Military Review

Daniil Kholmsky - the invincible governor of Ivan III

50
Daniil Kholmsky - the invincible governor of Ivan III

The beginning of military career



Daniil was one of the younger sons of the specific Tver prince Dmitry Kholmsky. After the death of Dmitry, the elder brother of Daniel, Mikhail, becomes the prince of the Kholmsky inheritance. Soon a conflict arose between the brothers, as a result of which Daniel did not receive from his brother his inheritance in the principality, which was traditionally supposed to be the younger brothers of the prince.

Daniel will repay his brother in the same coin in the future. In 1485, the famous Tver campaign of Ivan III will take place, the last prince of Tver will be forced to flee to Lithuania, and the principality of Tver itself will be given by Ivan to his eldest son Ivan the Young. Daniel with other Moscow governors will take part in this campaign and, together with the Moscow regiments, will return to their native land. The Kholmsky specific principality, along with other inheritances of the Tver princely house, will be liquidated.

Already in 1486, Mikhail Kholmsky would be arrested on charges of treason to the sovereign, deprived of his property and sent to prison in Vologda. Daniil, having by that time acquired significant influence at the sovereign's court, would not intercede for his brother, despite the fact that one of his appeals to Ivan III could save Mikhail ...


During the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505), most of the Russian lands were united under the rule of Moscow, as well as the overthrow of the hated Horde "yoke". Engraving by the French artist Andre Theve, 1585

One way or another, in the 1460s, Daniel left his native lands and entered the service of the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III. In those days, it was restless on all borders, but the situation in the eastern directions was the most tense.

Since the 1440s, one of the most aggressive fragments of the Golden Horde, the Kazan Khanate, has formed near the eastern borders of the Russian lands. Kazan Tatars raided the border lands: they robbed and took away the local population, with the aim of subsequent sale into slavery. The governors of the border fortresses had not only to repel enemy raids, but also to make retaliatory campaigns deep into the Kazan lands, thereby preventing future raids and freeing the population driven into slavery.

It is on the eastern borders of the Moscow principality that Daniil Dmitrievich's talent first manifests itself. In 1468, being a governor in Murom, he repulsed the Tatar raid and, pursuing the enemy, put the Tatars to flight, recapturing the entire “full” from them.

In 1469, in a return campaign against Kazan, the prince led the advanced regiment of the “horse army” - the vanguard of the Russian army (* The participation of the prince in the campaign of 1469 is questioned by some historians). His regiment was one of the first to approach Kazan and besiege the city. The blockade of the city for the Russian troops developed successfully - the outing of the Tatars was repulsed, the access of drinking water to the city was blocked. The threat of thirst prompted the garrison and Khan Ibrahim to capitulate. A peace was concluded between the parties, according to which the Kazan Khanate was obliged to stop the raids and return all Russian prisoners.


The battle of the Moscow regiments with the Kazan Tatars. First half of the XNUMXth century. Modern art reconstruction

Star hour of the commander


Immediately after the conclusion of peace with Kazan, Ivan III begins to prepare for war with the freedom-loving Novgorod land, where the pro-Lithuanian group of boyars, led by Martha Boretskaya and her sons, came to power. The stakes in this war were higher than ever.

Control over the rich Novgorod land was vital for the young Muscovite state. Only by using the huge material and human reserves of Novgorod, Rus' could gather enough strength to overthrow the hated Horde domination. Defeat in the war promised the establishment in the Novgorod lands of the power of Moscow's longtime adversary - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which, along with the Kazan Khanate in the east, would create a solid wall of hostile states around Moscow.

Kholmsky's victories could not fail to attract the attention of the sovereign. In the Novgorod campaign of 1471, the prince was entrusted with the leadership of the vanguard of a part of the Russian army advancing on Novgorod through Staraya Russa, in order to prevent the Novgorodians from connecting with their allies - a detachment of Livonian knights. The appointment is not so honorable as responsible.

Daniil Dmitrievich will not let his sovereign down: already on June 23, his detachment almost without a fight occupied and burned Staraya Russa. From Russa, Kholmsky's army advanced further to the Shelon River. Near the village of Korostyn on the shore of Lake Ilmen, a battle took place with the Novgorod ship's army, which, having landed troops, tried to unexpectedly attack the Moscow regiments.

Kholmsky forestalled their attack with a powerful flank counterattack. The Novgorod army was defeated, many soldiers were captured. On the banks of the Pole River, Kholmsky had to engage in battle with another Novgorod army, which outnumbered the first. The numerical superiority did not help the Novgorodians - unable to withstand the swift attack of Kholmsky, the Novgorod regiments fled.

Returning to Russa, the prince receives an order from Ivan III to move beyond Shelon to join the allied army of Pskov. The thinned army of Kholmsky and a detachment of Tatars of the service prince Daniyar immediately set out on the road. On July 14, near the Shelon River, Kholmsky unexpectedly stumbled upon the main forces of the Novgorod land - the “forged boyar army”. Chronicles estimate the number of Novgorodians at 40 people, while Kholmsky had no more than 000 people.

Realizing that only a swift attack could bring him victory, the prince showed amazing determination and immediately began to act, without conducting preliminary reconnaissance in battle. According to the chronicle, the riders crossed the Shelon with a "lion's roar", intimidating the enemy, and then showered him with a cloud of arrows. This was a tactic previously successfully tested in battles with the Tatars. The Novgorodians did not think that the small Moscow regiments would decide to attack, and did not expect an imminent attack.

The crossing of Sheloni by Kholmsky came as a complete surprise to them. When arrows flew at them, part of the Novgorod army faltered, provoking a mass exodus. The swift attack of the Moscow cavalry overturned the remaining regiments, mass extermination and capture of the fleeing Novgorodians began. As the Moscow Chronicle reports:

Poltsi of the Grand Duke drove over them, stabbing and cutting them, and they themselves ran away, beating and trampling each other.

In many ways, such an easy victory went to Kholmsky due to the inconsistency of the Novgorodians. Between the Novgorod boyars and ordinary citizens, forcibly recruited into the militia, there were serious disagreements, in fact there was no single command. The archbishop's regiment, on the instructions of the Novgorod lord, did not take part in the battle at all, referring to the fact that it was sent for war only with the Pskovites.

The lack of combat experience and good weapons among most of the Novgorod army, represented by simple artisans and peasants, also played a role. Nevertheless, the outcome of the battle could have been anything if not for the initiative and energy of Daniil Kholmsky. The losses of the Novgorodians amounted to more than 12 killed, the most prominent Novgorod boyars and 000 ordinary soldiers were captured.

Kholmsky's victory predetermined the outcome of the entire war and made the end of the independence of the Novgorod land inevitable. Already on August 11, the Korostyn peace was concluded, according to which Novgorod was forced to fulfill all the requirements of Moscow (severing all ties with Lithuania, paying a huge indemnity, transferring part of the territories), the Novgorod boyars swore allegiance to Moscow.

Daniil Dmitrievich also made a significant contribution to the final annexation of the Novgorod land. In the last Moscow-Novgorod war of 1477-1478. he led the advance detachment, which actually performed the functions of modern special forces. His detachment occupied and kept under control until the approach of the main forces of Ivan III Gorodishe and a number of suburban monasteries.

It is difficult to overestimate the significance of Kholmsky's "landing": the Novgorodians were unable to create a second ring of city defenses from the stone strongholds of the monasteries, and the approaching Moscow regiments managed to encircle Novgorod and fire at the city fortifications from their territory.


The defeat of the Novgorod regiments on the Shelon River predetermined the fall of the Novgorod land. In 1478, Novgorod will be finally annexed to the young Muscovite state. K. V. Lebedev “Marfa Posadnitsa. Destruction of the Novgorod vech"

The overthrow of the Horde "yoke"


In order to end the Pskov-Livonian conflict, in 1473 Kholmsky went to Pskov as the viceroy of the Grand Duke, bringing with him a large military force. Frightened by the arrival of the Moscow rati, the Livonians concluded the so-called Danilyev Peace (after the name of the governor) for 30 years "with all the will of Pskov."

As a reward for this success, Ivan III granted Kholmsky to the boyars (according to other sources, he received the boyars in 1479).

In 1840, Nestor Kukolnik created the tragedy "Prince Daniil Kholmsky", dedicated to the Pskov period of the commander's life, the music for it will be written by the famous composer Mikhail Glinka.

But already in 1474, the prince fell into disgrace - the winner Sheloni, accused of planning to flee abroad, would be arrested. Probably, the reason for the disgrace was the slander of one of the representatives of the old Moscow boyars, who was dissatisfied with the rapid rise of the "artful upstart". But by that time, Kholmsky had managed to acquire connections in the "highest echelon of power", which is why I. N. Vorontsov and seven other Moscow boyars vouched for the prince, pledging to pay an astronomical sum of 2 rubles in the event of the prince's escape. Soon Prince Kholmsky will be released.

In 1476, Ivan III stopped paying tribute to the Khan of the Great Horde, and in August 1480, he tore up the letter of Khan Akhmat and executed his ambassadors who had come for tribute. War becomes inevitable.

In the autumn of 1480, Russian and Horde troops met on the Ugra River. In October - early November 1480, decisive events unfolded on the Ugra. Kholmsky, together with other governors, goes to the Ugra to organize a rebuff to the steppes. The heir to the throne, Ivan Ivanovich Molodoy, was considered the formal commander of the Russian army, but behind him stood voivode Daniil Dmitrievich Kholmsky, the most successful of Ivan III's voivodes. Governor, whom the prince completely trusted by that time.

In October, the cautious Ivan III, mistakenly considering the situation too dangerous, ordered his son to immediately leave the army and return to Moscow. If the prince refused, Kholmsky had to deliver him to Moscow by force. Ivan Ivanovich, realizing that his departure could adversely affect the morale of the troops, refused to obey:

"I'll die, but I won't go to my father"

- said the prince.

Kholmsky faced a difficult choice: failure to comply with the order of the Grand Duke threatened with a new disgrace, but he was well aware of the negative consequences for the Russian army that the prince’s departure could cause ... Fortunately for him, the Tatars made an attempt to cross the Ugra, and in the course of fierce enemy skirmishes managed to be discarded, after which the question of sending Ivan the Young to Moscow was decided by itself.

In addition to controlling the heir to the throne, Kholmsky also performed his immediate voivodship duties. It was he who was responsible for fording and "climbing" across the river, and also determined the time and direction for counterattacks. He had to engage in a broad defensive operation, distributing a limited number of forces to possible areas of the Tatar breakthrough, and when frosts fettered the Ugra, Khan Akhmat did not dare to open battle with such an experienced enemy, moreover, armed with squeakers and artillery. So Daniil Dmitrievich entered his name in history liberation of Rus' from the Horde "yoke".


Daniil Kholmsky was the actual commander of the Russian regiments during the famous standing on the Ugra River in 1480. Miniature "Standing on the Ugra". Front chronicle, XVI century

Kazan triumph


Historians believe that Prince Kholmsky achieved his military triumph in 1487 during a campaign against Kazan. The Kazan Khan violated the agreements of 1469 many times, making frequent raids on the Russian border lands. Ivan III, seeking to put an end to the raids of his aggressive neighbor, intended to put his protege, Khan Mohammed-Emin, on the Kazan throne. In April 1487, a large army went to Kazan, the main figure in which was Daniil Kholmsky.

At the mouth of the Sviyaga River, the Moscow regiments met with the Kazan regiments of Khan Ilham. With a swift flank attack, Kholmsky defeated the Khan's army, forcing him to flee to Kazan. On May 18, Russian regiments besieged the Kazan fortress. The Tatars shut themselves up in the city and began to counterattack the Russians, making numerous sorties.

Kholmsky blockaded Kazan with the help of a "jail", skillfully fought off Kazan attacks and waited for help from Moscow. Ivan III sent to him the cavalry of Prince Vasily Shuisky and the ship's army of Prince Ivan Romodanovsky. With them, Kholmsky took Kazan into a strong ring. From the rear, the Russian regiments were constantly disturbed by the equestrian detachment of Prince Aligazy. In his resolute manner, Kholmsky also defeated this detachment, and on July 9 the Kazan capitulated.

Kholmsky carried out the entire operation in a record seven weeks. This was the first time in history when the Moscow army conquered Kazan. Khan and his relatives were sent to Russia. Muhammad-Emin became Khan of Kazan, and Moscow governor Dmitry Shein was sent to Kazan to control the policy of the Khan.

The campaign of Prince Kholmsky became a turning point in Russian-Kazan relations. For several decades, the aggressive Kazan Khanate, having become a state semi-dependent on Moscow, entered the mainstream of Russian politics. It was precisely the fact that Kazan became the patrimony of the Russian princes in 1487 that Ivan the Terrible substantiated in the future for all subsequent claims to the Kazan Khanate, who in 1552 finally annexed it to the Muscovite state.


Sculptural image of Daniil Kholmsky on the frieze (lower tier) of the monument to the Millennium of Russia M. O. Mikeshin, I. N. Shreder

The heirs and legacy of Prince Kholmsky


The last military campaign of Prince Kholmsky was a military campaign in the southeastern lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1492, his regiments captured and ravaged the cities of Mtsensk and Lubutsk.

Already at an advanced age, Prince Kholmsky won another victory in his career. He will die in 1493, having won the glory of an invincible commander during his lifetime.

The prince was married to the daughter of I. I. Zabolotsky, the grandson of the famous Moscow boyar Ivan Vsevolozhsky, who was blinded by order of Grand Duke Vasily II in 1433. Sources report that Kholmsky had 2 sons and 3 daughters. His daughters will become the wives of famous military leaders and major aristocrats of that time.

The sons of Prince Semyon and Vasily will also become governors in the grand ducal service. The younger Vasily will grow into a "major political figure." Ivan III will give him the rank of boyar, marry his daughter Theodosia, in fact make him the eldest of the boyars, a kind of "deputy" of the sovereign. In 1508, already under Vasily III, he will lead a large army, where the most famous military leaders of that time will be appointed as governors subordinate to him. Together with them, he will kick the Lithuanians out of Dorogobuzh. However, immediately after the end of the military campaign, Vasily Dmitrievich would become a victim of court struggle and end his life in a monastery prison.

Daniil Kholmsky was the military leader who knew how to act quickly, without the orders of the Grand Duke. Anticipating Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, he defeated the enemy "not by numbers, but by skill." Like Suvorov, Kholmsky relied on a decisive flank or frontal attack, which made it possible to overturn enemy regiments. Largely thanks to this tactic, Prince Kholmsky won absolutely all the battles in which he participated. And this despite the fact that in most battles he had to deal with a numerically superior enemy.

"Fight not by numbers, but by skill"

- Kholmsky as early as the XNUMXth century embodied the axiom of successful warfare, formulated by the great Suvorov in the second half of the XNUMXth century.

In our time, the name of Daniil Dmitrievich remains largely forgotten. Many military leaders of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries pushed aside the outstanding commander of the fifteenth century, who did not suffer a single defeat. Such is the paradox of our history - so rich in outstanding personalities that many of them are still in oblivion ...

Bibliography:
Kornilov D. F. The invincible governor // Russian History: No. 10, 2022. p. 30–31.
Borisov N. S. Russian commanders of the XIII-XVI centuries - M.: Enlightenment, 1993.
Volodikhin D. M. Generals of the Moscow Kingdom: Young Guard, 2020.
Author:
Photos used:
https://runivers.ru/
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  1. ee2100
    ee2100 16 December 2022 05: 41
    +6
    In many ways, such an easy victory went to Kholmsky due to the inconsistency of the Novgorodians. Between the Novgorod boyars "(c)
    Having crossed Shelon, Daniil Kholmsky blocked the way for the Novgorodians and left one opportunity to attack in a narrow strip "head-on". the right flank of the Muscovites was covered by Shelon, and the left by a swamp.
    Confident in their superiority, the Novgorodians went on the attack, but how would the battle have turned out if they had chosen a more suitable place for the battle? But this is already a subjunctive mood. laughing



    What a two-faced monument.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 16 December 2022 05: 49
      +5
      What a two-faced monument.
      It turns out according to the inscription, the two sides fighting among themselves were for unification. smile
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 16 December 2022 06: 05
        +5
        Like this!
        Let's fight for the unification of Rus'!
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 16 December 2022 06: 13
          +3
          So if both were cut for (judging by the inscription) what? laughing
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 16 December 2022 06: 17
            +3
            Hz?
            Another worship cross on the same theme

            1. parusnik
              parusnik 16 December 2022 06: 22
              +3
              Krch, both sides were for unification .. laughing
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 16 December 2022 06: 25
                +2
                No, they were all United Russia.
                They just didn't know about it yet.
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 December 2022 07: 52
                  +5
                  Good day Alexey, Alexander and other Kamrads! In continuation of the discussion.
                  Novgorod and its freemen were the gates, the feeder, the "crane in the sky" and the "headache" of almost all the great princes, both Kyiv, Vladimir-Suzdal, Tver, Smolensk and for five Moscow princes! Not in vain, up to Ivan Vasilyevich IV, almost five generations of princes went on campaigns against the Lord of Veliky Novgorod. Moreover, in all cases in Novgorod there was a strong “pro-Russian” party represented by “worst people”, boyars or even “lords”.
                  Now I propose to turn to the period of Kholmsky's activity! The key is not the victory on Novgorod, Kazan or Lithuania, on standing on the Ugra. 1480, this is the de facto beginning of the modern Russian state, which grew out of the small specific Moscow principality of the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky.
                  So yes, the battle at Shelon in the era of Ivan Vasilievich III (the Terrible) is still a memory of Muscovites and Novgorodians. The first capture of Kazan is a glorious Russian victory.
                  Somewhere like that!
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 16 December 2022 09: 18
                    +2
                    Good morning!
                    Thanks Vladislav for explaining everything. drinks
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 16 December 2022 07: 41
      +5
      Confident in their superiority, the Novgorodians went on the attack,


      "The governor with a red mug knows a lot about military affairs" (c)

      Hi Sasha! smile
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 16 December 2022 09: 07
        +5
        Hi Kostya!
        I don’t know from which edition of the chronicle you are quoting, but the first version:
        "The governor with a red nose knows a lot about military affairs" drinks
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 16 December 2022 09: 14
          +1
          People have fun as they can, and in every village in different ways. laughing
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 16 December 2022 09: 28
            +1
            As the great Zhvanetsky said - you can’t be so serious, otherwise you’ll get drunk ahead of time am
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 16 December 2022 09: 44
              +3
              Ivan Vasilievich the Terrible
              His name was
              For being serious
              Solid person.


              Yes, much more seriously, and did not seem to sleep. wink
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 16 December 2022 09: 53
                +1
                Don't compare that time with ours.
                And judging by the imperishability of Gaidai, he could well
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 16 December 2022 10: 36
                  +1
                  Yes, I'm not comparing, just by the way I had to. smile

                  judging by the imperishability of Gaidai


                  Well, if you're talking about it ... then - yes! laughing

    3. Fat
      Fat 16 December 2022 08: 20
      +1
      Quote: ee2100
      What a two-faced monument.

      IMHO some kind of "parochial" monument. What was the point of translating Julian dates into Gregorian dates (all the more wrong, the difference of calendars in the 15th century is 9 days) from "the birth of Christ", if the chronology from the "creation of the world" was used right up to 1700? Further, the text on the memorial plate is completely muddy. Novgorodians also collected Russian lands or did they try to defend their independence? request
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 16 December 2022 09: 15
        +6
        EMNIP, when the Gregorian calendar was introduced, 11 days were added.
        Now it's been 13 days. Incl. on the shtetl monument with dates everything is in order.
        Novgorodians were the first collectors of Russian lands.
        In short, gatherers collided on Shelon. Moscow collectors won hi
        1. Fat
          Fat 16 December 2022 11: 25
          0
          I doubt it. laughing For some reason, everyone is always confused. This is how the date of celebrating Christmas, for example, or the new year is determined ...
          https://azbyka.ru/shemy/tablitsa-raskhozhdenij-mezhdu-julianskimi-i-grigorianskimi-dnjami-all.shtml
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 16 December 2022 09: 41
        +3
        But there was an occasion to gather in a local tavern and celebrate the opening of the tablet in a cultural way, go ahead and call the priest, so that it would be completely down to earth. laughing
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 16 December 2022 05: 52
    +5
    Kholmsky carried out the entire operation in a record seven weeks.
    It was a special operation, of that time ..
  3. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 16 December 2022 11: 04
    +1
    There are many opinions about Shelony. One of them is that the crisis of the Novgorod oligarchy manifested itself there. The common people did not want to fight for the Boyars - "golden belts". Therefore, boyar squads and urban outcasts went to Shelon, the combat effectiveness of which is practically none. So they ran after the first blow.
  4. setter
    setter 16 December 2022 11: 09
    +1
    Khan Akhmat did not dare to open battle with such an experienced enemy, moreover, armed with squeakers and artillery.

    Artillery guns were called squeakers at that time.


    Pishchal 1485. Master Jacob.
    1. setter
      setter 16 December 2022 16: 06
      +1
      The logic of the organism that protested is interesting.
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 16 December 2022 12: 53
    +5
    Here, it seems that the author wrote everything correctly, in any case, I didn’t notice any special mistakes, but still the feeling of some kind of “childhood” in the presentation does not leave. It feels like reading a high school graduate essay. Good essay, good graduate. smile
    Nevertheless, it seems to me that the author still needs some preparation before starting to insert his own thoughts, assumptions and conclusions into the articles. For example, this passage really resonated with me:
    Already in 1486, Mikhail Kholmsky would be arrested on charges of treason to the sovereign, deprived of his property and sent to prison in Vologda. Daniil, having by that time acquired significant influence at the sovereign's court, would not intercede for his brother, despite the fact that one of his appeals to Ivan III could save Mikhail ...

    It seems to me that in order to write this, you need to imagine the era of Ivan III very superficially. He was an extremely suspicious, unprincipled and cruel person, but, most importantly, he was completely unpredictable even for his closest relatives, not to mention the courtiers and other boyars, princes, etc. serving him.
    Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Kholmsky was among those princes and boyars who served their prince of Tver to the very end, and only after his flight from besieged Tver in 1485 did he participate in the opening of the city gates in front of Ivan III. The following year, Ivan III accused Mikhail of treason, but what is most interesting, of treason to the prince of Tver, they say, left his master in difficult times. The accusation is clearly far-fetched, not even far-fetched, but absurd, demonstrative, mockingly mocking. This suggests that there was no real fault for Mikhail, which means that his disgrace was the personal initiative of the Grand Duke, the fruit of his suspiciousness of suspicion or simply his arbitrariness, or maybe a kind of test for the loyalty (which is very likely) of those around him - tea, Mikhail had more than one brother, there were other relatives, in-laws...
    What do you think, colleagues, what would be the result of an attempt to intercede in this case? smile
    There are other moments that I didn’t like, but I don’t want to look for them in the text and disassemble them.
    The comparisons of Daniil Kholmsky with Suvorov, and his detachment with special forces, were amused and even somewhat touched. smile
    I liked, without irony, the last sentence of the article:
    Such is the paradox of our history - so rich in outstanding personalities that many of them are still in oblivion ...

    In short, the bottom line.
    The author took, in my opinion, the right course in terms of choosing a topic and ways to cover it. After studying the literature on this issue, I would recommend him to turn to the annals - there is a lot of bright and interesting information that is not reflected in the works of historians, but is of particular value for popular science work. Such information will revive the text, present it more effectively.
    1. setter
      setter 16 December 2022 13: 15
      +1
      The author took, in my opinion, the right course in terms of choosing a topic and ways to cover it.

      Is it possible for the author to follow the "correct course"? I strongly doubt that such a goal is worth it at all.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 16 December 2022 13: 51
        +4
        Who knows the author...
        For what purpose could this article be written and published?
        I know two forms of authors' motivation. The first is selfish, that is, the desire to earn money. The second is an irrepressible itch in one place, caused by the desire to share existing knowledge. Perhaps there is also a third - the desire to show everyone how talented and smart you are, when in fact it is neither one nor the other. smile
        The presence of one form of motivation does not exclude the other; they can be combined in any ratio.
        There is, of course, Samsonov... But we will consider him "out of categories." laughing
        I imagine the author of this article to be rather young than old, his interest in history manifested itself relatively recently, and in research work in this area - literally just after reading Borisov's book mentioned in the bibliography. There is also about Alexander Nevsky, and about Mstislav Udatny, and if I'm not mistaken, about Daniil Galitsky and Daniil Shchenya. However, the author obviously did not limit himself to this book, although he used it mainly, which means he explored the topic. It was the realization of this fact that pleased me when reading the article.
        The combination of such qualities as an interest in history and the ability to study the sources of historical knowledge, plus the desire to analyze and draw conclusions, multiplied by the itch of creativity, can give a good result in the future. smile
        So, let's hope that this "young and promising" author has everything ahead - his growth both as a writer and as a researcher. smile
        1. setter
          setter 16 December 2022 13: 59
          +3
          So let's hope

          Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'entrate

          Do you yourself believe that the author is driven by some constructive motives? Me not. Such authors in the current media space of a certain country are absent in principle.
          they are gone and their eyes are closed forever

          Even Shpakovsky suffered this cup, which, however, is not surprising. Hesitation with the party line is his credo.
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 16 December 2022 14: 45
            +4
            Poor Shpakovsky and then he flew in, consider out of the blue laughing
            1. setter
              setter 16 December 2022 14: 48
              +2
              Poor Shpakovsky and then he flew in, consider out of the blue

              A heavy burden of glory!
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 16 December 2022 14: 52
                +2
                In short - all the sisters on the earrings.
                +++++++++((((++++++++++
          2. ee2100
            ee2100 16 December 2022 14: 48
            +2
            "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'entrate"
            Mikhail and I tried to grumble that earlier the sky was blue and thunderstorms were so thunderstorms!
            Now you are there too.
            1. setter
              setter 16 December 2022 14: 57
              +2
              No, I'm just not there. This sky would have suited me, and thunderstorms. If he hadn't been spared.
          3. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 December 2022 14: 49
            +2
            So they, the authors, do not grow in a spherical vacuum, but among people, as you noticed, in a certain information space. Grow, develop in accordance with the conditions surrounding them. Even such highly experienced and already, it would seem, formed ones, like Shpakovsky. smile
            I do not want to argue in categories of "believe, do not believe." What I see is what I write. There will be more materials from this author - read, discuss. Let's see if it will progress, grow, the benefit is where.
            And hope ... it should always be. In any case, I can afford to keep it permanently in my head. Like a cat - like a useless, but cute pet. smile Просто РґР »СЏ РґСѓС € Рё. smile
            Perhaps you are right in your pessimism. Most likely. Let's see.
            1. setter
              setter 16 December 2022 14: 59
              +2
              And hope ... it should always be.

              Undoubtedly. Without her, no way. But I can't extend it to the question under discussion.
            2. ee2100
              ee2100 16 December 2022 15: 13
              +3
              Hi Michael!
              I would like something like this! Something with a twist. For the author to think and offer something from himself.
              And so everything is decorous and simple, indeed, an essay by a high school student for a solid five!
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 16 December 2022 15: 36
                +2
                Greetings, Alexander.
                Quote: ee2100
                For the author to think and offer something on his own

                If the author is knowledgeable and owns the material to a sufficient extent, then certainly. It is desirable that the author owns the material better than the reader - then it becomes generally interesting. And to study the opinion of an amateur is of no interest. An amateur can do something sensible and at the same time give out something new only by chance.
  6. Diviz
    Diviz 16 December 2022 15: 09
    -5
    All the infection came from Kyiv and from the pseudo-Ruriks.
    Dir attacked Novgorod.
    Yuri Dolgoruky to Kazan.
    Pseudoryurikovichi fought with Byzantium. The infection spread.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 16 December 2022 16: 27
      +3
      The whole infection was and continues to come from human stupidity.
      Don't try to be more contagious than necessary.
      1. Diviz
        Diviz 16 December 2022 17: 32
        0
        People people. People are people and people are people. What kind of people and times.
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 16 December 2022 18: 11
          +3
          By chance or not, you ended up on a historical subsite.
          Here also try to project the given situation on historical analogies known to you.
          And draw conclusions.
          1. Diviz
            Diviz 16 December 2022 19: 48
            -1
            The conclusion was international wars and not internecine.
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 16 December 2022 19: 54
              +1
              If you see it that way, you are right!
              Think back to 1917, for starters.
  7. Luenkov
    Luenkov 17 December 2022 12: 07
    +1
    Novgorodians still remember us, Pskovites, participation on the side of Moscow ..
  8. Luenkov
    Luenkov 17 December 2022 12: 09
    0
    Quote: DiViZ
    All the infection came from Kyiv and from the pseudo-Ruriks.
    Dir attacked Novgorod.
    Yuri Dolgoruky to Kazan.
    Pseudoryurikovichi fought with Byzantium. The infection spread.

    Infection ett from the Pope... he burned people. Filter the market
    1. Diviz
      Diviz 17 December 2022 15: 33
      0
      They are a brace. Pseudo Rurik bishops were invited to Rus'. And then the chinos came, the motivation was specific.
  9. Luenkov
    Luenkov 18 December 2022 02: 34
    0
    Quote: DiViZ
    They are a brace. Pseudo Rurik bishops were invited to Rus'. And then the chinos came, the motivation was specific.

    Invited? It was "invited" and there is a fake. Translation from the old language, distorting the facts.
    1. Diviz
      Diviz 18 December 2022 05: 03
      0
      So the temples that were built and illuminated are also fake.
      1. Luenkov
        Luenkov 18 December 2022 23: 56
        0
        Temples were built and are being built for any reason, sometimes fictional. I remember KVK Luzhok collected on XxC
  10. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 18 December 2022 12: 16
    +1
    the Russian land is rich in talented people ... our independence is based on this ... we grow with lands and develop thanks to talented statesmen of different times and eras