Military Review

French 155 mm guns in World War I

89
French 155 mm guns in World War I
French gun 155 L Mle 1877 (L - means "long"). German trophy



"He fired his arrows and scattered them, a lot of lightning, and scattered them."
Psalms 17:15

Heavy artillery of the First World War. How is the use of today's artillery different from the period of the First World War? Only by the fact that she has increased, so to speak, "the average caliber of guns." After all, before that only calibers in ground artillery were not met. The same France, for example, fought a lot of different guns of caliber up to 155 mm, which today has become almost the main one. And then the 37-mm infantry gun Mle 1916, 65-mm mountain gun Mle 1906, 65-mm mountain gun Mle 1913, 75-mm gun Mle 1897, 75-mm anti-aircraft guns Mle 1897, Mle 1915 (75- mm) Saint-Chamond, cannon 120 mm Mle 1878, 105 mm Mle 1878, 105 mm Mle 1913 TR, 100 mm Mle 1897 TR, 145L, M. 1916. That is, the French even had a 145 mm gun, and this despite the fact that there were also 155 mm. Why have two practically identical guns in the arsenal with a difference in caliber of only 10 mm? But after all, it was like that, and they fought with it.

But since we are talking about heavy guns, and above all about those that had a caliber of 155 mm, which is so popular right now, today we will talk about French guns of this caliber. For some reason, no country, except France, had so many of them, and a variety of systems.

At the beginning of the First World War, the French army had high hopes for their famous "75". It was a truly formidable gun, but it soon became apparent that even it could not perform all the tasks required of artillery in trench warfare. In addition, the losses in them exceeded all calculations. For example, in the first 16 months, 2750 guns were lost out of a total of 4800!

This forced the French army to use older or even obsolete guns in a desperate attempt to fill gaps in their calculations and provide troops with much-needed heavy gun fire support. It is for this reason that the 155 mm Mle 1877 cannon remained in service despite its considerable age, as evidenced primarily by its rigid mounting on a Napoleon-style carriage. The absence of a modern recoil braking system meant, among other things, that the gun had to be put back in place after each shot, which significantly reduced its rate of fire. The Mle 1877 could fire a 40 kg projectile to a maximum range of 9,8 km, which was quite acceptable. Well, a Bange-type shutter provided good obturation.

Many barrels were removed from obsolete carriages and installed in a slightly modified version of the Schneider carriage, designed for the 105 mm Mle 1913 TR gun. But since the conversion of Mle 1877 was clearly not fast enough, most of the guns were put into service in the form in which they were originally. As the barrels wore out, they were replaced with new ones, of a simpler design and with an improved shutter. After that, they received the designation 155 mm Mle 1877/1916 and, with a more streamlined projectile, began to have a firing range of about 12,7 km. The guns were taken out of service gradually, as more modern systems were received.

As for the de Bange obturator, it was developed by Charles de Bange in 1872 to solve the problem of gas leakage from the chamber of a cap-loading gun. Note that this design of his was a fairly obvious invention, but for some reason no one except him thought of it. A mushroom-shaped obturator was installed in the shutter, which moved freely in the shutter. Behind him was a donut-shaped cushion of grease-soaked asbestos. When fired, the increase in pressure in the chamber pushed the steel bolt back into the bolt, and it strongly compressed this gasket, which created a gas-tight seal. The de Bange system proved so effective that it is still used today in most cannons using gunpowder charges in caps.

The Mle 155 TR Rimailho 1904mm quick-firing howitzer (TR in the name means "Tir Rapide", or "Rapid Fire" in French, and its second part is the name of the designer, Colonel Rimailho) was supposed to be a very maneuverable large-caliber gun with a high rate of fire , and so it eventually turned out, although the cost of all this was its significant technical complexity. Although the gun itself was a conventional two-wheeled carriage with a short barrel and a hydropneumatic mechanism for dampening the rollback of the barrel.


155 mm Mle 1904 Rimailo. The semi-automatic shutter is clearly visible

The gun was semi-automatic, it had automatic opening and semi-automatic closing of the bolt, and, of course, this semi-automatic loading gave the gun a high rate of fire. It was arranged like this: when the barrel rolled back after a shot, the bolt was automatically opened by recoil force, and then held open until the barrel returned to its previous position. Then the trigger lever and the loading tray were pressed, and the bolt rose to the breech of the gun, and the projectile and cartridge were fed into the chamber. Then the shutter was closed and locked, and the gun could fire.


Battery of Rimailo guns firing

A well-trained crew of this weapon could fire 15 grenades weighing 42,9 kg per minute, which by any standard, even today, is impressive. The projectile speed at the muzzle was 320 m/s. Moreover, the Rimailo gun was quite light for its caliber (3,2 tons), and the elevation angle of the barrel was very good: +41°. The only real problem with the M. 1904 gun, besides the complex loading mechanism, was the firing range. The maximum firing range was only about 6000 meters, which was not bad in 1914, as it surpassed all German guns of comparable caliber. But then the firing range of enemy guns began to grow. And it had to be gradually replaced by other, more long-range guns, such as, for example, the 155 mm GPF.

Relying on the versatility of their "75" gun, the French government ignored heavier guns, especially if they were offered by private companies. But it did not prevent them from trading their products with other countries. So, in 1907 the French weapons the manufacturer "Schneider" and the Russian Putilov plant signed an agreement on the licensed production of Schneider guns for the Russian army. The order also included a 152 mm gun with full recoil absorption. In 1910, Schneider redesigned the Russian design into a 150 mm gun, which was also offered to the Spanish army.

Meanwhile, in 1910, the Artillery Technical Committee finally figured out to invite private industry to develop guns together with state arsenals. This decision was made in October 1911.

Shortly before the First World War, the Commission for New Artillery Weapons examined large-caliber howitzers produced for export by FAMH (Saint-Chamond) and Schneider. It was an obvious way to get a new weapon quickly without delays in design and testing. Saint-Chamond offered a 150mm howitzer, which it prototyped for the Mexican army. The Schneider company offered its 152mm howitzer, which it sold to the Russian army.

But it was only after the Battle of Artois in May 1915 that the French high command ordered the rapid acquisition of new howitzers. General Joffre analyzed the artillery support in this battle and concluded that Rimailo's 155 mm howitzer was not suitable for rapid howitzer fire on enemy positions immediately before the attack. The fire had to be compressed in time so that the enemy did not have time to react to determining the point of attack. Therefore, on June 24, 1915, he called for the start of production of new powerful quick-firing howitzers.

400 howitzers were ordered from Saint-Chamond as the Canon de 155 C modèle 1915 Saint-Chamond, but delivery was delayed until autumn 1916. Saint-Chamon produced 50 guns a month until all 400 were delivered. The competing Schneider howitzer was put into service in the autumn of 1915, and although this howitzer was about 400 kg heavier, its firing range was at 2500 m more. Then Saint-Chamond continued development and in the final version released a howitzer with a maximum firing range of 12 m at an initial speed of a high-explosive cast-iron projectile of 000 m/s. But the French army did not want to disrupt the established production of 460-mm Schneider howitzers and did not adopt the updated Saint-Chamond howitzer. After completing an order for 155 howitzers, Saint-Chamond produced 400 mm Schneider howitzers until the very end of the war.


Schematic drawing of the howitzer firm "Saint-Chamond". Left side view

Howitzer "Saint-Chamon" used a vertical wedge gate, when opening the breech, the sleeve was automatically ejected. Ammunition was composite - the projectile and cartridge case were loaded as one, but the propellant charge could be changed by removing the projectile from the cartridge case. The cartridge case with the charge plus the projectile was located on the loading tray and inserted into the breech using a sliding pusher. The howitzer had a central hydraulic recoil damper with a pair of cylindrical spring knurlers located on the sides.


Schematic drawing of the howitzer firm "Saint-Chamond". Right side view

The design of the gun shield was interesting, the main role of which was to protect the crew from muzzle flash and shock waves, and not from fragments of enemy shells. The howitzer was transported by a team of 8 or 10 horses as one unit with the barrel pulled back.

Howitzer "Saint-Chamon" was in service with the French army until the end of the First World War and after it. 14 howitzers were transferred to Romania in 1917, and they remained in service with her army until World War II. Several howitzer batteries were handed over to the rebuilt Serbian army in 1917-1918. These howitzers remained in service after World War I and were modified in the late 1920s to match the performance of the 155mm Schneider howitzer.


Schematic section of the Schneider howitzer

TTX howitzers firm "Schneider"
Caliber: 155-mm
Barrel length: L/17.8
Weight in combat position: 2860 kg
Elevation: 0° to +40°
Horizontal aiming: 6°
Muzzle velocity: 370 m/s (for a 1915 model projectile)
Maximum range: 9300 m at a speed of 370 m/s
Projectile weight: 40,59 - 43,2 kg
Time to bring to combat position: from 2 to 5 minutes
Rate of Fire: 3 fps / min

Howitzer "Saint-Chamon" was in service with the French army at the beginning of World War II. The Wehrmacht captured 200 of these howitzers after the fall of France and used them under the designation 15,5 cm sFH 415(f) as coastal defense guns. Finland bought 24 howitzers in 1939, but they arrived too late for the Winter War, although they served in the Continuation War from 1941 to 1945 as the 155 H/15 heavy howitzer. All 24 howitzers survived the Second World War and were in service with the Finnish army until 1962.


155 mm Canon de 155 GPF gun in combat position

The French in the First World War, one might say, were lucky: they created the FT-17 tank; and in the same way, it was the French who created the best 155-mm cannon - Canon de 155 GPF. It was the brainchild of Lieutenant Colonel of the French artillery L. F. Fillu. Even before the war, he was involved in projects aimed at improving various guns. However, his ideas for a new long-range 155 mm gun were ignored until 1914, since it seemed that there was no need for such a weapon - it was believed that the famous 75 mm Mle 1897 field gun would satisfy all the needs of the French army.


Schematic section of the 155 mm Canon de 155 GPF Fillu gun

The situation changed with the start of the war, however, and by 1916 Fillu was able to re-submit his idea for a new gun. This time the proposal was accepted favorably, as the French army requested a gun with a range of at least 16 m, which could be towed by a car at high speed, and which would have significant horizontal pointing angles, which would provide the gun with a wide effective area .

The new gun, called the Canon de 155 GPF (GPF stands for "Grand Puissance Filloux", "Grand Puissance" can be translated as "Very Powerful" plus the designer's name), used a long, thin barrel mounted on a retractable carriage. It was the first large-caliber gun to use such a gun carriage. In addition, Fillu provided the cannon with a suspension that allowed it to be quickly towed not only on roads, but also over rough terrain.


Her piston valve

When installed, the split carriage formed a stable firing platform with a wide angle of rotation (60°) and a maximum elevation of 35°. Piston shutter type "Schneider" was well developed. The gun had a variable barrel recoil length: 1,80 m at 10 °, and at 28 ° and above it was 1,10 m. The huge range allowed one gun to fire an area of ​​​​about 206 square kilometers. In general, the GPF was one of the best artillery models of its time, and for a long time its firing range of 19 m significantly exceeded the initial requirements of 500.


Canon de 155 GPF on chassis tank Christie, 1919

The GPF entered mass production in 1917 and was first used in August of that year in Flanders. When American troops arrived in France, they immediately saw the value of the GPF and placed large orders to equip their own troops with it. Orders were so significant that supplies to the French army were limited, leading to the adoption of the 155 mle 1918 gun. After 1918, the US Army adopted the GPF M1917 and M1918 and began to manufacture its own guns.


Canon de 155 GPF in the embrasure of a German pillbox on the Atlantic Wall line

When World War II began, the GPF was still one of the best artillery pieces. The French army had about 450 of them. Poland also used this gun. Most of the French GPFs were captured by the Germans, who used them, among other trophies, on the fortifications of the Atlantic Wall. In the United States, the GPF upgrade resulted in the formidable 155mm M1 "Long Tom" cannon, arguably the best heavy gun of World War II. Well, after the war, the French took advantage of their experience in developing the GPF gun and created the 155-mm howitzer Mle 1950, which was used in many countries, including Syria and Israel.


155-mm howitzer "Model 50" in the Museum of Beit ha-Tothan, Zichron Yaakov, Israel
Author:
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 6 December 2022 06: 07
    +12
    Good morning everyone and have a nice day (still not Monday) smile

    Thanks to Vyacheslav for a good article good
    Since there are no photographs of the 155-mm gun M1 "Long Tom" (, M1 / ​​M2 "Long Tom"), I decided to insert them as a small addition to the text.
    Position during World War II


    Transportation


    In the museum
    1. kalibr
      6 December 2022 07: 34
      +4
      Thank you Konstantin. You always know how to add something interesting!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 December 2022 15: 15
        +7
        I'm always glad, because it's very interesting. smile

        A little about Long Tom's "grandfather".
        The 155 mm Creusot Long Tom is a French siege gun (artillery gun) made by Schneider et Cie at Le Creusot, France, used by the Boers in the Second Boer War as a field and siege gun.

        During the Second Boer War the guns were used as field and siege weapons at Waal Krantz,[3] Ladysmith, Mafeking, Kimberley and Bergendal. In the early stages of the war, these guns gave the Boers an advantage as they had greater range than any British guns that were deployed in South Africa at the time.[4] After all their ammunition had been used up, the guns were destroyed one by one to prevent them from falling into the hands of the British.
        But something still remains. smile
        1. icelord
          icelord 6 December 2022 15: 29
          +5
          There were only 4 of them, as far as I remember, and even one remained, surprisingly. This is a replica, I think modern
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 December 2022 15: 41
            +5
            Here is a photo of two more guns, all in different places. I'm not sure it took so many replicas. Machine tools and wheels, perhaps, but casting barrels ... I doubt it.

            1. icelord
              icelord 6 December 2022 15: 49
              +5
              And yet, these are replicas, as it turned out
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 December 2022 16: 42
                +4
                ...where they surround a gun called Long Cecil...


                What would it mean? belay

                The rest is clear - all the same replicas.
                1. icelord
                  icelord 6 December 2022 16: 53
                  +3
                  Google translation, I think so, some kind of fort or fortified area, with Boer specifics in the name, so translatedrequest
                  But the guns were good for their time, the British had nothing to oppose, only 4 guns, and the legend lives on for more than a century
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 6 December 2022 17: 07
                    +2
                    Google Translate


                    That's what I thought, but it's still very funny. smile
                    1. icelord
                      icelord 6 December 2022 17: 25
                      +3
                      Konstantin, I found what a long session is, it's a howitzer (well, almost a pistol laughing )

                      Again, the same crooked translation, but if you google there are more digestible options
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 17: 57
                        +4
                        When I read about your "gun called Long Cecil", I immediately thought of Cecil Rhodes. A most colorful personality and a great lover of everything new, Nikolai (Pane Kohanka) and I had an article about the use of Maxim machine guns by Rhodes volunteers against the Ndebels. So we met again, did Rhodes, I suppose, finance this gun himself? smile
                      2. icelord
                        icelord 6 December 2022 18: 09
                        +2
                        Most likely he financed it himself, but since the comment is too short laughing then give a link to your article plz
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 18: 27
                        +6
                        There was an article about a month ago on History called "A cart, she is a cart in Africa," Shpakovsky posted it under his own name, it was easier for him to do this.
                      4. icelord
                        icelord 6 December 2022 18: 37
                        +3
                        Ugh, got it. I’ll read it, it’s interesting others ....
                      5. icelord
                        icelord 6 December 2022 18: 47
                        +4
                        Very interesting article, yes this is the same Cecil Rhodes
                      6. icelord
                        icelord 6 December 2022 18: 55
                        +4
                        Surely he financed it himself, because there were times then ... the enemy has one mega gun, you have one, and whoever wins is almost a duel ...
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 19: 07
                        +8
                        the enemy has one mega gun,


                        Reminds me of Cain XVIII. smile

                        "We'll give you a gun.
                        Why do we need a gun?
                        - To defend against enemies.
                        But we don't have enemies.
                        “Nothing, a cannon will appear, and enemies will appear.” laughing

                      8. icelord
                        icelord 6 December 2022 19: 18
                        +3
                        And by the way, I somehow didn’t pay attention to this gun before. Now I wonder what Sessil came up with...
                      9. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 20: 32
                        +5
                        Rhodes was generally a great inventor, but most importantly, he brought almost all of his "notions" to life.
                      10. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 6 December 2022 20: 15
                        +6
                        Nikolai (Pane Kokhanka) and I had an article about the use of Maxim machine guns by Rhodes volunteers against the Ndebele.

                        It was YOU who wrote it. stop I didn't rule anything. stop I just added about pickups, and introduced the phrase into the terminology of the site "the mighty polygamist Lobengula". feel So, how to treat this chocolate warrior if he was really strong both physically and lustful in bed - more than twenty wives? request
                        Don't pull on me your personal work uncle Kostya. stop It's your merit. yes Sincerely. And everyone rejoiced. good drinks
                      11. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 20: 20
                        +5
                        Hi, Nikolay!
                        Come on ... If not for your kicks, I would not be going to finish the life. smile drinks
                      12. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 6 December 2022 20: 35
                        +5
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        didn't intend to finish it.

                        And the authors, smiling sweetly at each other, began to kick with all their hearts, saying:
                        -It's all you!
                        - No, you came up with it first!
                        -Who found the photos? laughing laughing laughing
                      13. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 20: 49
                        +5
                        Are you kidding me, you little bastard? Look, we will already remind you how "ours will enter the city." wink
                      14. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 6 December 2022 21: 01
                        +6
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        little bastard?

                        Don’t tell Nikolai the main thing. This grenadier will come and won’t even notice. Great and powerful! bully
                      15. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 07
                        +4
                        Don't tell Nikolai the main thing.


                        "I'll be dumb like a stove, I won't say a word!" (c)))))
                      16. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 31
                        +4
                        small dirty trickster
                        You, uncle, be careful with comrades ...
                      17. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 36
                        +4
                        Comrade and I are countrymen, we will sort it out in the nearest pub on Trubnaya. smile drinks
                      18. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 47
                        +4
                        And what, there are still beer houses on Trubnaya ???
                      19. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 52
                        +3
                        And where will they go? A pipe house without a pub is nonsense, even in these idiotic times. drinks
                      20. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 29
                        +3
                        Now they will remember, "who played the button accordion for them!")))
                      21. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 23
                        +4
                        If not your kicks
                        "If you get hit in the eye,
                        You involuntarily cry out
                        Hit once, hit twice
                        And then get used to it "(C)
                      22. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 34
                        +4
                        And he still beats - healthy, damn it! —
                        I see: to be in trouble.
                        After all, boxing is not a fight, it's a sport
                        Courageous, etc.

                        Here he hit one, two, three -
                        And ... he himself lost his strength,
                        The referee raised my hand
                        Which I didn't beat.

                        He lay and thought that life is good.
                        To whom it is good, and to whom - not a damn thing!
                      23. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 55
                        +3
                        "You're lying!" - I shout. "Naughty!" - I shout, but the spirit - into ambition,
                        Knocked once - a specialist, you can see it!
                        Well, of course, I ran, I called the police.
                        “They kill,” I say, “right at home!”

                        Here they drove up - they showed the asp!
                        He couldn't do anything against the police.
                        The sick man was taken out, his hands behind his back,
                        And on a grand scale they threw it into the "black funnel".

                        …What happened to him? Maybe he's in jail.
                        But than in a bottle, it's better to sit in Butyrka!
                        Well, maybe he is now engaged in boxing?
                        If he performs, I'll go watch!" (c)
                      24. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 22: 24
                        +4
                        I remember that Vanino port,
                        And the cry of the ship is sullen.
                        As we walked aboard the ladder
                        In cold, gloomy holds.
                        As we walked aboard the ladder
                        In cold, gloomy holds.
                        The convict suffered from pitching,
                        The deep of the sea roared;
                        Lying ahead of Magadan
                        The capital of the Kolyma region.

                      25. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 6 December 2022 20: 33
                        +5
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Sincerely. And everyone rejoiced.

                        Yes! But whose idea was it? Who was the initiator of such a touching creative union? laughing
                        * Cards on the table, gentlemen! Cards on the table. * (c) bully
                      26. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 30
                        +5
                        But whose idea was it? Who was the initiator of such a touching creative union? laughing

                        It doesn't matter, brother. smile
                      27. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 33
                        +4
                        * Cards on the table, gentlemen! Cards on the table. * (c)
                        "...but money up front!
                        - I respect - said Ostap. "(C)
                      28. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 21
                        +5
                        Do not pull your personal work on me, Uncle Kostya.
                        You, Carlson, are more like an "owl" than a globe.)))
                      29. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 33
                        +5
                        You, Carlson, are more like an "owl" than a globe.)))

                        There are different opinions here. bully
                      30. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 21: 43
                        +3
                        An untranslatable play on words.
                        Kolya is really an "owl".
                      31. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 21: 50
                        +4
                        If you mean lifestyle, then I am also an owl, although the cat is also a completely nocturnal animal. smile
                      32. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 22: 00
                        +5
                        Although I grew up in the Arctic Circle, however, I am a "lark". I need light, darkness depresses me, especially in summer.
                      33. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 22: 21
                        +5
                        And I hate winter because of this darkness, for the lack of greenery, frozen rivers, dead time, I don’t understand people who like this time of year. Although my friend, Joseph, an Angolan doctor, in his letters yearned for snow, snowballs and lying bent in a snowdrift. smile
                      34. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 December 2022 22: 32
                        +4
                        I don't understand people who like this time of year.
                        "My home is where the snow is" (Oleg Divov, "Interpretation of Dreams")
                      35. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 22: 43
                        +4
                        In! Haven't read it yet. Thanks for the tip, what would I do without you. drinks
                      36. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 December 2022 22: 31
                        +4
                        Spring is coming. A little more and "The sun turns for the summer."
                      37. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 December 2022 22: 45
                        +2
                        Spring is coming.

                        With that, we would live as soon as possible! smile
                      38. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 December 2022 06: 09
                        +1
                        Getting closer every morning.
                        At the same time, we are not so tired of winter yet.


                        Can the children of the south,
                        Where roses splash in December
                        Where you will not find the word "blizzard"
                        Not in memory, not in the dictionary,

                        Is it where the sky is blue
                        And does not fade for an hour,
                        Where from time immemorial to this day
                        All the same summer pleases the eye,

                        Is it really so, at least briefly,
                        Even for a minute, even in a dream,
                        Though inadvertently guess
                        What does it mean to think about spring...
                      39. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 7 December 2022 14: 17
                        +3
                        Quote: Korsar4
                        At the same time, we are not so tired of winter yet.

                        That’s what I’m talking about. There weren’t even real frosts!
                      40. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 December 2022 16: 38
                        +2
                        Yeah, I still didn’t have enough frost and snowfall for complete happiness.
                        The village is not a city and there is no pleasure from winter here.
                      41. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 7 December 2022 17: 57
                        +3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        no winter here.

                        Yes, I also have a certain ... tear in my head. December, winter, snow /, there really aren’t any snowstorms yet / and??? laughing
                      42. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 December 2022 17: 15
                        +1
                        Mikhailovsky and Vvedensky passed. Today - Catherine's. The rest are ahead.
                      43. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 December 2022 18: 07
                        +2
                        That's exactly what's ahead, I would hit the road to the warm sea, but there are no opportunities. request
                      44. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 December 2022 18: 13
                        +2
                        Not a bad idea. However, I'll wait until summer.

                        I thought about where I would like to be now. And what to do about it.

                        I took my favorite jacket to the dry cleaners. So every reason to successfully winter.

                        I'm going to refresh myself.
                      45. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 December 2022 16: 42
                        +2
                        Spring...
                        Botticelli has said it all. smile

                      46. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 December 2022 17: 16
                        +2
                        As almost contemporaries exclaimed:

                        And the snowdrop blossomed!
                      47. ArchiPhil
                        ArchiPhil 7 December 2022 14: 16
                        +2
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        With that, we would live as soon as possible!

                        Why are you guys? You haven’t even celebrated the New Year yet, haven’t celebrated, haven’t had a drink. Are you already dreaming about spring? belay
                      48. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 December 2022 17: 17
                        +2
                        We are waiting for the cold on Ivan, in Christmas time we dream of summer,
                        Let's wave the heat without looking at the blizzard-blizzard.
    2. icelord
      icelord 6 December 2022 12: 55
      +9
      And a self-propelled version of the m40


      because the text of my comment is too short laughing I take this opportunity to wish you all a good day hi
  2. setter
    setter 6 December 2022 08: 52
    +2
    TTX howitzers firm "Schneider"

    Author, you are wrong. This is the performance characteristics of the Canon de 155 C modèle 1915 St. Chamond.
    1. kalibr
      6 December 2022 09: 03
      +4
      Quote from Passeur
      This is the performance characteristics of the Canon de 155 C modèle 1915 St. Chamond.

      Link?
      1. setter
        setter 6 December 2022 13: 35
        +4
        Link?

        Alas, I cannot insert illustrations yet, so only text - Annexe au Reglement Provisoire de Manoevre de l'Artillerie de Campagne - Du Matériel de 155 Court Modèle 1915 "St-Chamond" - Description et Entretien de Matériel (St-Chamond manual) .
        Schneider howitzer performance characteristics - Service handbook of the 155-mm howitzer matériel Model of 1918 (Schneider)
  3. hohol95
    hohol95 6 December 2022 09: 31
    +5
    "... The orders were so significant that supplies to the French army were limited, which led to the adoption of the 155 mle 1918 gun."
    It turns out that the French adopted ANOTHER 155mm gun?
    How is it different from GPF?
    1. kalibr
      6 December 2022 12: 38
      +5
      Different companies and a slight difference in range ...
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 6 December 2022 12: 44
        +3
        Are they structurally the same?
        "Schneider" VS "Saint-Chamon".
        1. icelord
          icelord 6 December 2022 18: 06
          +1
          https://warfor.me/155-mm-dlinnostvolnaya-pushka-shneydera/тут характеристики пушки Шнайдера есть, сравните...
          Similar to me
    2. deddem
      deddem 6 December 2022 14: 58
      +2
      Quote: hohol95
      "... The orders were so significant that supplies to the French army were limited, which led to the adoption of the 155 mle 1918 gun."
      It turns out that the French adopted ANOTHER 155mm gun?
      How is it different from GPF?


      Almost all for the worse.
      Ballistics - like a 1877L cannon, single-bar carriage ...
      But - easier to manufacture and with industrial cooperation parallel to the GPF.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 6 December 2022 16: 04
        +3
        The main thing is that they saturated their army with heavy guns.
        "Broken off" on the "hellish 75mm mower"!
        Better than in the Russian Empire ...
  4. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 6 December 2022 10: 42
    +9
    After 1918, the US Army adopted the GPF M1917 and M1918 into service and began to manufacture their own guns.

    Not only the army, but also the navy. In the Navy, 155-mm towed guns replaced 127-mm semi-stationary systems in the heavy batteries of Marine Defense Battalions - fortress battalions designed for air defense and coastal defense of forward bases before the organization of an army BO there (for coastal defense in the United States belonged to the army department).
    However, the army BO used 155-mm guns in coastal batteries in the same way - both stationary at forts and mobile ones. For their use in defense areas, the so-called. Panama mounts - a concrete base for the carriage + a steel thrust ring / sector for the beds - facilitated horizontal guidance in a wide sector.

    At Pearl Harbor, for example, two 155-mm batteries were equipped before the war at Forts Weaver and Kamehameha, and from 1942 four more batteries covered vulnerable points on the coast.
    1. kalibr
      6 December 2022 12: 36
      +5
      Thank you! A very good addition. And then more and more verbiage is written ...
  5. John22
    John22 6 December 2022 13: 18
    +2
    Canon de 155 GPF on Christie tank chassis, 1919 - couldn't exist. In 1919 there was no Christie tank.
    1. kalibr
      6 December 2022 13: 31
      +6
      Quote: John22
      Canon de 155 GPF on Christie tank chassis, 1919 - couldn't exist. In 1919 there was no Christie tank.

      Oh, these "experts" to me. Just in 1919, the Christie tank appeared, and a number of guns on its chassis appeared even earlier - a 5-inch anti-aircraft gun and a mortar, I don’t remember the caliber. Do not believe me - type the magazine SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, articles about Christie's tanks. There you will find text and pictures. Either find my book "The Most Famous Tanks of the World", or Katorin's book "All About Tanks", a third of it is mine, but I don’t remember what ... But about tanks ...
    2. setter
      setter 6 December 2022 13: 41
      +6
      The author made a mistake. This is not Christie's tank, but Christie's wheeled caterpillar chassis for the Canon de 155 Grande Puissance Filloux (GPF) modèle 1917, which he introduced in 1919. This is a picture from the Aberdeen Proving Ground.
      1. kalibr
        6 December 2022 13: 46
        +5
        Quote from Passeur
        The author made a mistake. This is not Christie's tank, but Christie's wheeled caterpillar chassis for the Canon de 155 Grande Puissance Filloux (GPF) modèle 1917, which he introduced in 1919. This is a picture from the Aberdeen Proving Ground.

        Thanks for the clarification. But to be honest, I don't really understand what it means. Written: Canon de 155 GPF on a Christie tank chassis, 1919. The same chassis was used for tanks...
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 6 December 2022 15: 50
        +5
        "Overrated Anniversary"
        Y. Pasholok
        warspot.ru
        “... Christie’s most successful design was the Christie 155 mm Self-Propelled Mount, which existed in several versions. a ton vehicle developed a speed of more than 1919 km / h, while the tracks were laid on the fenders. However, at the same time, the transfer to a caterpillar track required a lot of time. The vehicle proved to be a good "self-propelled carriage" for the 155-mm gun M1919, a licensed copy of the French gun G.P.F.
        As a result of testing the Christie M1919 155-mm Gun Motor Carriage, three improved vehicles were ordered - the M1920.
    3. kalibr
      6 December 2022 13: 45
      +7

      This is what it was like, a 1919 Christie tank.
  6. faterdom
    faterdom 6 December 2022 13: 29
    +5
    The scientific and technological revolution during the First World War made a giant leap in military affairs, khaki mudirs, thorns, sea and infantry mines, gases, tanks, armored trains, submarines, aircraft, anti-aircraft guns, multimillion-dollar losses of all states. Which caused all the same artillery, basically.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 6 December 2022 15: 35
      +4
      Quote: faterdom
      The scientific and technological revolution during the First World War made a giant leap in military affairs, mudirs khaki, barb, marine and infantry mines, gases, tanks, armored trains, submarines, aircraft, anti-aircraft guns

      Unmanned surface and air vehicles - unmanned and remotely controlled.
      The US entry into the war on April 6, 1917 literally turned the country upside down. Eight days later, $50 was allocated to Sperry's "flying bomb" project, $000 was received in May. The Curtiss N-200 seaplane was chosen as the prototype. Tests began in September, and at the end of the year, after about a hundred tests, he successfully made an automatic flight on a given course - the pilot only raised the plane from the water. The bomb was supposed to have a takeoff weight of 000 kg, a warhead weight of 9 kg, a speed of 675 km/h and a range of 450 km. But the launch from a catapult on November 145, 80 ended in an accident, like the second one on December 24. The third, on December 1917, failed due to a malfunction in the motor. Failures followed on January 7 and 21, as a result, Lawrence Sperry had to lift the apparatus from the ice on February 14, 17. The first successful flight did not take place until March 6, when the "flying bomb" overcame 1918 yards. On October 6, a range of 1000 yards was reached. It was assumed that by the spring of 17 the "bomb" would be able to deliver a load of 14 kg over a distance of 000 miles with an accuracy of 1919 miles, which would have a strong morale effect in the bombing of cities. The cost of serial bombs would be $450. Despite the end of the war, the program continued until 75.

      Another well-known project was the "Bug" (Bug), already being developed by order of the US Army. It was supposed to have a takeoff weight of 250-280 kg, all warheads of 40-80 kg, a flight range of over 60 km and a speed of 90 km/h. Fuselage and wings made of papier-mâché, plywood and cardboard, 34 hp engine. With. made of aluminum and cast iron provided a mass production cost of only $575. An aerolag was installed on the wing rack. When the number of revolutions of the air lag coincided with the calculated one, a special mechanism undocked the wing and the "Bug" dived at the target with a "real" bomb.
      © E.Belash. Myths of the First World War.

      In short, the Yankees made "Geranium" a hundred years ago at the minimum. smile

      Air UAVs did not have time to go to war, but remotely controlled boats were noted epicly - on October 28, 1917, the Erebus MH was damaged by the FL-12 boat.
      1. kalibr
        6 December 2022 16: 00
        +3
        Quote: Alexey RA
        made "Geranium" at the minimum.

        Maybe you will remember, Alexey, my article for April 1, it seems last year, about all these flying torpedoes. Some people thought it was true...
  7. setter
    setter 6 December 2022 13: 55
    +8
    That is, the French even had a 145-mm gun, and this despite the fact that they also had 155-mm ones. Why have two practically identical guns in the arsenal with a difference in caliber of only 10 mm?

    The thing is that on the one hand. artillery pieces were sorely lacking, on the other hand, a large number of canon de 138 mm Mle 1891 and canon de 138 mm Mle 1910 naval gun barrels accumulated in warehouses. Saint-Chamond and Schneider firms practiced with these barrels, boring them to 145 mm and constructing carriages for them. It was possible to bore out immediately up to 155 mm, but the French calculated that it would be better to bore out to 145 mm first, and after the barrels were shot in this caliber, they could be bored out to 155 mm.
    1. icelord
      icelord 6 December 2022 14: 31
      +6
      Oh, this French approach to weapons issues wassat
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 6 December 2022 15: 46
      +6
      Well, this is understandable. But the French and with the calibers of new guns had the same gypsy camp.
      Clinical case - fleet. For export, Kane offers standard 152mm and 120mm. The native fleet is armed with 138-mm, 164-mm and 194-mm guns.
      After WWI, it got even worse - the calibers began to differ even less. The light forces of the fleet were armed with 130 mm and 138 mm guns. Cruisers and LK - 152 mm and 155 mm.
      1. zombee
        zombee 6 December 2022 16: 35
        +2
        Well, something like the Japanese. Those also have 200mm, and 203, and 150 and 152 and 155, everything that was disposed of
      2. zombee
        zombee 6 December 2022 16: 42
        +1
        And I also wanted to ask .. according to rumors, the 138mm cheetah did not fit the 138mm fantasy and mogador. Toli bike, Toli Franks are as bad as we are
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 6 December 2022 19: 25
          +4
          Quote: zombee
          And I also wanted to ask .. according to rumors, the 138mm cheetah did not fit the 138mm fantasy and mogador. Toli bike, Toli Franks are as bad as we are

          Navweaps claims that all 138mm guns since the Model 1910 have had the same shell and case sizes. The ambush was that the masses of propellant charges in the shells for guns of different models were different.
    3. kalibr
      6 December 2022 16: 02
      +3
      Quote from Passeur
      they can be bored up to 155 mm.

      Oh, so interesting. Didn't know about this.
      1. icelord
        icelord 6 December 2022 16: 23
        +4
        Because it’s beyond ordinary logic, to make another line of shells of a different caliber .... but apparently not beyond French military logic
        PS I didn't know either request
    4. zombee
      zombee 6 December 2022 16: 30
      +2
      And did the shells bore themselves for them? And where is at least one shell with a caliber of 145mm?
      1. icelord
        icelord 6 December 2022 16: 43
        +4
        There are such shells, that is, there were, but if this is really an intermediate stage .... then organizing the release of a line of shells of another caliber is very stupid. I don't know if 145 and 155mm guns are really the same thing. But it looks weird...