Military Review

Harbin 1945. The last parade of the White Army

Harbin 1945. The last parade of the White Army

Our address is Harbin

According to modern historians, the beginning of the creation of the White movement dates back to the time preceding the October Revolution and the coming to power of the Bolsheviks. Officers entered it only on a voluntary basis. On this basis, immediately after October 17th, that is, 105 years ago, the Volunteer White Army began its existence.

And not so long ago - on September 16 of this year, 77 years have passed since the last parade of the White Army. It took place in Harbin in 1945 and was dedicated to the end of World War II and the victory of the Red Army over the Japanese militarists.

Shortly before that, on the evening of August 18, 1945, Soviet airborne troops landed in Harbin. The next day, the city was liberated from the Japanese invaders and the troops of the puppet state of Manchukuo, formed by the Japanese military administration on the territory of Manchuria occupied by Japan.

A state proudly called an empire, Manchukuo has existed since March 1, 1932. From the first days it was ruled by the tenth representative of the Manchu dynasty Aisin Gioro, the Supreme Ruler, and from 1934 by the Emperor of Manchukuo, Generalissimo and Commander-in-Chief of the Manchu Imperial Army.

This was the last emperor of the Qing state - Henry Pu Yi, about whose dramatic fate a lot has been written on the pages of the Military Review (Balanda for the Chinese emperor. Welcome back Your Majesty). On August 15, 1945, he abdicated. And on August 19, 1945, we recall, in Mukden he was taken prisoner by an airborne assault force of the Trans-Baikal Front. At the Tokyo Trial in August 1946, he was virtually the only witness for the prosecution and testified for eight days.

It is significant that the last parade of the White Army took place in Harbin, the city built by the Russians in 1898. His история was closely connected with the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER). After the October coup, the leadership of the CER and the Harbin authorities refused to recognize the power of the Bolsheviks, and white officers began to flock to the city.

There were enough of them to create combat-ready formations. At first, these units and even formations were headed by none other than the future supreme ruler of Russia, Admiral Kolchak. And after the end of the Civil War, it was Harbin that became one of the centers of white emigration.

And now the troops of the Red Army entered it. On the eve of the landing, - recalled Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Meretskov (pictured), - the Russians provided the most serious assistance to the paratroopers. They were mostly workers and employees of the former Chinese Eastern Railway.

It was they who directed Soviet paratroopers at enemy headquarters and barracks, themselves seized communications centers, prisoners, disarmed the Japanese ... Thanks to them, unexpectedly, unexpectedly for themselves, some of the highest ranks of the Kwantung Army suddenly found themselves in Soviet captivity.

120 Soviet paratroopers in Harbin, a huge city, couldn't do much. In a report to the front administration about the landing, it was reported that they were actively helped by the Harbin youth. Armed, she took under guard by the time the paratroopers arrived communications equipment and other government agencies, helped to equip the Soviet command post in the city hotel.

Marshal Meretskov recalled that patrols of armed Russian high school students who met on the streets of Harbin saluted him. The same patrol stood near his command post in the hotel.

Later it turned out that the armed Russian youth in Harbin disarmed the military units of Manchukuo ahead of time, despite the presence of a 40-strong Japanese garrison here, while maintaining intact all the city's vital communications and facilities until they were occupied by the Soviet army.

The first Russian "hurrah!"

And here is what one of the white emigrants from Harbin told the author:

“... A car quickly approaches the cathedral and leaves ... an officer, a real Russian officer with golden shoulder straps. It's hard to forget that first "hooray!" at the address of this first Russian officer. Many cried. Complete strangers congratulated each other. At that time, a solemn thanksgiving service was held in the cathedral on the occasion of our liberation from the Japanese yoke.

As for the clergy of the Orthodox churches in Harbin, without saying a word, they began everywhere on that day to offer up the name of His Holiness the Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus' during divine services. The incessant ringing of bells floated over the city, as if on Easter.

The clergy of the Orthodox Church of Harbin appeared at the same time at the command post of Marshal Meretskov. They complained to him that the Japanese and Manchus forbade them to serve. By order of the marshal, several Orthodox charitable organizations and orphanages that functioned in Harbin, which lost their sponsors during the years of Japanese occupation, received solid material assistance from the Soviet Army.

The assistance was so substantial that these organizations were able to hold on to it for several more years after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Harbin. The excellent attitude of the Harbin white emigrants towards the Soviet troops was also evidenced by ordinary soldiers, amazed that they were met here as relatives.

Practically all white emigrants who lived here were enthusiastic about the entry of Soviet troops into Harbin. The Japanese occupation regime was not friendly to them, despite all the assurances. On the contrary, those who tried to escape Soviet repressions in Harbin faced cruel Japanese repressions here, especially since they, as true Christians, could not and did not swear allegiance to the pagan Japanese gods.

On the eve of September 16, 1945 - Friday, declared in Harbin as the day of the holiday and the parade of Soviet troops on the occasion of the victory over Japan, for an appointment with the Soviet commander of the 1st Far Eastern Front, Hero of the Soviet Union Marshal Kirill Meretskov, who was awarded the Order of Victory in the Kremlin just a couple of weeks ago "For the defeat of the Japanese Imperial Kwantung Army and the victory over Japan, there was a group of white-haired representatives of veterans of the White Movement.

They asked him for permission to go along with the Soviet troops in a solemn march at the parade of winners in their former White Guard uniform and with their former awards, and then in the future to be present in this form at all celebrations and receptions in honor of the victory of the USSR over Japan.

Permission to do so was immediately given to them by the illustrious marshal of World War II. Upon learning of this, Stalin, surprising many members of the government and prominent military men around him at that moment, immediately supported his illustrious military leader, while praising his purely human and diplomatic deed, worthy of imitation.

To comrades in arms

With a massive gathering of people on September 16 at 9:45, the famous Red Army parade in Harbin began, preceded by the passage of the columns of the last parade of the White Army. Thus, the former opponents saluted the new generation of Russian soldiers who adequately supported the military glory of their fathers and grandfathers.

Past the stands, the first columns of the solemn march, hung with St. George's crosses and medals, were once brave officers of the Russian army. Veterans of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, veterans of the White Movement, former Kappel and Semyonovites, participants in the Great Siberian Ice Campaign of 1920 of the army of Admiral Kolchak ...

Minting a step, and in full accordance with the military ritual of many states, like an officer saluting the commander of the Victory Parade on the Harbin central square, trying to look good, boxes of officers and generals, warrant officers, corporals and privates of the White Guard moved.

Their last parade, advancing a little slower than the first columns, to loud clear exclamations, greeting the people standing in the stands with a wave of their hands, was closed by gray-haired old men in gilded shoulder straps. Many of them leaned on crutches. Behind them marched the Russian civilians of Harbin, who had left their homeland and lived out their lives in a foreign land, also built in a military way. There were many young people among them. The entire Harbin audience marched in an organized manner in front of the stands.

Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, who arrived in Harbin in April 1946, supported the tradition begun by his predecessor Meretskov of the Soviet command's largely solicitous attitude towards the white emigration of Harbin. Now such an approach would certainly be called liberal and tolerant.

But the marshal, who once himself fought as part of the Russian expeditionary corps in France, on the occasion of the first anniversary of the Victory over Germany, even invited representatives of White Harbin to a solemn meeting and a special reception on April 19, 1946.

He began his speech with these words:

“Comrades! We and you lived to see the day when you received the right, and we the opportunity, to call you comrades.

A few months before this reception, at the September parade, behind the back of the Marshal of the Soviet Union, who was hosting the military parade, were Archbishop Nestor Anisimov of Harbin and Nikolai Pegov, Secretary of the Primorsky Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Pegov subsequently became the secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the USSR ambassador to a number of foreign states.

There, on the podium, were NKVD officer Pyotr Yazev with his colleagues and accompanied by him, on the personal instructions of Lavrenty Beria, the last emperor of the Qing state, Henry Pu Yi, who had just renounced power.

At the 1945 parade in Harbin, soldiers and officers of the 59th and 300th rifle divisions marched behind the boxes of the White Guard, tank brigade and self-propelled artillery regiment. After the parade, a demonstration of the townspeople took place in honor of this event, and a monument to Soviet soldiers who died during the liberation of the city was erected on Cathedral Square, and exclusively at the expense of white emigration.

Common memory

Now, at the solemn rally held in front of the Russians of Harbin on the same Cathedral Square, next to Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, as well as at the parade, Nestor Anisimov, who was very popular in Harbin, again stood.

Marshal Malinovsky from the first meeting treated him not only with respect - in a friendly way. No wonder, because they were both veterans of the First World War. One - as a soldier of the Russian Legion of Honor in France, the second - as a regimental priest. They often met now, recalling the events of those years, prominent commanders, mutual acquaintances and friends, discussing with each other over a cup of tea and even a glass not only current events, but also economic affairs ...

And this despite the fact that the future Minister of Defense of the USSR Malinovsky, an outstanding commander of the Great Patriotic War, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and People's Hero of Yugoslavia, was a communist to the marrow, and Anisimov actively collaborated with Kolchak during the Civil War.

He was also an active participant in the Local Council of the Orthodox Russian Church, which opened on August 15, 1917 in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, the most important decision of which was the restoration of the patriarchate. Here, Archbishop Nestor became famous for saying during the work of the Council of 1918:

“Who will understand whether the cathedrals were intentionally or accidentally damaged ... Of course, it was not our troops who fired at the temples of God ... Now every fact that can arouse hatred of the Bolsheviks among the people is dear to us ...”

Then in 1945, it seemed to almost the entire Russian population of Harbin, as well as to the Soviet military personnel who were here, that white and red Russia met on Harbin land in order to shake hands in a friendly way after many years of confrontation. It seemed that the dream of the Drozdov officer who died in 1920 about the day when

“The white one will see Ivan in red, and the red one will see Peter in white - and they will embrace like brothers.”

However, in March 1946, the Soviet leadership decided to withdraw Soviet troops from Manchuria. After their final departure, repressions began against the Russians of Harbin.

The term "Russian Harbin" refers to several generations of Russians who lived in this main hub city of the Chinese Eastern Railway from about 1898 to the 1960s. There were 26 Orthodox churches in Harbin, of which 22 were real churches, a whole network of secondary schools and six institutions of higher education.

The same Archbishop Nestor wrote:

“By the grace of God, Harbin continued normal pre-revolutionary Russian life for a quarter of a century.”

But since the 1940s, there has been a massive exodus of the Russian population. And after 1952, the USSR initiated a second wave of repatriation of Harbin Russians.

Finally, in 1955, the former territory of the Japanese occupation of Manchukuo, and with it the liberated Harbin, were finally transferred by Khrushchev to the People's Republic of China. As a result, there were almost no Russians left in Harbin.

Starting from the 1990s, people from all over the former USSR began to come to Harbin again, who no longer had anything to do with either the Drozdovites, or the Semenovites, or the “white bandits” often called in the Soviet press ..., or the first wave of emigration.

To the sound of a bell

And in 1946, when Soviet troops left Harbin, they were escorted by the solemn bell ringing of all the temples of the city. At the same time, the crowds of the Harbin military escorted the departing shouted the so-called longevity that was once accepted in Rus' - that is, the solemn proclamation of the words “Many years!” as a form of wishes for long life and well-being.

At the same time, groups of Drozdovites, in pursuit of the departing Soviet soldiers, sang in chorus the famous refrain of the march of their Drozdovsky regiment, famous in the battles of the First World War and the Civil War:

These days will not cease glory,
Never fade!
Officer outposts
They took over the cities!

The text of this song, as well as the melody, was later borrowed or simply taken to create the Red Army song "Along the valleys and along the hills." But is it any wonder, because the relationship of the emigrant population with Soviet soldiers and officers in Harbin from the first days was truly friendly.

And even later, when just before the departure of the troops, the strictest prohibitions of political agencies appeared, trying to minimize the contacts of military personnel with "local Russians", such meetings continued to be massive here.

At the same time, far from the entire Russian population of Harbin was subsequently repressed, as Soviet newspapers wrote at that time. At the same time, the repressions that fell on some of the Harbin residents were not at all a desire to settle old scores with them for the Civil War. The fact is that the Japanese left in Harbin, as well as throughout China, a lot of their agents and saboteurs.

And far from Japanese by nationality. Of the most famous names, it is enough to recall the poet and journalist Arseny Nesmelov, as well as the leader of the All-Russian Fascist Party created here, Konstantin Rodzaevsky. Both of them were caught by Soviet Chekists.

Metropolitan Nestor Anisimov had a different fate, who back in 1943 sent gold crosses and a gold panagia through the Harbin Consulate General to the fund of the Soviet Army fighting against fascism. He also established and maintained constant contact with the Russian Patriarchate.

He openly resisted the Japanese authorities, who demanded the worship of the pagan goddess Amaterasu, signing the text of the Archpastoral Letter of the Harbin hierarchs against the demands of the Japanese. It is not surprising that in August 1945 it was Archbishop Nestor who greeted the Soviet troops entering Harbin with a greeting from the faithful ...

However, a few years later, the Khabarovsk court accused him of anti-Soviet activities, which consisted of writing the book “The Execution of the Moscow Kremlin” and performing memorial services for the relatives of the family of Emperor Nicholas killed in Alapaevsk. Having received his ten, Father Nestor from June 1948 until his release in January 1956, albeit formally, was imprisoned in a camp in Mordovia.
Photos used:,,,,,, from the authors' archives

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  1. U-58
    U-58 27 November 2022 05: 25
    The material is very pastoral.
    Meanwhile, from the first days of the stay of the Soviet troops, SMERSH was actively working in the city.
    Officers - active participants in the Civil War, especially replaced in cruel punitive actions, members of the White Guard organizations and accomplices of the Japanese invaders were identified and arrested.
    So the atmosphere in Harbin could hardly be considered festive. And not all Harbin residents were happy with the Red Army.
    1. Former soldier
      Former soldier 27 November 2022 07: 06
      So the atmosphere in Harbin could hardly be considered festive. And not all Harbin residents were happy with the Red Army.

      I think that the vast majority of the Russians in Harbin, including the former military, welcomed the Red Army. The fact is that the Tsarist army had nothing to brag about: it lost the Japanese war, ended the First World War with mass desertion, and the Red Army took Berlin and liberated Manchuria from the Japanese in 3 weeks. And its area is more Ukrainian. The Russians had something to be proud of.
      1. gsev
        gsev 27 November 2022 16: 19
        Quote: Former soldier
        I think that the vast majority of the Russians in Harbin, including the former military, welcomed the Red Army.

        The repressions were tough on the Soviet people and even honest communists. For sure, the former supporters of the white movement were subjected to even tougher repression. Many descendants of the Semenov and Ungern gangs were simply not allowed into the USSR, having been resettled in Mongolia. Relations between the Soviet people and these former belyaks in Mongolia were tense, in contrast to the relations between the Mongols and Soviet citizens. Members of Radzievsky's party and he himself offered their services to Stalin in 1945. Stalin shot these brethren. The Russian fascists had a very slippery organization. The main part of the Abwehr sabotage in the United States was carried out by associates of Radzievsky, who was bored with spending the inheritance of the aging daughter of a US millionaire and organized the destruction of the property of the country that sheltered him. Although it is possible that many diversions are simply inventions of Russian Nazis before the Abwehr in an effort to earn more. Someone needs to whitewash the notorious villains of the white movement. Semyonov and Ungern, even against the background of Kolchak, looked like extraordinary sadists, although the word Kolchak in Siberia until recently was a terrible curse and the nickname of watchdogs.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 27 November 2022 06: 43
    Seems strange, all of this. But everything is explained simply. The Japanese occupation regime was not particularly friendly towards the Russians. And it turned out that those who were looking for salvation from Soviet repressions in Harbin stumbled upon the Japanese.
  3. Nikolay Malyugin
    Nikolay Malyugin 27 November 2022 06: 43
    What about yoga? In order not to hear all this. Soon the Victory in the Second World War will be associated with the white movement and the clergy.
    1. Doccor18
      Doccor18 27 November 2022 08: 59
      Quote: Nikolay Malyugin
      Soon, the Victory in the Second World War will be associated with the white movement and the clergy.

      So now it is fashionable: golden epaulettes, French rolls, high school students ... But you must admit how subtly and veiled everything is presented, because from the memoirs of Soviet marshals ... Propagandists are learning.
      1. Old electrician
        Old electrician 27 November 2022 10: 13
        First, touching tales about the noble White Guard executioners, and then monuments to the interventionists and punishers. It's called denazification.

        Inauguration of the monument to the Czechoslovak invaders.

        Inauguration of the monument to Mannerheim in the former Leningrad.
      2. Mikhail Sidorov
        Mikhail Sidorov 28 November 2022 09: 17
        So now fashionable: golden epaulettes, French rolls, high school students

        You're right, the crunch of the French roll is getting louder. Mikhalkov in a carriage rides along the central canals more and more often ...
    2. Mikhail Sidorov
      Mikhail Sidorov 28 November 2022 09: 14
      What about yoga? In order not to hear all this. Soon the Victory in the Second World War will be associated with the white movement and the clergy.
      It's even better in the West. The theme was inflated that Vlasov had liberated Prague.
  4. John Smith
    John Smith 27 November 2022 06: 55
    about Russians in Harbin, I liked the memoirs of Leon Khaindrava, he writes so-so, but the atmosphere is colorful, by the way, he came to the USSR voluntarily and received a passport back at the Soviet embassy in Shanghai
    and was arrested and convicted after crossing the border) well, at least they only gave a link to Kazakhstan, as they say, it would be for which they were shot at all))))
  5. Cure72
    Cure72 27 November 2022 08: 54
    How much can you procrastinate variations of the same article?
    This is the third one in a couple of months.
    Rewriting on VO?
    1. Non-fighter
      Non-fighter 27 November 2022 10: 43
      Did you count the articles about the Chinese Emperor Pu Yi? The articles briefly talked about the joint parade in Harbin, and it was logical to write more about this event and everything connected with it.
      Yes, and about those who have blood on their hands from the time of the Civil War. And they did the right thing by catching them.
  6. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 27 November 2022 11: 35
    My father after the war served in those places, in the protection of General Shtykov.
    He talked about the daughter of some white general. The girl was very beautiful, and the officers were more and more young and unmarried ... Many ruined their careers.
  7. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 27 November 2022 11: 46
    People in Russia have been completely brainwashed.
    In Europe, monuments to Soviet soldiers are massively desecrated and demolished, and in St. Petersburg, local fools hung up a board to the German poupin baron Mannerheim. They also staged a parade (!?).
    They wrote that, thank God, this muck has already been removed from the walls of the long-suffering St. Petersburg-Leningrad.

    I understand that someone really counted on a delicious candy from the Finnish "friends" of Russia.

    They write that Mussolini seems to have forbidden at one time to touch the Jews in the territories of the USSR occupied by the Italians. Apparently, it’s time for the good-natured Duce hanged by the grateful Italian people to build a memorial in Russia, no less ...
    1. Timofey Charuta
      Timofey Charuta 27 November 2022 12: 17
      Russian liberals admire that Finnish planes did not bomb Leningrad. Allegedly, the lustful alpha-baron at one time, even before the revolution, had a woman in St. Petersburg, and until 1941 he could not forget the St. Petersburg delights of love. That's why he forbade bombing. I give the writers of such crap a continuation of this story - the baron ordered to find and secretly supply an elderly mistress in besieged Leningrad with grubs. Somewhere so...
      In fact, and most likely, Mannegraim could not forget the bombing of Helsinki by Soviet bombers in the Winter War. We could always come back and repeat.
      1. Jager
        Jager 27 November 2022 16: 50
        Finnish siege weapons were quite successful in shelling Leningrad, so no need.
        But with aviation, the Finns were very tight.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 November 2022 11: 09
        Quote: Timofey Charuta
        In fact, and most likely, Mannegraim could not forget the bombing of Helsinki by Soviet bombers in the Winter War. We could always come back and repeat.

        It's just that the Finns decided from the very beginning that they would not climb ahead of the Germans into hell. No heroism - only strict implementation of agreements. Advance north of Ladoga, where the spacecraft forces are insignificant - yes, please (but even then - only to the lines indicated in the joint agreements and only with German support). But in the Leningrad direction - exactly until they run into a normal defense. For several days we fought in the Beloostrovsky and Sestroretsky BROs, found out that the DOS were reactivated, and the defense areas had at least a minimal infantry filling - and that's all.
        The ideal development for the Finns was if the Germans did everything themselves, and then handed over what they captured to Finland. smile
  8. north 2
    north 2 27 November 2022 12: 45
    History decreed that in the memory of Russia about the generation of winners remained
    the words of the anthem of the Amur partisans, and not the words of the song of the Drozdovsky regiment or the anthem of the Makhnovists, to the same music. Speaking in a metaphor, according to the thought of the author of the article, the music of the life of Rodion Malinovsky and Nestor Anisimov was the same, but History decreed that for the deeds, that is, for the text of their trace in the life of Russia, Malinovsky knows everything as the Marshal of the Great Country and the Great Red Army, and Nestor Anisimov, for his deeds against Russia during the Civil War and during the formation of the USSR, is known for advocating only for the unification of the Orthodox Churches Abroad and Moscow, based on the victory of the White movement. That is, the text of his life song was anti-people. And there’s nothing to make Anisimov Malinovsky’s sidekick here. The fact that Anisimov once stood on the podium not far from Malinovsky is because the educated Soviet-Russian intellectual Marshal Malinovsky appreciated Anisimov’s contribution back in the time of Tsarist Russia in spreading Orthodoxy among the native peoples of the Far East Russian Empire. But SMERSH and Beria's office correctly assessed Anisimov's life "text" during the Civil War and they put him in camps. Yes, and the Chinese helped ...
    And there is nothing to put him now with Marshal of Victory Malinovsky on a par in History, although
    by coincidence, they once ended up on the same podium ...
    1. Galina Mylnikova
      Galina Mylnikova 27 November 2022 16: 46
      It was not history that decreed this, but quite specific people who constantly hid one side of the coin, exalting the deeds of the other. You, sir, are the product of this one-sidedness, and very aggressive one at that.
      1. Jager
        Jager 27 November 2022 16: 52
        First, multihistoricity, and then not far from same-sex marriages.
  9. Jager
    Jager 27 November 2022 16: 54
    What did I actually read? Who is the author of this nonsense? How do the site editors miss THIS?
    What is the conclusion from this material? They mixed everything into a bunch of myths, clichés and frank stretching.
  10. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 27 November 2022 20: 51
    Everything we have in Mother Russia, through the stump-deck. Through tears, blood and suffering. And our history is the same. Therefore, the people, brave and slaughtered in difficulties and suffering. That's why it's invincible.
  11. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 28 November 2022 06: 44
    I read it, sweetly sweetly, and I wanted to shout "For the Faith, the Tsar and the Fatherland", some kind of unpleasant aftertaste, such as in the early 90s, when they tried from every iron about "Russia that we lost." The downside is clear.
  12. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 28 November 2022 08: 47
    A few years ago, a lady wrote an article about the contribution of Nicholas II to the Great Patriotic War.. laughing And here, after reading, the impression is that without the "daring" Semenov and Drozdovites, the Red Army, well, would not have defeated the Japanese ..
  13. Yuri Guliy
    Yuri Guliy 28 November 2022 10: 45
    The publication is correct, useful, although too late (for several decades). Interestingly, after the liberation of Kyiv from the Nazis, when will the joint parade of Russians and Ukrainians take place?
  14. place
    place 28 November 2022 12: 56
    Quote: Galina Mylnikova
    It was not history that decreed this, but quite specific people who constantly hid one side of the coin, exalting the deeds of the other. You, sir, are the product of this one-sidedness, and very aggressive one at that.

    And any normal person in the general fight takes someone's side. And only half-witted half-fools stand on the sidelines, so that later they mumble their idiotic roulades .....
    This is how God himself ordered ... read the Bible ....
    Correctly, quite specific people ordered and pulled Ataman Krasnov on a rope together with Vlasov in 1947. And Denikin, unfortunately, died himself in the States and was buried there, like "the commander-in-chief of the army. Allied to the USA." But it is NOT correct that they "during it" released Krasnov on parole. It was necessary to immediately pull him up together with Denikin back in 1917.
  15. saygon66
    saygon66 28 November 2022 18: 06
    - The authors mixed red and white in some kind of soft pink!
    - And in 45, no one forgot or forgave anything to anyone ... they said that after the meeting of representatives of the white emigration with representatives of the Soviet administration, the former were never seen again ... The fate of the Harbin repatriates is no less tragic ... and by no one so far has not been illuminated. Far from everyone, fate turned out to be so favorable as, for example, to Vertinsky.
  16. 89067359490
    89067359490 29 November 2022 02: 55
    The author forgot to point out that after the entry of Soviet troops, Russian Harbin, in fact, ceased to exist. By the year 52, several tens of thousands remained from the two hundred thousandth diaspora of the city.
  17. Vitaly Koisin
    Vitaly Koisin 27 January 2023 21: 29
    Well, archbishop. Nestor was also an honorary member of the local RFP :)

    In general, as has already been rightly noted here, a pastoral article. The authors should, in order to compile a more balanced picture of the world, consider at least the articles of L.P. Chernikova: "Deportation of Russian emigrants in 1945-1946", "Deportation of Russian emigrants from China in the post-war years (1945-1946): unknown archival documents",..