encountered any restrictions. Neither in the USSR, nor in modern Russia. And working with archives, by the way, requires only the correct execution of documents. It's a chore, but nothing supernatural.
                      5. didra
                        didra 22 December 2022 00: 54
                        -1
                        It is not true! Everything is available to whoever wants it.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 December 2022 08: 52
        +4
        Who knows - when was the "Golden Age" in our land. But the country grew stronger and developed.

        And even numerous descendants and troubles failed to squander it.
        1. VLR
          21 December 2022 09: 08
          +4
          Russia was on the rise, it was hard to completely fuck up everything. But, if you look objectively, Elizabeth was absolutely not suitable for the role of queen. Do you remember the diligence of Anna Leopoldovna? But the papers on Elizabeth's desk lay unsigned for weeks and even months. Russia was dragged into the absolutely unnecessary Seven Years' War: just don't talk about the capture of Berlin - it was a raid, like a Tatar one, in order to take a ransom from the townspeople. And you don’t need to remember East Prussia either - there weren’t even plans to annex it, since it was impossible to save, it was separated by foreign territories, and the Swedes or the British could easily block the sea. Thinking about what to change. As a result, Catherine II gave it to Frederick for free - not her husband! You remember that under Peter III in Prussia there was an army of Rumyantsev devoted to him, to whom this emperor was offered to flee. The order to withdraw troops was given by Catherine II - in exchange for her recognition as empress. Her positions were very weak - no rights to the throne, an impostor of pure water. Moreover, the absolutely legitimate Emperor John III (if you count differently - VI), the son of Anna Leopoldovna, is alive. Catherine II then developed eczema on a nervous basis.
          1. setter
            setter 21 December 2022 13: 02
            0
            Russia was dragged into the absolutely unnecessary Seven Years' War

            You read the "History" section of the VO website and the question arises - has Russia ever had some kind of independent foreign policy at all? Or the "Anglo-Saxons" and other "Europeans" used it at their own insidious discretion, as local authors, especially one Samsonov, tell us about this. Yes, and Ryzhov is not far from him.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 16: 17
              +4
              I also do not understand why some authors have such a complex of historical inferiority. I won’t talk about Samsonov, but the fact that Ryzhov completely independently and voluntarily drives himself into a cohort of these noisy debunkers of everything and everything, I am sincerely sorry.
              Even ten years ago, Russia throughout its history was ruled by Jews. Now the Anglo-Saxons. Who is next? Chinese?
              What is bad psychology? All good rulers were killed, and the bad ones ruled at the behest of some force hostile to Russia, in the case of Ryzhov, the Anglo-Saxons.
              Oh, how good Anna Leopoldovna was! ... And if she was so good, then why didn’t she stay in power? Why didn't anyone support her, protect her? Neither her, nor her husband, nor the baby emperor, and quite legitimate? Maybe it wasn't that good? Maybe she wasn’t fit for power at all? Maybe it would lead the country to collapse, driving its next "troubled time"?
              An example scenario.
              Prussia, in alliance with Russia, smashes Austria (quite realistically) and annexes it, creating another German Reich a hundred years earlier. Then, together with Russia, it crushes the Commonwealth, and then, in alliance with the Turks, Russia itself, taking away its access to the sea and returning it in one fell swoop to pre-Petrine times. So maybe Elizabeth is a savior? Maybe her political genius foresaw such a threat and managed to neutralize it? Maybe she was thinking about this when the guards carried her in their arms to crown the kingdom?
              Why should everything that happened be considered bad, while Russia is the eternal victim, ruled by drunken nymphomaniacs and other moral freaks? Like, could we now live like in the Benelux, drink Bavarian beer, eat French shrimp and all on the salary of a janitor? They could, but, damn it, it didn’t grow together, the slut-Elizabeth, a fat slut, displaced the wise, but too pure of heart and proud to fight for power, Anna Leopoldovna with her brave and kind knight-husband from the throne ...
              Forgive me, colleagues, and you personally, dear Passeur, but something suddenly boiled up.
              The author, in order to prove to us the insignificance of those who created our history, is even ready to get into bed with them.
              Valery, excuse me, there are no memoirs that say how many orgasms Elizaveta experienced with Razumovsky during the night, but how many with Shubin? No? Strange ... It is necessary to count it, because the number of orgasms clearly indicates the degree of influence on the empress of one or another favorite. wassat am
              Okay let off steam... smile
              I'll go wash my hands and wipe the spat on the monitor...
              But once I liked the work of Valery ... recourse
              1. know
                know 21 December 2022 16: 25
                +3
                Grumbled, as usual, in an old man's way? Feel better? Well, to health!
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 16: 31
                  +3
                  Personally, I told you everything last time, I do not want to repeat myself. Unless I repeat that if I were Valery, I would be ashamed to have such a narrow-minded and poorly educated subject among the fans of my work.
                  1. know
                    know 21 December 2022 22: 03
                    +1
                    What charming presumptuous rudeness, Mikhail laughing
              2. setter
                setter 21 December 2022 16: 39
                0
                Excuse me, colleagues, and you personally, dear Passeur,

                I see no reason to apologize. Perfectly normal comment.
                Alas, a sober look at the surrounding reality is becoming a rarity. As Panikovsky said: "There are no such people and soon there won't be at all."
                As for the "historical inferiority complex", it's easier to live like that. No need to stress, take responsibility. It's all "they's" fault.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 18: 09
                  +2
                  Quote from Passeur
                  As Panikovsky said

                  Thank you, of course, but ... I won’t pull on the vice-chairman, I didn’t reach my age ... laughing
                  And I apologized for the emotions. And for vernacular expressions. And for "multi-bookcuff". smile
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 December 2022 20: 39
                    +5
                    but ... I won’t pull on the vice-chairman,
                    I'm terribly sorry, Mikhail, but Funk was the chairman, not Panikovsky ...
                    Yes, I know, I'm a terrible bore!)))
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 21: 19
                      +3
                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      I'm a terrible bore!)

                      And not always attentive. The phrase Panikovsky said was addressed to Ostap, but he was talking about Funk. smile
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 December 2022 21: 35
                        +3
                        Oh wow! Taki and which of us is a bore?))))
                    2. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 21 December 2022 21: 24
                      +3
                      I am the vice-chairman Pound. I have always sat. I sat under Alexander II "The Liberator", under Alexander III "Peacemaker", under Nicholas II "Bloody". Under Kerensky, I also sat. True, under war communism I did not sit at all, pure commerce disappeared, there was no work. But how I sat under the NEP! How I sat under the NEP! Those were the best days of my life!
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 21 December 2022 20: 29
                +4
                eat french prawns
                Where do shrimp come from in France?
                1. Senior seaman
                  Senior seaman 21 December 2022 21: 08
                  +4
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  Where do shrimp come from in France?

                  News from Belarus! yes
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 December 2022 21: 31
                    +3
                    News from Belarus!
                    "But the men don't know!" (C)
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 21 December 2022 21: 22
                  +3
                  They're catching. Guerand Peninsula, for example.
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 21 December 2022 15: 16
            +2
            However, as we know, the rise did not last forever. What needs to be done to return to the ascent stage?
            1. Mike_E
              Mike_E 23 December 2022 15: 39
              +1
              Push off from the bottom, apparently. True, it is not always possible - instead of it there will be an endless sea, sorry, shit, in which you can drown forever ...
      3. MBRSS
        MBRSS 21 December 2022 23: 13
        +2
        A pious entertainer and a cheerful spoiler, lazy and careless ...

        Thank you, we do not need such rulers. It may be "traditional", but not values.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 21 December 2022 08: 01
      +6
      Good morning, Sergey! smile

      Yes, Valery whipped Elizabeth in the manner of the Empress herself, but not with a shoe and not on her cheeks. And okay, there was such a viper in general at the court that a shoe in the muzzle, it's somehow like a light joke is seen.
      In general, I again got confused in all these crowned women. their lovers and the joint efforts of the planed children.
      He read and amused himself from the bottom of his heart, only sometimes he slipped - this one went into exile, this one went to a monastery, and someone was completely finished off.
      The number of every rank of people languishing in captivity extended to many thousands of people.

      I especially liked about the "high-ranking people" behind bars. Hmm... There were times.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 21 December 2022 08: 08
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Yes, there was a cheerful life in Russia, is it a tradition?

        What times were, such are morals, by the way, Elizaveta Petrovna abolished the death penalty (then returned)
        She once asked the old nobleman - why there was so much atrocity, he answered her ingenuously .......... there were such times, mother.
        1. VLR
          21 December 2022 08: 23
          +3
          Elizaveta Petrovna abolished the death penalty

          She did not cancel anything, it was, as they would say now, "a PR move." The death penalty was simply made more savage and painful. Here, for example, is what Nicholas I once wrote:
          "Guilty to drive through 1000 people 12 times. Thank God, we did not have the death penalty, and it is not for me to introduce it."

          D. G. Bertram. The history of the rose. T. I. M., 1992, p. 157.
          It was impossible to survive after 12 thousand blows with gauntlets, and everyone understood this very well. Elizabeth's "mercy" was the same: they imposed a punishment to survive after which it was impossible. But formally there was no death penalty.
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 21 December 2022 08: 33
            +1
            Quote: VlR
            Here, for example, is what Nicholas I once wrote:

            Why commemorate him, after all, we are not talking about him, we would have to deal with Elizaveta Petrovna.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 December 2022 08: 22
        +4
        Good morning, Constantine!

        What can you want from a yard.

        You probably know what a royal palace is.
        Behind the wall people are strangled, brothers, sisters.
        They suffocate.
        In a word, everyday everyday life goes on.
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. The comment was deleted.
      5. VLR
        21 December 2022 08: 26
        +5
        Yes, Valery whipped Elizabeth in the manner of the Empress herself


        Elizaveta Petrovna inherited from you


        Konstantin, Sergey, do you really prefer to see Elizabeth the way she was shown in the recent false television series? Unfortunately, you won’t expect this from me, I write only the truth.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 December 2022 08: 45
          +6
          Good morning, Valery. hi

          I was not a fan of serials before, and now even more so. I just don't go to TV. As for Elizabeth, I don’t care what she was, but it’s just interesting to read you. smile
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 21 December 2022 08: 55
          +4
          I don't know, Valery, I didn't look.

          Time from Alexei Mikhailovich is vividly perceived for us.
          There are still trees that caught him.

          And so it is loved, with all the troubles.

          Any return is welcome. It's like a favorite book. Even rearranging is nice.
  3. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 09: 33
    +6
    In vain I began to read, only spoiled my mood in the morning. angry It was kind of embarrassing to read...
    The author visited Yekaterina’s bed, sniffed everything out at Elizabeth too - half of the article is devoted to listing her alleged lovers ... Let me remind you that the article, in theory, should have been devoted to Anna Leopoldovna.
    Valery, leave alone our empresses and their moral character. If you want to say a few good words about one woman, you do not need to throw mud at another - this does not do you credit as a researcher, and is somehow completely unmanly. Collecting dirty rumors and publishing them can be an exciting activity, but VO is not "AIDS-INFO" yet, although there is a fear that things are moving towards this, including through your efforts.
    1. know
      know 21 December 2022 09: 43
      +1
      And how do you propose to do without comparing Anna Leopoldovna and Elizaveta Petrovna, if the second of them overthrew the first? As for "bedding", the royal bedroom is not the boudoir of a Tver or Tambov lady. And the favorites are practically "state people". Information from the royal or imperial bedroom of ambassadors and spies was of primary interest. Philistine logic does not apply to them. The story about the lovers of some Mrs. Prostakova is an anecdote, about the lovers of Elizabeth Petrovna, Catherine II, the mistresses of Louis XIV - historical facts.
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 21 December 2022 20: 35
      +1
      hi Mikhail, it’s high time, he treats with humor .. to what they write in History, sometimes breaks through, kanesh .. smile Sometimes they write this..
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 December 2022 21: 21
        +1
        I usually do this, but something broke today. I already apologized in the comment above. smile
      2. know
        know 22 December 2022 05: 11
        +2
        This is the elementary envy of a graphomaniac who does not even understand that his opinion, which he expresses with such a constant and surprising aplomb and some incomprehensible, completely inexplicable arrogance, turning into open rudeness, sticking out his person, is of no value to anyone and no one is interested. Especially to the author, who acts according to the principle "... barks, but the caravan moves on."
  4. north 2
    north 2 21 December 2022 10: 07
    +4
    the writer Pikul and the historian Kurukin mentioned in the article are our contemporaries. And in the article, the mentioned Manstein and Munnich are contemporaries of the time of Anna Leopoldovna, therefore there is reason to trust the contemporaries of the time of Anna Leopoldovna more ... After all, it is logical to refer to the fact that her contemporaries wrote about the person, and not two hundred and fifty years later ...
    And about Anna Leopoldovna, in fact, her contemporary Manstein wrote that she did not have a single quality to rule the country in an unstable time. She was not ready that "His Majesty the case" would visit her fate and she would at least have to reign, about how to rule the country even out of the question ... And even the role of the producer of the heir to the throne did not mean that she herself was brought up and prepared as the heir to the throne. Anna Leopoldovna did not have diligence, energy, will, the ability to please her subjects with friendliness, as Elizaveta Petrovna knew how to do, or vice versa, to make them tremble with one glance, as her aunt Anna Ioannovna did. Because, according to the general opinion, under Anna Ioannovna, all the ministers were completely lazy and rogues and they had to either be "rewarded" with a slap in the face or flogged in the stable. Manstein also adds that Anna Leopoldovna was also capricious, quick-tempered, did not like work, was indecisive in trifles and in the most important things.
    But even to frown her brows, like her aunt, Anna Leopoldovna didn’t even know how. This is confirmed not only by Manstein, but also by Minich, that ... she was condescending to domestic servants and did good to them.
    And this, as you know, is a huge lack of rulers. By the way, here is Anna Ioannovna, this one even corresponded to the current rulers of Russia - with foreign sovereigns she radiated friendliness and courtesy to the point of cloying, and her people frowned severely and evilly, as if their own people were always to blame for something before the rulers.
    Anna Leopoldovna did not have despotic qualities and her desire for mercy was a very rare quality among those who ruled Russia. throughout the Romanov dynasty.
    1. Eule
      Eule 21 December 2022 12: 57
      +2
      Quote: north 2
      not only Manstein

      But the German general, who rode a tank in the USSR, and Monika Lewinsky-Manstein are his descendants?
      Unique last name!
  5. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 21 December 2022 10: 57
    +3
    The shorter the term of government, this or that head of state, no matter where, the more glorification in his address. Usually they say: "I did not have time" ..
    1. know
      know 21 December 2022 11: 16
      +1
      More often it is the other way around: if they “leave” not voluntarily, like Peter 3 or Paul 1, then the winners perform a “ritual dance” on their corpses. Like, they are not vile ... they are not perjurers and not traitors, but patriots who saved the country from all kinds of crazy people or alcoholics. They should also be thanked for their betrayal. And, in order not to wait a long time for gratitude, they begin to “thank” themselves.
      On the other hand, no one seems to have said about Catherine 1: "I didn't have time." They didn’t smear with mud, since she herself died, but they were ashamed to especially praise.
      1. kor1vet1974
        kor1vet1974 21 December 2022 12: 35
        +2
        On the other hand, it seems that no one said about Catherine 1: “I didn’t have time”
        Maybe she was just getting ready to "roll up her sleeves", but that's all .. The old woman, with a scythe, crept up unnoticed .. smile
        1. VLR
          21 December 2022 13: 35
          +4
          Maybe she's just about to roll up her sleeves

          Under Catherine I, 10% of all Russian budget funds were spent on the purchase of Tokay wine for the royal court. When did she roll up her sleeves? French envoy Jacques de Campredon recalled:
          “Entertainment (Catherine) consists in daily, lasting all night and a good part of the day, drinking parties in the garden, with persons who, due to the duty of service, must always be at court.”
  6. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 21 December 2022 12: 02
    +3
    Her son, being grandson Peter I and Charles XII

    I understand that this is written in almost all articles and even in a school textbook, but ... Karl had no children, and accordingly, there could not be grandchildren!
    Peter III - great-nephew Charles XII!!!
    Well, speaking of what kind of ruler Anna Leopoldovna could be, it seems to me that it was worth mentioning her husband. Anton Ulrich of Brunswick. What kind of person was it?
    1. VLR
      21 December 2022 12: 10
      +5
      Pikul portrays Anton Ulrich as a miserable stutterer and half-wit. And he was a real fighting general. He commanded the III Cuirassier Regiment, later called Braunschweig. In 1737, during another war with Turkey, he was part of the active army. During the assault on the fortress of Ochakov, a horse was killed under him, and two of his adjutants were mortally wounded. So, to replace them, the young Baron Münghausen came to Russia.
      1. kor1vet1974
        kor1vet1974 21 December 2022 12: 26
        +2
        During the assault on the fortress of Ochakov, a horse was killed under him, and two of his adjutants were mortally wounded.
        So, of course, an assault, bullets whistle over your head, and not butterflies fly .. And did he, on a horse, storm the rampart or climb a wall?
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 21 December 2022 12: 37
          +4
          Quote: kor1vet1974
          And what, on horseback, stormed the rampart or climbed the wall?

          Rather, he got out to dance in front of the attacking column, shout something like - "forverts kamaraden!" and then a bomb flew in ... it happens.
        2. VLR
          21 December 2022 13: 40
          +4
          Not according to his rank, apparently, he had to walk around the fortress on foot.
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 21 December 2022 16: 25
            +4
            Quote: VlR
            Not according to his rank, apparently, he had to walk around the fortress on foot.

            So to him, a lot of things were out of order. Surely, the personal convoy is larger than that of the entire regiment of the Yellow Cuirassiers, cooks, servants, hangers-on in the retinue.
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 21 December 2022 12: 35
        +5
        Quote: VlR
        Pikul portrays Anton Ulrich as a miserable stutterer and half-wit.

        Not certainly in that way. It's more like a wiki.
        Anna at first sight disliked her betrothed, a young man of short stature, effeminate, stutterer, very limited, but modest, with a soft and supple character.

        Pikul, as far as I remember, is not a stupid guy. Like a circus horse. He understands everything, but nothing can change)))
        But Valentin Savvovich, as a historian, of course ... he is still Dumas)))
        And he was a real fighting general. He commanded the III Cuirassier Regiment, later called Braunschweig. In 1737, during another war with Turkey, he was part of the active army.

        So "combat general" or just "was with the army"?
        Was he trusted with independent command?
        1. VLR
          21 December 2022 13: 38
          +3
          So "combat general" or just "was with the army"?
          Was he trusted with independent command?


          The commander of the cuirassier regiment - wherever they say, he will lead his people there. Of course, he did not make strategic decisions. But after all, he could calmly spend time with a glass of wine or a glass of beer in St. Petersburg, who would even say a word to him, the groom of the future mother of the Russian emperor? And he goes to war
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 21 December 2022 16: 21
            +4
            Quote: VlR
            The commander of the cuirassier regiment - wherever they say, he will lead his people there.

            Well, for starters, not the commander, but the "chief". There was such an honorary sinecure at the RIA. It seems like a high-ranking officer in business, but you don’t have to do anything yourself.
            In particular, it was Karl Ulrich Peter who replaced him in this high post. Remember many military exploits behind him.

            Quote: VlR
            But after all, he could calmly spend time with a glass of wine or a glass of beer in St. Petersburg, who would even say a word to him, the groom of the future mother of the Russian emperor? And he goes to war

            Nobility obliges
            It is now that even for a picnic in the forest one must have a certain heroic disposition of character and a penchant for adventures, but then war was such an ordinary thing that no one considered it something outstanding.
            And said, in all likelihood, the royal aunt of his wife. Say, why are you, my dear son-in-law, wiping your pants in the palace? Go at least to the war or something, maybe you will pick up the mind, or at worst, you will get useful acquaintances ...
        2. Ryaruav
          Ryaruav 21 December 2022 20: 23
          0
          Ivan, Pikul is a liar and a opportunist, he was summoned to a meeting of officers of the Baltic twice Red Banner Fleet about his writings, of course he didn’t come, the cabin boy is a dropout, but bella triste’s talent is immediately visible, no one argues here
    2. kor1vet1974
      kor1vet1974 21 December 2022 13: 15
      +6
      What kind of person was that?
      He was well-read and simply a decent person, he was not a coward in battles, but he was not a strong politician or a great military leader, a man not of this world ..
  7. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 21 December 2022 20: 16
    -1
    the distribution of orders and privileges is very much reminiscent of the modern times of the reign of his excellency of the entire Russian and Jewish (Rothenberg Kirienka, etc., etc.) world, almost a saint, almost an impostor Vovka Vladimirych
  8. MBRSS
    MBRSS 21 December 2022 23: 24
    +1
    Reading about all this monarchist garbage, I once again affirm the idea that power in Russia should be collegial (for example, as under Brezhnev). No monarchy or quasi-monarchy, only the Supreme Council.
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  12. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 22 December 2022 10: 37
    0
    Gentlemen, two quotes came to mind by the way.

    "Any power corrupts. Absolute - corrupts absolutely" (it's a pity I didn't come up with it)



    "After Peter 1, Russia was very unlucky with the tsars!"
    (Film "We'll Live Till Monday").
    source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7bfkiwmvdw
  13. Nik2002
    Nik2002 22 December 2022 10: 53
    +1
    Once again, you are convinced that history is written by the winners, so the losing side in the political struggle for power is usually presented with a complex of negative aspects, indicating that it is not worthy to possess this very power. So the Braunschweig family, which lost power to Merry Elizabeth, fully tasted all the justice of this truth. And so the unfortunate Anna Leopoldovna remained in the History of the Russian State a narrow-minded and frivolous German princess.
  14. Illanatol
    Illanatol 22 December 2022 14: 00
    0
    Quote: VlR
    But, if you look objectively, Elizabeth was absolutely not suitable for the role of queen. Do you remember the diligence of Anna Leopoldovna?


    V. Pikul, who is being persuaded here, in his novel cited an amusing document concerning the state's expenses of that time. I will not evaluate the novel, but I have little doubt about the reliability of this estimate. It follows from it that the most significant item of the state budget went to the maintenance of the court of this "hard-working" mistress of Russia. It is especially revealing to compare this multi-million dollar amount with the cost of education: the difference is striking.
    Well, yes, amusing fun, such as an ice palace with personal belongings, cost a pretty penny.
    For me, one who sees in the country he rules only an instrument for satisfying his whims cannot be considered a good ruler.
    As for kindness and mercy: didn’t Elizaveta Petrovna introduce a moratorium on the death penalty? Something unheard of at the time.
    Assessing the foreign policy successes, I don’t see much difference between these crowned women. The wars seem to have been successful, but the territorial acquisitions are quite modest. It is incomparable with what Russia will gain during the time of Catherine the Great.
    1. VLR
      22 December 2022 14: 59
      0
      It seems that you confused the heroine of the article with Anna Ioannovna.
      By the way, Anna Ioannovna is the only empress under whom there was a surplus budget.
      And on the abolition of the death penalty, I already wrote: this is a fiction - they did not pass death sentences, but they imposed punishments that a person physically could not endure. The same death penalty, only more painful and savage
  15. Illanatol
    Illanatol 23 December 2022 13: 59
    0
    Quote: VlR
    It seems that you confused the heroine of the article with Anna Ioannovna.
    By the way, Anna Ioannovna is the only empress under whom Anna had a surplus budget.
    And on the abolition of the death penalty, I already wrote: this is a fiction - they did not pass death sentences, but they imposed punishments that a person physically could not endure. The same death penalty, only more painful and savage


    I was talking about Anna Ioannovna. Since Pikul devoted his novel to her era, and they began to mention him here. And it is still correct to compare one empress with another, to compare an empress with a princess - past the cash register.
    Come on. A person could still endure blows with a whip. But if they are sentenced to hanging or beheading, there is no chance.
    Useful in a deficit-free budget if it does not work for the development of the country. And this time, the 18th century - a time of stagnation, if you call a spade a spade. All these ladies in crowns had little interest in domestic politics, economic development. Serfs pay taxes, give recruits, they don’t particularly rebel - and that’s okay.