Military Review

Chinese SSBN "Type 094" could receive missiles "Juilang-3"

Chinese SSBN "Type 094" could receive missiles "Juilang-3"
One of the test launches of the Juilang-3 rocket. Photo

The combat strength of the naval forces of the People's Liberation Army of China has several strategic submarines of the 094 project. Until recently, their main armament was the Julang-2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. It has now become known that the Navy has re-equipped these ships with the new JL-3 ICBM. It has higher performance and is a more effective means of strategic deterrence.

According to foreign data

On November 18, a press conference was held in Washington with the participation of the commander of the Pacific fleet US Admiral Sam Paparo. The military leader spoke about the current work and challenges, and also revealed new challenges. According to him, another step by China in the development of the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces poses a danger to the United States.

Admiral Paparo said that the Chinese Navy had re-equipped its SSBNs. Now six submarines "Type 094" are modern intercontinental SLBM "Juilang-3". These ships and their weapon, as the admiral noted, created to threaten the United States. The US Navy is keeping a close eye on such a threat.

The results of such surveillance have not yet been disclosed. The commander of the fleet did not specify whether the Chinese submarines went on combat patrols. It is also not reported whether they appeared near the Hawaiian Islands or in other areas of great importance to the United States.

It should be noted that only the American military department has so far reported on the rearmament of Chinese SSBNs. Chinese officials neither confirm nor deny such news. Even if the PLA Navy is carrying out the replacement of weapons, these processes are secret and are not reported. Perhaps this will be discussed in the future.

Marine component

The construction of the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces of the PLA, capable of keeping the distant objects of a potential enemy at gunpoint, began in the seventies and eighties. By the beginning of the nineties, the first Chinese SSBN, built according to the 092 project, was accepted into the combat structure of the Navy. Later, the development of a new project, known under the index "094", began. It was possible to bring it to a full-fledged serial construction of ships. Right now, work is underway on the next "Type 096", and the construction of such SSBNs is expected.

Launch of the JL-2 rocket. Photo

According to various sources, the only Type 092 submarine still remains in the Navy. It is equipped with 12 silo launchers for medium-range missiles "Juilang-1" of the basic or upgraded version. The JL-1 SLBM, according to foreign data, had a range of less than 1800 km, and for the improved JL-1A this parameter reached 2500 km.

At the beginning of the 094s, the construction of the lead Type 2007 SSBN began. She was commissioned no later than 094, and she still remains in service. Then, according to the original project "XNUMX", three more ships were built. As reported, the last of them was completed and brought to service only last year.

In the future, the Type 094 project was upgraded, but its details remain unknown. The first submarines of this modification were laid, approximately, in the middle of the tenth years. Not later than 2020-21, two such SSBNs were accepted by the customer. As a result, the total number of submarines reached 6 units.

Like its predecessor, SSBN pr. "094" have 12 silo launchers for SLBMs. Initially, they carried JL-2 missiles with a range, according to various estimates, of at least 7 km. Now it is reported about the rearmament of the promising missiles "Juilang-3". Such products are capable of sending a load of 12 thousand km or more.

It is known about the development and preparation for the construction of the next series of SSBNs under the designation "096". Perhaps the lead ship of this type has already been laid down. It is believed that the new submarines will carry promising JL-3 missiles, but the number of launchers remains unknown. Perhaps, based on the experience of previous projects, a set of 12 shafts is being used again.

Promising armament

According to various foreign sources, the promising intercontinental SLBM "Juilang-3" has been developed since the beginning of the tenth years. The rocket was created in parallel with the project of the boat "096", which in the future was to become its main carrier. However, now it is reported that the JL-3 can also be used with older Type 094 SSBNs.

Submarine "Type 094" at the pier, the covers of the launchers are open. Photo US Naval Institute

The first test launch of the JL-3 missile took place on November 24, 2018. Presumably, it used one of the available SSBNs, which had undergone the necessary revision. Subsequently, new launches took place. As follows from the latest news, the tests of the Juilang-3 were successful, as a result of which the product was adopted by the Navy and deployed on combat ships.

According to known data, "Juilang-3" is a three-stage solid-propellant rocket. Due to the use on submarines, the new missile has limited dimensions: the length does not exceed 11-12 m with a diameter of not more than 2 m. The launch weight is estimated at 40-42 tons. The JL-3 is similar in size and weight to the previous JL-2. The estimated range reaches 12 thousand km.

Like other modern SLBMs and land-based missiles, the JL-3 must be equipped with a control system with inertial and satellite navigation. Such means make it possible to obtain a CEP of up to tens of meters at any launch range and when using any type of combat equipment.

It is assumed that the missile is capable of carrying a monoblock or multiple reentry vehicle with individual targeting units. The number of blocks is unknown. The previous JL-2 missile was estimated to carry up to four warheads. Probably, the new JL-3 has no less combat load. The power of combat units is unknown, but should not exceed hundreds of kilotons - for the optimal ratio of size, weight and power. The use of hypersonic gliding warheads is excluded due to the limited dimensions of the missile and launcher.

Strategic Power

At present, the PLA Navy has six submarines of the 094 project. According to the American command, they were transferred to modern JL-3 SLBMs. The total ammunition load of such submarine forces is 72 missiles. At the same time, the appearance of the head and serial SSBNs "Type 096" is expected in the near future, each of which will understandably increase the quantitative indicators of the marine component of the strategic nuclear forces.

An estimated range of 12 km makes the Juilang-3 missile an effective tool for strategic deterrence. A Type 094 or Type 096 submarine with such weapons on board, without even moving away from the Chinese coast, is capable of keeping a significant part of the Asia-Pacific region at gunpoint. In particular, it becomes possible to attack targets in the continental United States.

One of the last SSBNs "094" at the base, April 2021. Photo by Telegram / ChDambiev

Obviously, the combat patrol areas of Chinese SSBNs are located not only in the coastal seas, and this expands their area of ​​responsibility. So, when entering the central part of the Pacific Ocean, submarines will be able to control the entire territory of the United States. When on combat duty in other areas of the World Ocean, the zone of responsibility of submarines shifts accordingly - and remains just as large.

Due to the new Juilang-3 missiles, the naval component of the PLA's strategic nuclear forces is becoming a fully strategic weapon. She gets the opportunity to fully threaten a potential enemy with minimal risks to herself, and, if necessary, to effectively solve combat missions.

It is important that the qualitative indicators associated with the transition to a new missile are supplemented by quantitative ones. The Navy already has six or seven strategic submarines in combat formation, and more are expected in the coming years. Even if the fleet begins to write off older ships, the overall performance of the submarine forces will remain at the required level.

Development Results

Thus, the protracted process of building a full-fledged naval component of China's nuclear forces is producing the required results. The necessary number of modern strategic submarine missile carriers has been built and a promising intercontinental missile has been developed. According to reports from abroad, the new SLBM has already been put into service and is possibly being used on combat duty.

It should be noted that not only intercontinental SLBMs, but also land-based ICBMs, as well as aviation means of destruction. In general, we are talking about the construction of full-fledged multi-component strategic nuclear forces with all the required capabilities. In the course of further development, they will receive full-fledged global capabilities, and it is the marine component that will make a significant contribution to this result.

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  1. Andrey NM
    Andrey NM 30 November 2022 11: 25
    Have the Chinese revolutionized solid propellants? With a mass of 42 tons at a distance of 12 thousand, what kind of load will they throw? Trident 2, weighing 60 tons, casts 11000 kg at 800 km, the liquid Sineva is slightly more than 2 tons for a slightly longer range, but it is liquid.
    Next moment. Nobody managed to launch 24 missiles in one salvo. The Americans generally did not release more than 4 at a time. Our full ammunition load of 16 pieces was released in 1991, and then on the 2nd attempt, and in the early 2000s, Bogachev's crew fired twice for disposal. In addition, the "longer" the ammunition load, the more likely it is that you will not have time to release all of it. Some questions.
    In general, you look at photo 094 and the BDRM is visible ...
  2. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 30 November 2022 19: 14
    Undoubtedly, the whales have taken a step forward in the "submarine component of strategic nuclear forces." But the author does not write about problems with the acoustic visibility of these platforms. Minimum noise level = 115 dB. (This is a truck driveway next to you). The second problem is the organization of combat duty of Chinese SSBNs. It turns out that the whales, for all their "advancement" in electronics, are not able to organize covert control of SSBNs in RBD. They do not have an SUV for SSBNs in a submerged position. Therefore, apparently, so far none of the boats has gone autonomous. And that says a lot. Well, the number of silos on the carrier (12 mines) speaks of a "replacement" system ... We have only 667bd Murena had 12 mines ... The rest - 16-20 units. And suddenly the whales "swung" at 096 (at our William, Shakespeare laughing ) as much as 20-24 silos ... While everyone (!) - ama, shaves, and we - abandoned 20-24 silos and draw new projects from 16 (we and ama) and even 12 (shaved) silos. Whales are clearly not in trend ...
    Therefore, the hungfuzes have problems that they cannot easily solve. From 092 they were assisted by frogs. From 094 - we tied up, but 096, apparently, decided to sculpt it ourselves ... Well, well, "the ax is in your hands" ... One problem: there is nowhere to copy-paste ... We are busy with our 955M, ams - Colombia is sculpted , Angles - they blurt out the new Dreadnought ... the paddling pools are completing their Triumphs ... And there is no one to push the KNOW-HOW to the whales ... The trouble, and nothing more!
    And one more thing: the "Great Wave" -3 is not flying very much yet ... It's also a problem.
    1. Subtext
      Subtext 30 November 2022 21: 51
      I liked in the last interview with V. Degtyar that the SRC them. V.P. Makeeva is developing a new complex with a liquid-propellant missile for the RPK CH. I won’t be surprised if, during the mid-term repairs of the 955th, the miraculously wonderful RC "Bulova" is cut out and a new complex is installed. Zvyozdochka has such accumulated experience.
      1. Boa kaa
        Boa kaa 1 December 2022 00: 27
        Quote: Subtext

        GRC im. V.P. Makeeva is developing a new complex with a liquid-propellant missile for the RPK CH.

        You somewhat misunderstood the essence of the interview with the GK / GD Miass. And he literally said this:
        We regularly participate in competitive developments and carry out initiative system design studies on solid-propellant rockets for various purposes. More recently, while working on a promising SLBM at the stage of technical proposals, we considered options for missiles both on liquid and solid fuels. Technical and economic characteristics liquid-fuel rockets were better.

        Which, translated from a technical language, means that SLBMs on liquid-propellant engines are easier to make and it will cost less to manufacture. But this does not mean at all that it will have better TACTICAL and FLIGHT-TECHNICAL indicators. Which includes: time and stealth of the PP, Range and throwable weight, OUT time and other "bad characteristics".
        Amy is bypassing us so far in terms of the energy consumption of mixed CTs, but this does not mean that we will not solve this problem. We need money and time. Brains are there! Therefore - "it's not evening yet!" (C).
        1. Andrey NM
          Andrey NM 1 December 2022 07: 38
          There was information on the network that work on new "machines" was underway. And it seems like with "bad characteristics" the issue was resolved. And yes, as it turned out, "liquid" cars come out cheaper and more technologically advanced, which is not strange for many.

          November 5 was the anniversary of the hoisting of the flag on the Tula. Gathered the first composition in St. Petersburg. It is a pity that Oleg Alexandrovich Tregubov left a month before this meeting.
        2. bayard
          bayard 1 December 2022 13: 04
          Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
          LRE-based SLBMs are easier to make and cheaper to manufacture. But this does not mean at all that it will have better TACTICAL and FLIGHT-TECHNICAL indicators.

          If we compare the two SLBMs in service - "Bulava" and "Sineva" \ "Liner", we will see that with an approximate equality of take-off weight, liquid ones throw twice as much weight at a much greater range. The technology of their production and operation has been worked out, and they are cheaper. From all this, it is obvious that it is preferable to equip Boreas with Liners - at a lower price and the same weight, twice the payload for 11+ km. will be abandoned. And with the "Mace" it turned out ... embarrassment - the strike potential of the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces has sagged by half.
          TT is more suitable for Yars and Topols, especially in mobile versions. And for SSGNs with existing ergonomics, proven liquid rockets are much more rational.
          1. Boa kaa
            Boa kaa 1 December 2022 16: 41
            Quote: bayard
            And with the "Mace" it turned out ... embarrassment -

            The embarrassment just happened with BARK. If at least on the 3rd attempt he flew, then there would be no talk about the Mace today. But Miass failed the tests ... That's why they armed 955 R-30s ... So - "You're a fool yourself!" - as the boys in the yard used to say. And after a fight, we are all masters of waving our hands ...
            Quote: bayard
            And for SSGNs with existing ergonomics, proven liquid rockets are much more rational.

            on our RCC databases, scramjet engines are used, because. to carry with you also an oxidizer along with fuel - well, it’s very expensive! But solid propellant rocket engines do not give such ranges in horizontal flight in the atmosphere ... Therefore, 3M55 and 3M22 fly on air hypers.
            Somehow, however. yes
            1. bayard
              bayard 1 December 2022 21: 25
              Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
              The embarrassment just happened with BARK. If at least on the 3rd attempt he flew, then there would be no talk about the Mace today. But Miass failed the test...

              Mias failed the tests because Pavlograd (the solid fuel division of Yuzhmash) dropped out of the production (and design) cooperation, due to a misunderstanding that ended up in / in Ukraine, because the Typhoon in its main part (the missile itself - the first two stages) was made there. But on their own, the Mias did not work with solid-propellant rockets. Yes, and the Bark was heavy (like the Typhoon) - under 100 tons in weight.
              And on the first "Borea" there were only 12 such missiles. This is certainly much better than the 16 misunderstandings of the Mace. "The mace is 1,5 times lighter than Trident-2 and has 2 times less cast weight. At the same time, Sineva and Liner are 1,5 times lighter than Trident-2 and have the same cast weight .
              Hence we have:
              - "Liner" is cheaper than "Mace",
              - "Liner" throws twice as much weight,
              - "Liner" has a much longer range,
              - "Liner" has a much longer shelf life and combat validity.
              The question is - WHY is the "Mace" ??
              Solomon's lobby?
              We are so rich that we can allow undermining our own combat readiness in naval strategic nuclear forces, reducing its potential by 2 times for more money ?? And all this in conditions of a strict limitation on the number of carriers?
              Is this wrecking?
              Or Sabotage under the guise of feigned stupidity?