Military Review

Russia and England: moving east

88
Russia and England: moving east
Wintering expedition of Bering



Oddly enough, the cold northeast coast of Asia has always been of great interest to the gentlemen of the distant British Isles. The movement of Russian pioneers to the east and to the Pacific Ocean was a natural and inevitable process - like the movement of American colonists to the west. It was both organized and spontaneous in nature, and at the peak of the development of new lands, Russian settlers "jumped" across the ocean, ending up on the American continent. However, for a variety of reasons, they could not gain a foothold on it.

The interest of the British was quite different. The British in this case did not seek to populate the wild expanses of Chukotka or Kamchatka. They were looking for new territories for organizing unequal trade, markets for their goods, and new trade routes that they wanted to "saddle" and control, preventing competitors from entering them.

The first "studies" of the British


The northern and eastern territories of the Moscow kingdom attracted the attention of the British as early as the middle of the XNUMXth century.

It all started in August 1553, when the English ship Edward Bonaventure, captained by Richard Chancellor, anchored in the Dvina Bay of the White Sea near the so-called Summer Coast (where Severodvinsk was later founded). It was one of three English ships sent east by the British, two more were lost on the way.


The ship "Edward Bonaventure" at the North Cape, painting by an unknown artist

The British were looking for a new route to China, which, as they believed, could be reached by sailing up the Ob River. And they found the gate to the Moscow kingdom, which surprised Chancellor with its size and potential. Chancellor reported to London:

“Russia abounds in land and people and is very rich in the goods that it has ... If the Russians knew their strength, no one could compete with them, and their neighbors would have no rest from them.”


Richard Chancellor at a reception at Ivan the Terrible, fragment of an XNUMXth-century French engraving

In 1555, the British company "Society of Merchants-Prospectors for the Discovery of Countries, Lands, Islands, States and Possessions unknown and hitherto unvisited", which equipped Chancellor's expedition, was renamed Moscow.


Coat of arms of the English Moscow Company

Its activities were briefly interrupted in 1649 - after the execution of Charles I Stuart, but was resumed in 1660 with the accession of Charles II Stuart. In 1698, Peter I issued a decree depriving the English Moscow Company of monopoly privileges, but officially it existed until 1917. In London, there are still toponyms associated with the activities of this company: Russia Row Street (the headquarters of the Moscow Company was located here), Russia Dock Woodland Park (at the site of the dock where the wood was unloaded), Russia Dock Street, Muscovy Street and Onega Gate.

Let's go back to the middle of the 1556th century and see that already in XNUMX, Captain Stephen Barrow reached the mouth of the Ob on the Sercheroft pinnace. Moreover, he not only did not receive consent from the Russian authorities for this, but did not even notify them of his voyage.

In 1558-1560. Anthony Jenkinson, sent by Mary Tudor to Moscow instead of Chancellor, who died at sea, already with the permission of Ivan the Terrible, who at that time favored the British, sailed along the Volga to the Caspian Sea. From Moscow he got to Astrakhan, and from it to Bukhara.

In 1562 he repeated his journey down the Volga to the Caspian Sea, this time visiting the Persian cities of Qazvin and Shemakha. Returning to London, he published a "Map of Russia, Muscovy and Tartaria", which correctly displayed the Ural Mountains, and even indicated "Molgomzeya" - an area in the north of Western Siberia on the territory of the modern Khanty-Mansiysk Okrug. The first Russian city (Mangazeya) will be founded here only in 1601.


Map of Jenkinson, 1562

Thus, in the 9 years that have passed since the arrival of Richard Chancellor, the British managed to conduct a thorough reconnaissance of waterways not only in the European, but also in the Asian part of Russia.

In 1580, Arthur Pat and Charles Jackman on the ships George and William sailed along the northern coast of Russia to the entrance to the Kara Sea. On the way back, the British lost one ship.

In 1620, the government of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov finally took notice of these extremely suspicious "explorations of the Arctic" and banned the navigation of foreign subjects in the internal sea waters of Russia. However, all other privileges of this company have been confirmed.

English agents and Russian "well-wishers" of London


Under Peter I, a huge number of foreign specialists, including sailors, were attracted to the Russian service. This influx of foreigners had a side effect, because along with really valuable specialists (like Cornelius Cruys and Vitus Bering hired by him), adventurers and, possibly, professional intelligence officers came to Russia. It is known that some documents and materials related to Russian exploration of the eastern coast of Eurasia have disappeared from the archives. But the logbooks of expeditionary ships until the beginning of the XNUMXth century. were considered secret documents, they were not issued even to employees of the Academy of Sciences. It is possible that the cause of these losses was elementary irresponsibility and carelessness. But one cannot rule out the bribery of archival officials by agents of foreign states or the activities of “well-wishers” who did not miss the opportunity to disinterestedly render a service to their homeland. If the second assumption is correct, then one can only guess how many copies were made from the documents remaining in the archives.

The names of some high-ranking foreign intelligence officers are well known. One of them was the English envoy at the court of Peter I, Baron Charles Whitworth, a full namesake and relative of another envoy who was in St. Petersburg in 1788-1800.


Baron Charles Whitworth

And in this portrait by Giovanni Battista, his nephew is Count Charles Whitworth, who is suspected, if not of organizing, then at least of financing a conspiracy against Paul I:


It can be fairly confidently asserted that Baron Whitworth's informant was the Vice-Chancellor, and then the head of the Ambassadorial Department Pyotr Shafirov. In 1708, in a letter to London, Whitworth reports that Shafirov accepted 400 pounds from him, expressing "deep gratitude" and "readiness to continue to serve Her Majesty(To Queen Anne Stewart of England).

And in April 1709, Whitworth reported to London about A. Menshikov’s request to apply for a passport for his relative, Vasily Aksenov, and about his intention to first make sure how the prince “willing to use his influence» in lobbying for British interests. For a rich, like Croesus, thieving favorite of Peter I, sums of 400 pounds or so were, of course, simply ridiculous (although he never disdained such things). Of much greater interest to him, probably, was assistance in transferring accumulated funds abroad (in the end, he withdrew his capital to the banks of Venice and Amsterdam, from where they managed to return them with great difficulty during the reign of Anna Ioannovna).

The “Merry Queen” Elizaveta Petrovna was mainly interested in balls and masquerades. Not surprisingly, its ministers interacted more than informally with foreign ambassadors and commercial agents. The example was set by the chancellor of the Russian Empire A.P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, who unexpectedly became the positive hero of the TV movie “Midshipmen forward”. The review that the Prussian king Frederick II left about him has been preserved:

“His corruption reached the point that he would sell his mistress (Elizabeth) at auction if he could find a rich enough buyer for her.”

From his government, the chancellor received a salary of seven thousand rubles, and from the British - twelve thousand. He also took money from the Austrians.

About another chancellor of Elizabeth - M. I. Vorontsov, Catherine II already said that he "sold to every buyer; there was no court that did not support him on a salary».

His nephew was the Russian ambassador in London and a desperate Angloman Semyon Vorontsov, his nieces were the favorite of Peter III, Elizaveta Vorontsova, and an active participant in the conspiracy against this emperor, Ekaterina Dashkova. It is curious that if the participants in the conspiracy against Peter III were good friends of Ekaterina Dashkova, then the conspirators who killed the son of this emperor, Paul I, as well as some close employees of Alexander I, were well acquainted with her brother, Semyon Vorontsov. This is his son - Mikhail, Pushkin called in his epigram "semi-lord". M. Vorontsov was brought to England as a child of three years old, at the age of 4, without leaving London, he became an ensign of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, returned to Russia when he was 19 years old. Mikhail Vorontsov knew English better than Russian, and his palace in the Crimea looks like a real English castle. He was his own man in the high society of London, a friend of many offspring of British lords, the planted father of his bride, the Pole Elizabeth Ksaveryevna Branitskaya, became the famous commander Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington (the wedding took place in Paris in 1819).

Semyon Vorontsov's daughter and Mikhail's sister, Ekaterina, did not return to Russia. She married Lord George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke, 8th Earl of Montgomery. Catherine's son was Secretary of the British Council of Control, Deputy Secretary of the Navy, Minister of the Colonies. During the Crimean War, he served as Secretary of State for War.

Of course, by no means can one call Semyon Vorontsov and his son Mikhail agents of British intelligence, but they certainly were high-ranking and completely voluntary “agents of English influence”.

Imperial period of exploration of the east coast of Asia


But back to the cold waters of the North Pacific.

In 1778 the ships of James Cook came to the Chukchi Sea (his third voyage).


James Cook in a portrait by William Hodges


Itinerary of James Cook's third voyage

It was Cook, who met with Russian merchants-industrialists who showed him maps drawn up during the Second Kamchatka Expedition, who proposed calling the strait separating Asia from America Bering (although Semyon Dezhnev was the first to pass through it).


Bering's second Kamchatka expedition, map

James Cook was killed on the way back on one of the Hawaiian Islands (which, by the way, he discovered and named the Sandwich Islands). He was replaced as leader of the expedition by Captain Charles Clerk. In 1779, he again took his ships north and died off the coast of Kamchatka.

Oddly enough, the question of the presence of a strait between the northern coasts of Asia and America at the end of the 1785th century was still open. Even after the second expedition of Bering, the Russian authorities continued to doubt the existence of this strait. And Cook's third voyage convinced no one in London. To finally resolve the issue of the strait between Asia and North America in 1728, a new expedition was organized in Russia. It was led by a participant in the third voyage of James Cook - the Englishman Joseph Billings. He was warmly recommended for this position by the well-known Anglophile Semyon Vorontsov, the Russian ambassador in London. Gavriil Andreevich Sarychev became Billings' deputy. It is curious that Billings' report was immediately printed abroad in English, German, French and Italian, and the Russian translation of this work was never bothered to be published. Even more “interesting”, by the way, happened with Vitus Bering’s watch log “Saint Gabriel” for 1279-1973, which was completely considered lost until in XNUMX it was discovered in the Central State Archive of the Naval Fleet THE USSR.

It is also interesting that upon returning to St. Petersburg, Billings asked to be transferred to Sevastopol, since he really wanted to conduct a hydrographic survey of the Black Sea. He compiled an inventory of the coast from the Kerch Strait to the mouth, as well as near Odessa and its environs, in 1799 he published an atlas of the Black Sea, after which he asked to resign.

Did he share any confidential information with the British? It is difficult to say, there is no evidence of such cooperation, but there is nothing impossible in such an assumption: he could cooperate - in order to earn some money, or disinterestedly, out of love for the abandoned homeland.

Under Catherine II, another expedition was planned to the eastern shores of the Russian Empire, and Russian sailors were supposed to travel around the world. Grigory Ivanovich Mulovsky was appointed head of the expedition, one of his captains was another member of Cook's third voyage - James Trevenen, a former midshipman of the ship "Resolution".


Resolution and Discovery - ships of Cook's 3rd expedition in the picture of G. Miller

Mulovsky's expedition failed due to the outbreak of war with Turkey, and then with Sweden. G. Mulovsky, the head of this failed expedition, died in 1789 during the Battle of Eland on the ship Mstislav. And in July 1790, during a naval battle in the Vyborg Bay, Trevenen, who was then the captain of the 66-gun ship Don't Touch Me, also died. Therefore, we bow our heads to honor the memory of the hero who was buried with military honors in Kronstadt. But still, we note the very great interest shown by the members of the crews of the Cook ships to Russian exploration of the eastern coast of Asia.

Looking ahead, let's say that Russian sailors nevertheless made a round-the-world trip - already during the reign of Alexander I: in July 1803, the sloops Nadezhda (commanded by I. Kruzenshtern) and Neva (captain - Y. Lisyansky) set off on a campaign . On the sloop "Nadezhda" there were very interesting people. For example, Thaddeus Bellingshausen is a future Antarctic explorer. Nikolai Rezanov, who will soon meet in California with the young Spaniard Maria de la Concepción Marcella Arguello, better known as Conchita. Returning to St. Petersburg, Rezanov will die in Krasnoyarsk - in February 1807 at the age of only 42 years. This story is known to everyone thanks to the famous opera by Alexei Rybnikov.


"And they will sway with meaningless heights ..."
Photo from the premiere of the "modern opera" "Juno and Avos" in the author's version of the composer (provided by Tatyana Vladimirovna Kadyshevskaya-Rybnikova). Gradsky Hall, December 15, 2022

On the sloop "Nadezhda" was also in his own way the famous Fyodor Tolstoy-American - high-society dunce, breter and sharper.

Let's return to Russia in 1801 and see that already on April 2 - a month after the assassination of Paul I, the Secret Expedition under the Senate was liquidated. Usually this is presented as a progressive step of Alexander I, but Russia lost the secret service, which monitored not only dissidents, but also the suspicious activities of foreigners - from ambassadors to officers of the army and navy and civil servants. As a result, foreign spies became so insolent that their activities became simply conspicuous. And therefore, in March 1812, Minister of War M. Barclay de Tolly was forced to create a new body to fight them - the Higher Military Police, headed by J. I. de Sanglen.

Russian America


We have already said that Semyon Dezhnev was the first to cross the strait separating Asia and America in 1648, but, unfortunately, his report was never sent to St. Petersburg - he remained lying in the Yakut prison. As a result, the cape, which is the extreme eastern point of Eurasia, was named Vostochny by James Cook and only at the suggestion of the Swede Nordenskiöld received a modern name in honor of the discoverer.


Cape Dezhnev on a Soviet stamp

Tradition also connects Dezhnev with the foundation of the first (not preserved) settlement in Alaska, which was allegedly founded by sailors who had gone astray. However, there is no documentary evidence of the foundation of a Russian colony in Alaska in the 13th century. The Russians regularly sailed to Alaska for furs, but did not stay there. Of particular importance were the islands discovered by the navigator Gavrila Pribylov, who heard about them from a Kamchatka shaman. Pribylov searched for these islands for 1773 years - from 1786 to 18, and discovered during the XNUMXth voyage. They turned out to be extremely rich in fur seals.

And the first permanent Russian settlement on the American continent, Kodiak Island, was founded by Grigory Shelekhov and his companion Ivan Golikov in 1784.


G. I. Shelikhov in the portrait of an unknown artist

At that time, another Russian company, the merchants Lebedev and Lastochkin, also made attempts at colonization, but they ultimately failed and abandoned their plans. But the activities of the company of Irkutsk merchants Grigory Shelekhov and Ivan Golikov turned out to be more successful. After the death of Shelekhov in 1798, the business was continued by his companion Ivan Illarionovich Golikov, as well as the heirs: the widow Natalya Alekseevna, and two sons-in-law, the merchant Mikhail Matveevich Buldakov and Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov. Most famous, of course, is Rezanov - chief secretary of the Governing Senate, chamberlain, real state councilor and the protagonist of Alexei Rybnikov's cult opera Juno and Avos.


N. Rezanov in a portrait by an unknown artist, 1803


Rezanov and Conchita on the stage of the Gradsky Hall Theater, December 15, 2022

An important role in the colonization of Russian America was also played by the Irkutsk merchant of the 1st guild Nikolai Mylnikov and his sons Dmitry and Yakov. The heirs of Shelekhov, Golikov and Mylnikov, founded the Russian-American Company, the charter of which was approved by Paul I in 1799. The Minister of Commerce N. P. Rumyantsev, the son of the famous field marshal, later provided great assistance to this company. At his suggestion, in 1806, the company was even granted its own flag, which was used as a sea and fortress flag.


The flag of the Russian-American Company, approved in 1806.

The first Russian settlements on the mainland (Alaska) were founded in 1799 and existed until 1867.


Provinces of Russian Alaska

The largest Russian city in Alaska was Novo-Arkhangelsk, which is now called Sitka. In addition, in California, 80 km north of San Francisco, the Russian fortress of Ross (Fort Ross) was built in 1812, and then three agricultural colonies were organized to the south of it. The initiator of the creation of settlements in California was Nikolai Rezanov.


Fort Ross on a postage stamp

Lands in California were sold to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1841. And in January 1848, gold was found in California - the Gold Rush began, which lasted until 1855.


A huge number of ships with prospectors in the harbor of San Francisco, 1849

San Francisco, whose population in 1841 was no more than a thousand people, by 1850 had become a large city of 25 at that time. The state of California is still called the "Golden" state in the United States.

And in 1816, Georg Schaeffer, who served in the Russian-American Company, built the Elizabethan Fortress (Fort Elizabeth) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, which, however, was abandoned a year later.


Hawaiian Islands on the map. Discovered by James Cook, until the end of the XNUMXth century they were called the Sandwich Islands (not to be confused with the South Sandwich Islands). Kauai Island on the map can be seen in the upper left corner

But even without these southern territories, the total area of ​​Russian possessions in the New World reached 1 square kilometers.


Russian America

The idea to sell Alaska to the United States came to Alexander II after the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War. The first official to propose such a deal was Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky, whose monument can be seen on the modern Russian banknote of 5 thousand rubles.

The king and people from his entourage were afraid that in the event of a new aggravation of the situation, the British would occupy Alaska, for the protection of which there simply were not sufficient forces in the east of the empire. Indeed, during the Crimean War, the British and French tried to attack Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, albeit unsuccessfully. In addition, the number of fur-bearing animals was significantly reduced, gold deposits had not yet been found, and the distant American colonies did not bring profits. The act of sale was finally legally executed by the Russian side on October 6 (18), 1867. Since 1917, October 18 has been celebrated in the United States as Alaska Day. And on August 16, 1896, gold was found here, and a new wave of the Gold Rush began - even more ambitious than in California. She is familiar to many from the stories of Jack London. And the word "Klondike" has since become a household word.


Alaska gold fields


Alaska, waiting for a gold mining license

Amur region and Sakhalin


The exploration of the Amur region in the middle of the XNUMXth century was started by Vasily Poyarkov, who was the first to sail along the southwestern coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and discovered Dauria, and Erofey Khabarov, who explored Yakutia and the Amur region.


Map of V. Khabarov's campaigns

But only in the middle of the 1849th century were decisive steps taken to annex Primorye to Russia, and in spite of strict instructions sent from St. Petersburg. The violator was Gennady Ivanovich Nevelsky, who arrived there in the modest rank of lieutenant commander. In the summer of 1850, he reached the mouth of the Amur and discovered that Sakhalin was separated from the mainland by a strait. In XNUMX, Nevelsky founded the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur (then the Nikolaevsky post) and declared the surrounding lands to belong to Russia. For this, on the recommendation of the Special Committee, he was almost demoted to sailors, but it was then and on this occasion that Nicholas I uttered the famous phrase:

"Where the Russian flag is raised once, it should not be lowered there."


Monument to G. Nevelsky in the Sakhalin city, which in 1946 was named after this admiral

Nevelskoy's research was continued by his subordinates - Nikolai Konstantinovich Boshnyak, who discovered the Khadzhi harbor (now Sovetskaya Gavan) and discovered a coal deposit on Sakhalin, and Dmitry Ivanovich Orlov.

But what about the English? They continued to carry out their research work. Joseph Wiggins, for example, in the late XIX - early XX centuries. in 20 years he sailed 11 times from Britain to the mouths of the Yenisei and the Ob, and along the Yenisei he reached Krasnoyarsk.

And only after the October Revolution such suspicious studies by foreigners of internal sea and river routes were strictly prohibited.
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  1. Sertorius
    Sertorius 19 December 2022 05: 45
    +9
    Multifaceted article. As a native Far Easterner, I am glad that the topic of joining the Far East to Russia does not go unnoticed at VO. But Valery included here some things that are not directly related to the topic.
    Of course, by no means can one call Semyon Vorontsov and his son Mikhail agents of British intelligence, but they certainly were high-ranking and completely voluntary “agents of English influence”.

    If one can speak of Semyon Vorontsov as an Anglophile, then I will intercede for his son. Arriving from England, Mikhail at the age of 20 immediately entered the service and remained in it until old age. His merit is uncountable. His most famous feat is the defense of the Bagration flushes. A real combat Russian general. His "English manners", for which Pushkin, angry at him, called Vorontsov "half my lord", clearly did not make him an agent of English influence.
    1. Luminman
      Luminman 19 December 2022 07: 45
      +6
      Quote: Sertorius
      If you can talk about Semyon Vorontsov as an Englishman

      Being the viceroy in the Caucasus, the Angloman-Vorontsov invited the English (more precisely, Scottish) architect S. Upton to the Caucasus. The buildings of his construction - all in the traditional English style - can be seen now in Pyatigorsk and Kislovodsk
      1. Sertorius
        Sertorius 19 December 2022 13: 29
        +2
        about Semyon Vorontsov

        Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov never visited the Caucasus. It was Mikhail Semyonovich who served there.
        1. Luminman
          Luminman 19 December 2022 14: 12
          +1
          Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov never visited the Caucasus. It was Mikhail Semyonovich who served there

          I know that.
          But Mikh.Semenovich was still what an inveterate Anglophile!
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 December 2022 11: 27
      +6
      According to the younger Vorontsov, it is debatable. His biggest "Angloman" sin is the construction of an estate in Pyatigorsk in the British style. Then we must accuse him of "francophilia", since, being the commandant of Paris, he sold several of his estates in order to pay the debts of the Russian army for lodging! I'm personally interested in besides taverns and hotels, brothels made their claims?
      laughing
      Moreover, all this was in a rather perverted form, since Mikhail was a military general - the hero of the war of 1812.
      Now seriously, thanks to Valery for the article.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 19 December 2022 06: 22
    +7
    Good morning everyone and have a nice day! smile

    Thanks to Valery for an interesting and multifaceted article, everything was read "in one breath". good
    I would very much like to learn more about the Russian-American Company, about the people who served in it, because its ships were commanded by naval officers, who managed to show themselves in battles.
    We didn’t have so many “avant-brists” in our photo, somehow we got used to the fact that “Ermaks” conquered “Siberia” with us, and sailors only traveled, and not seized new lands. hi
    1. Fat
      Fat 19 December 2022 07: 17
      +6
      hi Good morning everyone. Hello Konstantin.
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thanks to Valery for an interesting and multifaceted article, everything was read "in one breath".
      I would very much like to learn more about the Russian-American Company, about the people who served in it, because its ships were commanded by naval officers, who managed to show themselves in battles.

      I will join this wish ... I would read about the Russian-Qing war, about the defense of Albazin, about Alexei Tolbuzin, Athanasius Beiton in more detail and with great attention ... So many interesting things. smile
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 December 2022 08: 14
        +6
        Hi Andrew.
        I completely agree with you and join the wishes. smile
        1. setter
          setter 19 December 2022 13: 17
          0
          Mikhail Vorontsov was formed as a personality in England, where he spent his childhood and youth in the company of children of lords. And he was probably more English than Russian.

          Another confirmation that, for the sake of his own Anglophobia, the author is ready to "edit" the story.
          Mikhail Vorontsov was never an Anglophile, just like his father, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov, in the primitive sense that turbopatriot authors like Ryzhov put into this concept.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 19 December 2022 19: 12
            +2
            "for the sake of his own aeglophobia" Valery writes in the spirit of the times
      2. lisikat2
        lisikat2 19 December 2022 14: 52
        +1
        Andrey Borisovich, I don’t remember anything about Tolbuzin and Beiton
        1. Fat
          Fat 19 December 2022 15: 30
          +1
          hi Hello Ekaterina. So I know very little about these people. I know that the Russian kingdom fought with the Manchus and the Qing Empire at the end of 17, and the Albazinsky prison on the Amur River ... Everything is within the framework of Wikipedia, maybe a little more. Tolbuzin and Beiton are the commanders and heroes of the defense of Albazin. So far I have not been able to find the book Bartenev Y. Heroes of Albazin and the Daurian Land (Russian arch., 1899.) request
          1. lisikat2
            lisikat2 19 December 2022 16: 52
            +1
            I only heard about Albazinsky prison and didn’t watch Vika
    2. setter
      setter 19 December 2022 10: 43
      +3
      Thank you Valery for an interesting and multifaceted article

      The article would be much more interesting if the author did not suffer from chronic Anglophobia, which pushes the author to obvious distortions of historical events.
      For example, the final paragraph of the article
      But what about the English? They continued to carry out their research work. Joseph Wiggins, for example, in the late XIX - early XX centuries. in 20 years he sailed 11 times from Britain to the mouths of the Yenisei and the Ob, and along the Yenisei he reached Krasnoyarsk.

      And only after the October Revolution such suspicious studies by foreigners of internal sea and river routes were strictly prohibited.

      In reality, there was nothing "suspicious" in the expeditions of Joseph Wiggins, since the beginning of these expeditions was laid by Mikhail Konstantinovich Sidorov - a personality, no doubt, an outstanding one - a public figure, entrepreneur, merchant, philanthropist, gold miner, writer, explorer of the Russian North, zoologist. It was Sidorov who, in 1862, established a prize of 2000 pounds to that. who will be the first to sail from European ports to the mouths of the Ob and Yenisei. He also organized and financed Wiggins' first voyages.
      Wiggins for his "suspicious research" was elected a life member of the Imperial Society for the Promotion of Russian Merchant Shipping.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 19 December 2022 18: 03
        +3
        Quote from Passeur
        The article would be much more interesting if the author did not suffer from chronic Anglophobia, which pushes the author to obvious distortions of historical events.

        Alas, but there's nothing to be done, I tried. smile
        I recall an old joke.
        - Defendant, why did you destroy the beer stall?
        - Why are they bullying? They could just write an ad: "No beer", but they wrote what? "NO BEER". They're bullying!

        Whatever the British do, according to Ryzhov they are vile intriguers and vile traitors. smile
        It is interesting, and if suddenly a revolution occurs in Britain and it becomes a country friendly to Russia, Valery will write articles on the topic "Allies through the centuries", "Russian and British - brothers forever" or "Vladimir Monomakh - love for the British is in the blood of Russians" . smile
        1. setter
          setter 19 December 2022 18: 55
          +3
          Valery will write articles on the topic

          Will. "On the treacherous Albion in the writings of Otto of St. Blasien and Saxo the Grammarian".
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 December 2022 20: 47
          +3
          and if suddenly a revolution occurs in Britain and it becomes a country friendly to Russia,
          Happened. Didn't.)))
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 19 December 2022 22: 49
            +2
            From the time of Ivan the Terrible to the Crimean War, England (the British Empire) was invariably friendly to Russia, at worst neutral. The demarche of Alexei Mikhailovich regarding the execution of Charles I Stuart and the war game of 1807-1812 is not to be proposed - it was clownery and window dressing in its purest form. smile
            1. know
              know 20 December 2022 06: 12
              +2
              Your ardent love for England is known. You even call an unequal partnership friendship. The constant interference of the British in the internal affairs of Russia and the desire to determine its foreign policy, apparently, are ready to be explained by "concern for the unreasonable natives" who "do not understand their benefit." And the participation of the British ambassador in the preparation of the assassination of the Russian Emperor Paul I is probably considered as an act of humanitarian aid. And somehow they forgot about the Seven Years' War, in which Russia fought in alliance with Austria and France against England and Prussia.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 20 December 2022 06: 32
                +2
                Your ardent love for England is known.
                Completely baseless accusation.
              2. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 20 December 2022 11: 03
                -2
                I don't like the English. But even more I do not like human stupidity.
                In the Seven Years' War, England fought against France, not against Russia. England did not take a single hostile action against Russia, did not even curtail trade.
                As for Pavel, these were our, Russian showdowns. The British simply supported the side that was more in their interests.
                And who told you that if Paul remained on the throne, it would be good for Russia? Ryzhov? laughing
                I now consider Alexander a more far-sighted and talented ruler and, accordingly, the change of government from Paul to Alexander is a purely positive event for our history, if not even saving.
                In general, you, with your "historical infantilism", are boring, primitive and monotonous.
                Remember: friendly relations between states are not identical with friendship between people. Partnership, or rather, the content of partnerships, is determined by the parties on a voluntary basis in accordance with their capabilities and the capabilities of the partner.
                All states always try to interfere in politics, including domestic politics, of their neighbors, trying to benefit from this interference for themselves, and if someone does not do this, he thereby demonstrates his inability to conduct the political process.
                To reproach the unfortunate English for doing many things better than us for a long time, although objectively we tried to do exactly the same thing, this is somehow too stupid, even for you. laughing hi
                1. know
                  know 20 December 2022 11: 13
                  +3
                  The British financed Prussia, which fought against Russia. How Ukraine is financed now. Is this not enough for you? Alexander 1 was a puppet of the British, fought in their interests and against the interests of Russia, did not receive anything for the victory that he got with a lot of blood and shifted all the losses to the peasants. And it is stupid for you, not being a professional historian, to "climb into the jungle" and make peremptory judgments. You have to be more modest. I, talking with some authoritative professor, will hold my tongue, even if I have my own opinion on the tactics of treating a patient. And you consider your unprofessional opinion to be the ultimate truth.
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 20 December 2022 12: 33
                    -2
                    Quote: vet
                    The British financed Prussia, which fought against Russia. How Ukraine is financed now.

                    fool
                    The British financed Prussia for the war against France. The Russians, by the way, were also offered money for the same, but Elizabeth refused and entered the war on the side of Austria and France. And, most importantly, the money of Prussia was paid before Russia entered the war, in any case, an agreement on this was definitely reached earlier. You should succeed before arguing, and even more so, draw analogies.
                    In other words, what am I talking about? What are the analogies? If Elizabeth accepted money from the British, you would be the first now, there is no second, after Valery laughing they would have yelled like a victim that a stupid woman was selling Russian blood, and the British would still be scoundrels. Here are the poor fellows: they pay the enemies of Russia - enemies, they pay Russia, as during the Napoleonic wars - all the same, enemies. What can they do to please you and Valery? Give us money for free and fight for us? laughing
                    Quote: vet
                    I, talking with some authoritative professor, will hold my tongue, even if I have my own opinion on the tactics of treating a patient.

                    I have never doubted that you have your own opinion on the tactics of treating any patient, and different from the professor's. laughing
                    Okay, you bored me. No benefit, no pleasure from communicating with you. You don’t want to learn, you don’t know how to think, so you live among your warm and fragrant delusions. Enjoy, so to speak, a good company of like-minded people. smile
                    I say goodbye to this. hi
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2022 06: 28
              0
              And I'm not talking about England and Russia. I mean xenophobia is the basic instinct of the mind.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 20 December 2022 10: 08
                +2
                For the right to be a "basic instinct" Many collective attitudes can compete. smile
                But, perhaps, I agree here, the simplest thing is for the masses to unite not "for", but precisely "against".
                An interesting topic for reflection is the influence of religion and the social system on the degree of "xenophobicity" of public morality. As a starting point - bourgeois morality is always xenophobic. smile
  3. know
    know 19 December 2022 06: 28
    +7
    A lot of little-known information, which is given according to the principle "short and clear". The officers of Cook's ships and "private traders" rushing to the east, who almost annexed Alaska and part of California to Russia, were interested. And "state people" who struggled to get rid of these lands.
  4. VLR
    19 December 2022 06: 43
    +6
    By the way, the action of A. Rybnikov's rock opera "The Star and Death of Joaquin Murietta" takes place just in California during the Gold Rush. As far as I know, in the spring at the Gradsky Hall, the Alexei Rybnikov Theater will present a new author's version - with poems not by Glushko, but by Y. Kim, Joaquin will be Mexican, not Chilean - as in reality, and Teresa - Rosita. She was given the famous aria of the Star, which was once amazingly performed by Zhanna Rozhdestvenskaya.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 19 December 2022 06: 48
      +5
      a new author's version will be presented in the Gradsky Hall
      The music is the same, the text is new?
      1. VLR
        19 December 2022 07: 06
        +7
        Yes, the libretto has been changed - in the direction of greater historical accuracy. Here is what A. Rybnikov says:
        “At the heart of the new play “Joaquin Murieta” is not a literary work, but the true story of Joaquin. When working on the libretto, I had to study a lot of historical materials, read dozens of documents. It turned out that Joaquin is indeed a very popular hero in Central America. Entire works have been written about him, films have been made in Hollywood. We even found a black-and-white silent western... The performance begins and ends with a Mexican carnival scene with its mystical atmosphere... In the midst of the fun, the sorcerer Diablero appears, who gradually draws careless people into incomprehensible events, carries them away in pursuit of Gold, at the same time promising everyone a bloody denouement…”.
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 19 December 2022 07: 15
          +5
          If so, in my opinion it was better, new music, new libretto. But .. the author's business.
          1. VLR
            19 December 2022 07: 33
            +5
            This is probably the author's desire to improve the work. For example, sometimes I just frown when reading my old works, even those recognized as successful by everyone - now I would write a little differently, and shift the accents a little.
            1. parusnik
              parusnik 19 December 2022 07: 41
              +5
              This is probably the author's desire to improve the work.
              The best, enemy, good.. Let's see what happens..
            2. know
              know 19 December 2022 08: 10
              +3
              The desire of the authors to change something is understandable and acceptable. But when outsiders pry into someone else's work with their dirty and playful hands, the result is always horrifying, and sometimes disgusting. Take the same movie: I have not seen a single successful remake - either Soviet or American films.
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 19 December 2022 10: 06
                +2
                Take the same movie: I have not seen a single successful remake - either Soviet or American films.
                Seen, Soviet film 13 (1936), a remake of the American film The Lost Patrol (1934). Unless, of course, watched the movie "Thirteen".
              2. lisikat2
                lisikat2 19 December 2022 14: 42
                +2
                Vet, "Magnificent Seven" - "seven samurai"
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 19 December 2022 07: 14
      +5
      Good morning, Valery. hi

      I'm talking about his own opera Juno and Avos. Are the sailors waltzing with the Signorines there? If so, then it's not even a fantasy. request

      1. VLR
        19 December 2022 07: 19
        +5
        Perhaps the modest costumes of Rezanov's officers in this scene are needed in order not to distract attention from the main characters and there was no temptation to consider a peripheral picture.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 December 2022 08: 12
          +6
          Valery, but these "suits" do not in any way pull on the "modest suits of officers", this is a sailor's uniform, working. yes
          Well, maybe I'm biased towards this contrived plot that has little to do with what really happened. Of course, it is an opera, but after all, everything is not a "du-ra-operetta".
          I had more fun at the opera "October", or whatever it was called, where Reizen, in the role of Lenin, went on stage on the roof of a plywood armored car and sang in a well-trained voice: "Vpegyod, comrades, on the shtugm, on the shtugm!" laughing
          1. know
            know 19 December 2022 08: 39
            +4
            The theater is generally a "realm of conventions", and whoever wanted to say what there - only theater critics "know" (think they know). Remember there was a cool Soviet cartoon "Bang-bang oh-oh-oh" with parodies of different genres? In an "experimental production" based on the tune from "Jesus Christ Superstar":
            "Our motto is laconicism.
            Conditionality, conditionality, conditionality, conditionality
            1. VLR
              19 December 2022 08: 56
              +5
              Remember there was a cool Soviet cartoon "Bang-bang oh-oh-oh" with parodies of different genres?


              Oh yeah!
              I am a foreign count
              My name is Pif-Paf.
              I am a big hunter
              For little fun...



            2. Catfish
              Catfish 19 December 2022 09: 06
              +6
              Of course I remember! good





              Ah, is it forever?
              My slanting eyes will close!
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 19 December 2022 06: 54
    +5
    We have already said that Semyon Dezhnev was the first to cross the strait separating Asia and America in 1648, but, unfortunately, his report was never sent to St. Petersburg - he remained lying in the Yakut prison.
    The discovery of the Strait by Dezhnev became known only in 1736. His travel report, sent to the Yakut governor, was found by the historiographer Miller in the office archive. Thanks to this find, the world learned that Semyon Dezhnev was the discoverer of the Bering Strait.
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 December 2022 07: 06
    +5
    The article is remarkable for the flow of Valery's erudition with the interweaving of different events, countries and continents. Some passages are familiar. And slightly surprising. Vorontsov Palace, for example, what did not please?
    1. VLR
      19 December 2022 07: 15
      +6
      Why didn't the Vorontsov Palace please? smile
      Very beautiful. Just noted the features of the architecture. Mikhail Vorontsov was formed as a personality in England, where he spent his childhood and youth in the company of children of lords. And he was probably more English than Russian. By the way, the situation is very similar to how the Romans took the royal children hostage - they “licked them from head to toe”, trying to show all the delights of the Roman way of life, and then promoted their protégés in their historical homeland.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 December 2022 07: 22
        +5
        By the way, in the Vorontsov Palace there is also something of the Moorish style. However, not at all a connoisseur of architecture. But I love the Vorontsov Palace and the park since childhood.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 December 2022 13: 41
          +6
          in the Vorontsov Palace there is also something of the Moorish style.


          Quite right, visible to the naked eye, especially against the backdrop of mountains.



          Hello, Sergey! smile
          1. know
            know 19 December 2022 13: 51
            +3
            Much depends on which side to shoot. If from the north - something like this will happen:

          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 December 2022 16: 54
            +2
            Hi Constantine!

            And for some reason this style is attractive. Though in architecture, even in lawns.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 19 December 2022 17: 23
              +6
              Yes, it has its own charm, but when you remember about it ...

              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 19 December 2022 20: 54
                +2
                Because people are people
                There is no salvation from them!
                1. know
                  know 19 December 2022 21: 11
                  +2
                  You reminded me with your remark
                  - Romashov's aria from "Nord-Ost":
                  The law of nature is simple:
                  From a snake egg
                  Thrush will not hatch
                  Titmouse won't work
                  And it is foolish to expect that the human race is arranged differently.

                  Children, though innocent, are still human beings.
                  From immaculate human children
                  No one else will ever grow up
                  Except people, nasty people.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 19 December 2022 21: 50
                    +2
                    Did not watch.

                    And Kim has talented songs.
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 December 2022 21: 37
                  +3
                  Man is born for happiness, like a bird for flight
                  belay

                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 19 December 2022 21: 52
                    +2
                    In this dispute, the end is usually put in this way:

                    Legs, wings ... The main thing is the tail!
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 19 December 2022 22: 22
                      +3
                      Legs, wings ... The main thing is the tail!


                      Quite a fair comment! good laughing



                      Cool cartoon!
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 December 2022 06: 15
                        +2
                        Yes. Laconic and aphoristic.

                        (Now I'll add a weight to the comment).
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 December 2022 15: 29
                        +2
                        I was absolutely delighted when I first saw him. laughing
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 December 2022 20: 00
                        +2
                        The indicator of success - according to aphorisms, sold out.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 December 2022 20: 26
                        +2
                        Yes, it's like Chapaev and Stirlitz! good


                        )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 December 2022 21: 13
                        +1
                        And Sherlock Holmes, who joined them, and his friend.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 December 2022 21: 28
                        +1
                        Have you seen a monument to this couple on Smolenskaya embankment? Extremely successful. smile

                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 December 2022 23: 02
                        +2
                        I rarely go there. I heard about the memorial. And now I'm trying to remember what I saw - or I thought up what I saw.

                        He didn't show up there very long ago.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 December 2022 23: 42
                        +2
                        And the embassy itself appeared relatively recently, before there was a wasteland and there was a barrack for receiving glass containers and salvage materials. laughing
                        A bit symbolic, don't you think?
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 21 December 2022 06: 49
                        +2
                        It's good to live long. Then you see how everything changes.

                        Moscow is still suitable for wandering around. Hope it works out tonight.
                        Meeting place with a colleague today at Rozhdestvenka. Not far from the Moscow Architectural Institute.
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 21 December 2022 07: 23
                        +2
                        Meeting place with a colleague today at Rozhdestvenka. Not far from the Moscow Architectural Institute.

                        Familiar places, I studied at the Moscow Architectural Institute for two years until I quit, not mine.
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 21 December 2022 08: 18
                        +1
                        Yes. I remember. Why did you mention.
                        But inside the Boulevard Ring, all the streets are nice.
  7. Luminman
    Luminman 19 December 2022 08: 01
    +3
    While still at school in the 5th grade, I read the book "Baranov's Island", from where I first learned that Alaska was once ours ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 December 2022 11: 53
      +5
      Everyone has "their own Palestine" from childhood!
      I was personally deeply shocked by the book of K.S. Chukovsky "Drivers of frigates"!
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 19 December 2022 12: 02
        +1
        I have never seen this book, although I always "hunted" for such topics ...
      2. ee2100
        ee2100 19 December 2022 12: 05
        +3
        Written by "Nikolai Chukovsky"
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 December 2022 18: 49
          +2
          Quote: ee2100
          Written by "Nikolai Chukovsky"

          Old age is not a joy!
          Thanks Alexander for the edit.
  8. Non-fighter
    Non-fighter 19 December 2022 10: 58
    +1
    About the "stabbed fever" and the myths associated with it.
    Yes, there was gold there, but very sporadically. Deposits are given at the mercy of prospectors in the event that there is gold, but scattered, and then how lucky. Of the prospectors during the Klondike, 20 people became rich. Not 20%, but 20 people, the rest ... Well, you understand. Those who served the prospectors were really enriched. Jack London, "A Thousand Dozen". There, the hero of the story did not succeed. but the principle itself is clear.
    Think about this question: why, with all the "wealth", capital did not come to Alaska? The same capital from Wall Street. Smart guys worked there, it was they who created America rich, great, and powerful.
    In the end, let's remember the "new Russians" of the beginning of the last century. This is a rich Siberian gold miner, so there were technologies for industrial gold mining then. In Siberia, gold was mined, and is mined industrially. Why didn't this happen in Alaska?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 December 2022 11: 55
      +5
      Everything is relative.
      By the beginning of the century before last, 20 times more gold was mined in Alaska than was paid for it.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 December 2022 13: 46
        +4
        Yeah, the gold with the "Colt" in half. good

    2. setter
      setter 19 December 2022 13: 47
      +2
      About the "stabbed fever" and the myths associated with it.

      How does the Klondike relate to Alaska? Before you try to fight myths, you should overcome your own ignorance.
      Think about this question: why, with all the "wealth", capital did not come to Alaska?

      Gold mining in Alaska became a major industry and incentive for exploration and settlement several years after the United States acquired the area in 1867 from the Russian Empire.
      1. know
        know 19 December 2022 14: 08
        +2
        The map of deposits from the article shows that gold is distributed between Alaska and Canada.


        This, I think, is one "pool" (or - "belt"?) And there was one "gold rush", and not 2 - American (Alaskan) and Canadian. Looked it up on wikipedia for fun:
        The Klondike Gold Rush was unorganized mass gold mining in the Klondike region of Canada and the Alaska Peninsula at the end of the XNUMXth century.

        In addition, they got to Canada mainly through Alaska. Here they go:

        1. Luminman
          Luminman 19 December 2022 14: 30
          +3
          Quote: vet
          Here they go

          Filmed from a drone? wink
          1. know
            know 19 December 2022 14: 41
            +3
            Probably from some hill - this is a mountain pass
        2. setter
          setter 19 December 2022 14: 58
          +2
          Looked it up on wikipedia for fun.

          Well, this, of course, is a monumental source! Taking off my hat!
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 19 December 2022 12: 50
    +3
    "Map, Russia, Muscovy and Tartaria" welcome.
    Valery, do you have any idea what you've done?!
    Now, here the whole Fomenko-hamster army will come running.
    Only,, only from the alternatives took a break.
    And Valery calls them.
    PS I wanted to stick a smiley
  10. lisikat2
    lisikat2 19 December 2022 13: 36
    +3
    Good day to all.
    Valery, I have long gathered to kiss you and Vyacheslav Olegovich firmly, firmly
    Thanks to you, I have expanded my historical congratulations. What's in Zen, highly "quoted". Appreciate my comments.
    And Verina is a "stray", history and local history are solid 5. She is considered the best historian: 3 x fifth and sixth grades.
    She thanks me all the time, but she did NOT KNOW the history of Russia until 1918. She seriously believed that Sergius of Radonezh was a Byzantine, and Peresvet was from the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the Decembrist Volkonmsky from Warsaw.
    Actually, I myself love history, but thanks to you I learned more
    П
    С
    Valery, does your wife have a sense of humor or not?
    If not, I will hide in Karachay-Cherkessia, and there the APU will not find me.
    AP
    С
    С
    Actually, I'm a little "sinful": at 10 meters, there was an affair with a married man.
    I bet you can guess what the woman did?
    1. know
      know 19 December 2022 13: 47
      +1
      Katya, at the moment, 13.47, you have probably already intrigued several thousand people! Maybe a thousand - if not everyone who read the article got to your comment. Will there be a "theatrical break" now? smile
      1. lisikat2
        lisikat2 19 December 2022 14: 21
        0
        No. I have time, how do I spend it...
        The woman turned out to be clever: she did not make scenes.
        She offered me options: 1) "half-Swedish family", I go to live with them, and she goes to an apartment (she was visiting).
        2) leave it for 2 months to decide: which one is needed
        3) she will commit suicide, and leave me an 11 month old son.
        I publicly humiliated him.
        After that, I can flirt if I "unwind" complaints, but I recognize my opponent in advance. I appreciate the clever one. I don’t go further than flirting
        1. know
          know 19 December 2022 14: 43
          0
          The third option is just very hard. And, most importantly, after the first two unexpected.
          1. lisikat2
            lisikat2 19 December 2022 16: 47
            +1
            This is how she killed me.
            Start, she's "right to swing", I could spite. Girls at the age of 16-17 are very capricious and in the heat of the moment can break firewood
            By the way, that woman died after 4 years. I found her grave a few years ago, what happened to the child?
  11. Tests
    Tests 19 December 2022 16: 13
    +7
    The Edward Bonaventure landed on the Summer Coast of the White Sea near Nyonoksa, where the Verkhovka River flows into the White Sea. (Just where, after the "mysterious" explosion near Nenoksa, in August 2019, unguarded pontoons blew for several days) ... The English ship was then escorted to Yagry Island. On which the "Moscow Company" then had its warehouses and houses for several years, just in the area of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbthe current Boris Butoma Avenue and Richard Chancellor Street in Severodvinsk.
    It is a pity that Alexander Andreyevich Baranov, a native of the city of Kargopol, who bought several factories in Irkutsk and in 1790 accepted Shelikhov's offer to head the North-East Company, is not mentioned. Under him, Novoarkhangelsk was founded. He led the Russian forces during the war with the Indians - the Tlingit (the Russians called them "kolosh"), who received guns from the British (in some places they even write about 2 guns). "Neva" with 14 guns, under the command of Yuri Lisyansky, played a significant role in that war. True, it is still not clear how many shares of the company Lisyansky and Kruzenshtern had. The ships were purchased and supplied on this voyage by the Russian-American Company, and not by the state ... In 1818, 72-year-old Baranov, taking his son Antipater, sailed to Russia to report to the company. After 4 months, while repairing the ship, Baranov fell ill in Batavia, and they buried him at sea in the waters of the Sunda Strait. And all his documents were gone ... In Kargopol, on the embankment of the Onega River, there is a monument to Alexander Baranov. With a gable roof, it reminds me of an Old Believer cross. True, there is a pattern of metal along the ridge of the roof: in the center there is a chipped bird of happiness. and on the sides are two girls in sundresses, as if descended from the embroidery of a linen towel ....
    The merchants of Solvychegodsk and Totma took an active part in the Russian-American Company. At Vologda Totma, an American black fox with a silver tip of the tail is placed in the coat of arms on a golden background, as a sign of recognition of the natives of Totma in the development of the islands of the Pacific Ocean and North America. In Russia, such a coat of arms is the only one, it depicts a real animal that has never been found in the vicinity of the city. In 1821, a native of Totma, Ivan Aleksandrovich Kuskov, who had been Baranov's de facto deputy for many years, was appointed commandant of Fort Ross. Under him, a shipyard began to work in Fort Ross.
  12. lisikat2
    lisikat2 19 December 2022 17: 07
    +1
    "half-scoundrel, but there is hope" Valery, I hope you don't think that Mikhail Semyonovich Voronov really was such a scoundrel!?
    As far as I am aware of that story, ANY "horns" will not like it, and Vorontsov is no exception. Although, in that situation, the main bastard is Raevsky Jr.
  13. bbss
    bbss 21 January 2023 18: 14
    0
    Interesting article. Previously, all these facts were known to me (well, almost all), but here they are brought together and this makes the whole retrospective of Anglo-Russian relations very informative.