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Turkish chromium ore for Germany in World War II. Truth and fiction

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Turkish chromium ore for Germany in World War II. Truth and fiction



Carl August Clodius


During the war years, a certain doctor of economics Karl August Clodius (Karl August Clodius; 1897-1952) was in Germany - a German statesman, diplomat and economist.

Since 1921, Karl Klodius was in diplomatic work as an employee of the Foreign Trade Department.

From May 1927 he worked at the German embassy in Paris, from November 1928 Dr. Clodius was promoted to mission envoy.

In the same position since 1931 he worked in Vienna, and in 1932-1934. - in Sofia. Since November 1938, Dr. Clodius has been envoy 1st class, an employee of the Trade and Political Department of the German Foreign Ministry.

Since 1943, Dr. Klodius became Ministerial Director, Extraordinary Commissioner for Trade and Political Negotiations, participated as an economic expert in the conclusion of important economic agreements between Germany and the countries of Southeast Europe.

Since May 1944 - the representative of the German government in Romania; Ambassador for Economic Affairs.

Arrested in September 1944 by the Romanian authorities and handed over to representatives of the Soviet military command.

He died in our captivity.

But long before he died, Dr. Klodius was interviewed by employees of the Main Directorate of Counterintelligence of the USSR Ministry of State Security.

Testimony of Dr. K. Clodius on Turkey


Let us look into the handwritten testimony of this Dr. K. Clodius on the topic "Turkey", written by him on June 12, 1946.

“In the spring of 1938, a Turkish-British loan agreement was concluded. In this agreement, England undertook to provide Turkey with a loan in the amount of 200 million marks. Of the total amount of this amount, 80%, i.e. 160 million, fell to the share of British goods, primarily military materials. England was given the opportunity, under particularly favorable conditions, to obtain raw materials from Turkey, primarily ore. Despite this, the participation of England in Turkish exports in the future, compared with the participation of Germany, remained insignificant.

In the summer of 1938, Numan Menemenciogluj, former State Secretary of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arrived in Berlin (who later became Minister of Foreign Affairs), where he received medical treatment for many years.

At the same time, during this visit, he led the Turkish delegation to conclude a trade agreement, which was then signed.

During his stay in Berlin, Menemendzhi-Ogly had a very detailed political conversation with Foreign Minister Ribbentrop. Ribbentrop tried to persuade Menemendzhi-Ogly to a close political incorporation of Turkey into Germany. Menemenci-Ogly, in an oriental flowery but clearly expressed form, rejected this proposal and stated that all the authoritative circles of Turkey were unanimous on this issue and that Turkey would not change the course of its foreign policy.

Despite the deterioration of political relations, the Imperial Minister of Economics Funk made an official visit to Ankara in November 1938 and agreed with the Turkish government on a loan in the amount of 150 million imperial marks. Of the total of this amount, 90 million marks fell on the share of various industrial products, primarily machines and vehicles, and 60 million marks on the share of military materials. Further development of the political situation led to the fact that this loan agreement was not fulfilled.

The occupation of Albania by Italy at the end of March 1939 caused great discontent in Turkey. It has always been a dogma of Turkish foreign policy that the strengthening of the positions of any major European power in the Balkan Peninsula would be contrary to Turkish interests and would pose a threat to the existing situation in the straits. This consideration was one of the moments of the policy of the Balkan Union, which was continued until 1939.

Turkish-Italian relations since the Libyan War of 1911–1912 did not change and were bad. Turkey "forgave" the Italians the rejection of Libya, which could not remain Turkish for a long time, but could not forgive the loss of the Turkish Dodecanese Islands, located in the 3-mile zone of Turkey directly in front of the coast of Asia Minor.

These islands, which were inhabited exclusively by Greeks and should not have belonged either to Turkey or Italy, were the subject of disputes between these states. In this state of affairs, the Turks were particularly sensitive to the penetration of Italy into the Balkan Peninsula and took under the influence of this event further energetic steps towards rapprochement with England, while in April 1939 they entered into a formal alliance with England.

Such an alliance agreement between the two states did not exist before. The conclusion of this union treaty in Berlin led to an aggravation of already existing discontent, on the basis of the above reasons directed against Turkey. The German government interrupted the implementation of the loan agreement concluded in November 1938, and, in addition, did not extend the trade agreement concluded in the summer of 1938, although it expired on August 31, 1939. This position of Germany led to the further rapprochement of Turkey with the enemies of Germany also on the basis of economic relations.

On January 8, 1940, Turkey concluded an agreement with England and France, according to which it was obliged to send all exports of chrome ore in the amount of about 3 thousand tons annually within 200 years exclusively to England and France. Previously, in peacetime, most of this export went to Germany. From the German point of view, this treaty meant a deviation from neutrality, because it effectively transferred Turkey's economic ties to the warring states at that time (compared to pre-war times), which was unfavorable for Germany.

On the other hand, the German government, by not fulfilling the loan agreement and not extending the trade agreement, gave the Turkish government not only a reason, but also legal prerequisites for such a course of action. In any case, the German-Turkish alienation with the conclusion of this treaty reached such a degree as never before in the years after the First World War.

A new stage in German-Turkish relations began with the conclusion in June 1941 of a German-Turkish friendly treaty. Since the conclusion of this treaty, Turkey has returned to its traditional policy of the pre-war period: the desire for political rapprochement with England while maintaining friendly relations with Germany, but without any political connection and obligations.

In accordance with this agreement, which was concluded in June 1941, apart from the promise of non-aggression, did not contain any specific political commitments.

Germany's readiness to conclude a treaty arose in connection with the belated recognition of the fact that the policy of "embitterment" would lead to nothing, and Turkey would fall more and more into the hands of England.

In the course of the agreement concluded in June 1941, economic ties between the two states were again restored. Although these connections were not completely absent from August 1939, they were still insufficient for a complete turn of the case. In October 1941, a new agreement was concluded, valid until March 31, 1943, according to which the volume of goods was again restored, in total value approximately equal to the previous one, and in quantity - in a smaller volume.

Chromium ore was not among the deliveries until January 15, 1943, since the above-mentioned agreement on chromium ore, concluded in January 1940, which, after the armistice between Germany and France, was replaced by the United States of America, remained in force until the above-mentioned dates (15.01.1943/15/1943). Therefore, only starting from January XNUMX, XNUMX, chromium supplies to Germany were resumed, approximately in the pre-war volume.

Since that time, Germany and England received approximately the same amount of chromium ore, which was still a preference for England. Since before the war, until 1938, England almost did not receive chromium ore from Turkey, since at that time the main supplies of chromium ore went to Germany.

In May 1942, Germany agreed with Turkey on the implementation of a loan agreement, which was concluded in November 1938 and was not fulfilled (the so-called Funk loan), but at first only up to the amount of 100 million marks instead of 150 million marks and only to receive military materials . The repayment of the loan was to be used to pay for the chrome ore.

Meetings on technical issues related to the implementation of this loan agreement lasted for a long time and ended only in December 1942. Deliveries of military materials continued until the autumn of 1943.

In April 1943, the agreement on the exchange of goods, concluded in October 1942, which expired on March 31, was extended almost unchanged until May 31, 1944. The agreement on the supply of chromium ore remained in force until the end of 1944.

At the end of April 1944, the Turkish government announced the termination of the supply of chromium ore and the refusal to extend the trade agreement, which ended at the end of May.

The break in economic relations in early August 1944 was followed by a break in diplomatic relations.

Written by: Carl Clodius. Translated by: Interpreter of the 3rd Division of the 4th Division of the 3rd Main Directorate of Counterintelligence of the MGB of the USSR Guards Junior Lieutenant Smirnitsky.

Chrome ore export to Germany


So, on the eve of the Second World War, German commercial expansion in the Balkans ran into competition not only from Great Britain, but also from the competition of fraternal fascist Italy. As a result of such competition, Nazi Germany lost the opportunity to obtain Greek nickel ore, although among the owners of the nickel deposit was the German concern Fr. Krupp."

In the summer of 1939, Great Britain was very active in Greece, which assigned it the role of a link in a possible economic blockade of Germany during the war. In July, the British government provided loans to Greece, and negotiations were underway to conclude a military trade agreement between the two countries.

Thus, not only in the field of capital exports, but also in the field of trade relations, Germany failed to capture a sufficiently reliable position in Greece.

The same applies to Turkey and Yugoslavia.

As early as May 24, 1939, in the case of the conclusion of an Anglo-French-Turkish pact on military-political cooperation, the German Foreign Ministry decided to continue trade with Turkey (since Germany is “particularly interested in purchasing Turkish raw materials, in particular chromium ore”), but not to introduce while the German-Turkish loan agreement is in force and stop deliveries weapons.

In response, the Turkish government suspended the export of chromium ore to Germany on account of clearing. Despite the fact that a few days before the start of World War II, the Nazis resumed the supply of weapons, Turkey refused to sell Germany chromium ore for Reichsmarks.

German industrialists showed great interest in the mineral wealth not only of Greece, but also of Yugoslavia. In the spring of 1939, the German company Elverat founded the Rudokop a. which received the right to explore and produce oil. Shortly after additional investment, it was transformed into Yugopetrol. The largest German concerns "AEG" and "Siemens" sought to acquire ownership of the mines in Srebrenica and Tin, over which they had the right of option.

Another group of German monopolies tried to get their hands on Yugoslavia's new mineral deposits. On the eve of the Second World War, there were twenty mining companies under the control of German capital. Nevertheless, the financial and industrial groupings of the Western powers retained a predominant position in the economy of the Balkan-Danube countries, including Yugoslavia.

It is no coincidence that at the eighth joint meeting of the German-Yugoslav government committees, which took place from May 20 to June 7, 1939, German representatives drew attention to the difficulties associated with the purchase of "a number of goods important for Germany" due to the interest of Yugoslav exporters to send an increasing part of raw materials to countries with hard currency. The German government committee demanded that this practice, which caused serious damage to the German military economy, be suspended.

On October 19, 1939, Turkey concluded a mutual assistance treaty with Great Britain and France (with an annex in the form of a military convention), which was in fact a change of course towards Britain. After that, Turkey's relations with Germany deteriorated so much that Turkey did not renew the trade agreement with Germany, which expired on August 31, 1939. In return, the Germans denied the Turks a loan of 150 million marks.

Only in January 1940 was a temporary German-Turkish trade agreement signed for six months, limiting trade to 7,5 million lire. In July 1940, a new German-Turkish trade agreement was limited to 21 million lire for a year.

Before the war, Germany was the largest buyer of chromium ore in Turkey: in 1939, out of 192,8 thousand tons of chromium ore exported by Turkey, 105,3 thousand tons went to Germany. However, as part of the German blockade policy, the British concluded an agreement with Turkey in early 1940, according to which all chrome ore mined in Turkey was bought by England, which transferred two-thirds of it to the United States. The agreement was concluded for two years, and in January 1942 was extended for another year.

As a result, Germany did not actually receive chromium ore from Turkey from January 1940 to January 1943., and the total German-Turkish trade decreased sharply - from 136 million liras in 1938 and 108 million liras in 1939 to 17,772 million liras in 1940.
The agreement with England led to a sharp decline in the Turkish chromium mining industry - in 1940, ore mining amounted to 208 thousand tons, and in 1940 - 118 thousand tons (and all of it was bought by the British).

On October 9, 1941, Germany and Turkey entered into a new trade agreement for 1,5 years, providing for a trade turnover of 96 million lire, including Germany's obligation to supply arms to the Turks for 36 million marks. Turkey undertook to supply Germany with 12 tons of copper, 8 tons of olive oil, 7 tons of cotton, as well as wool, leather, skins, etc. In the same agreement, Turkey agreed to resume the supply of chrome ore to Germany, starting from January 15, 1943 (i.e., after the expiration of the Anglo-Turkish agreement). The German-Turkish agreement on chromium provided for the supply to Germany in 1943-1944. 180 thousand tons of ore, while 45 thousand tons - from January 15 to March 31, 1943.

Moreover, the Turks managed to ensure that these deliveries were counted mainly as payment for the supplied German military equipment, thus linking these two issues. At the same time, the supply of ore to the British also continued.

As a result of the agreements reached, in 1942 Germany provided Turkey with two loans for the purchase of military equipment for a total of 150 million marks. Also in the new trade agreement with Germany of April 1943, the Turks managed to achieve very favorable conditions for the supply of industrial equipment, agricultural machinery, locomotives and other things.

The Allies, of course, were very unhappy with all this and put pressure on Turkey to stop the supply of ore to Germany. On April 14, 1944, the United States and Great Britain submitted a joint note to the Turkish government on this issue. In response, on April 21, 1944, Turkey officially announced its decision to stop the supply of chromium ore to Germany and other Axis countries, and on August 2, 1944, announced a complete severance of diplomatic and economic ties with Germany. On February 23, 1945, Turkey declared war on Germany. Therefore, chromium ore has not been supplied to Germany from Turkey since April 1944.

In total, from January 15, 1943 to April 20, 1944, only 56 tons of lame ore were delivered to Germany from Turkey (and about 649 tons more to other Axis countries). The chromium agreement with Germany was thus far underfulfilled.
For comparison, only in 1943, 56 thousand tons of the same ore were exported to the countries of the United Nations.

Total trade turnover between Turkey and Germany (million lira):

1940 – 17,772
1941 – 35,82
1942 – 81,78
1943 – 137,736
1944 (through August) - 105,504.


In fact, adjustments should be made for rising prices. Of this amount, approximately 184 million lire are exports to Germany, 177 million lire are imports from Germany.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 25 November 2022 06: 03
    +3
    So where is the truth and where is the fiction? well-known facts.
  2. hohol95
    hohol95 25 November 2022 08: 11
    +3
    An article from the category "Rafik is not to blame ..."
    So the Turks stopped direct deliveries of ore to the TR and "it became easier for everyone" ...
    And the sale of the same ore in the TR through third countries is just a business.
    The next article will be about Turkish supplies to the Third Reich of cotton or canned fish?
    The Turks supplied these products to the Teutons without any prohibitions from Great Britain and the USA.
  3. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 25 November 2022 08: 40
    +2
    Turkish chromium ore for Germany in World War II. Truth and fiction
    The theme of truth and fiction is not disclosed, from the word at all.
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 25 November 2022 09: 28
    0
    If the documents contradict the opinion of the user, such documents are in the firebox.
  5. Seal
    25 November 2022 10: 16
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    Well-known facts.

  6. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 25 November 2022 10: 31
    0
    For Republican Turkey after 1923, fascism, Germany and Italy, have always been much more dangerous than England and the USSR.
  7. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 25 November 2022 10: 57
    +3
    It's funny that the second part of the article was published on VIF2-NE uv. Exeter (Barabanov) already sixteen years ago. smile
    From Exeter
    To Begletz (29.12.2006/22/18 15:XNUMX:XNUMX PM)
    Date 29.12.2006 23: 33: 24

    Hello dear Begletz!

    Brief history of the issue.

    On 19.10.1939/31.08.1939/150, Turkey concluded an agreement on mutual assistance with Great Britain and France (with an annex in the form of a military convention), which was actually a turn towards a pro-British orientation. After that, Turkey's relations with Germany deteriorated, at the same time Turkey did not renew the trade agreement with Germany, which expired on 1940/7,5/1940. In return, the Germans denied the Turks a loan of 21 million marks. Only in January XNUMX was a temporary German-Turkish trade agreement signed for six months, limiting trade to XNUMX million lire. In July XNUMX, a new German-Turkish trade agreement was limited to XNUMX million lire for a year.

    Before the war, Germany was the largest buyer of chromium ore in Turkey: in 1939, out of 192,8 thousand tons of chromium ore exported by Turkey, 105,3 thousand tons went to Germany. As part of the German blockade policy, the British concluded an agreement in early 1940 with Turkey, according to which all chromium ore mined in Turkey was bought by England, which transferred two-thirds of it to the United States. The agreement was concluded for two years, and in January 1942 was extended for another year.
    As a result, Germany did not receive chromium ore from Turkey from January 1940 to January 1943, and the total German-Turkish trade decreased sharply - from 136 million lire in 1938 and 108 million lire in 1939 to 17,772 million lire in 1940.
    The agreement with England led to a sharp decline in the Turkish chromium mining industry - in 1940, ore mining amounted to 208 thousand tons, and in 1940 - 118 thousand tons (and all of it was bought out by the British).

    Etc. Source: https://www.vif2ne.org/forum/arhprint/1277347
    1. Seal
      25 November 2022 11: 32
      0
      Everyone has "legs growing" from sources such as:
      — Frank G. Weber, The Evasive Neutral: Germany, Britain and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1979). pp. ix + 244.
      International Journal of Middle East Studies, Volume 13, Issue 2, May 1981, pp. 240 - 241
      DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800055331[Opens in a new window]
      Copyright
      Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1981
      This work is copyrighted by the University of Cambridge. Well .... God bless him.
      - https://bilimdili.com/dusunce/ikinci-dunya-savasi-yillarinda-turk-alman-iliskileri/
      Turkish text translated with google translator.

      Trade occupied a very important place in Turkish-German relations. In 1939, Germany was the largest buyer of Turkish exports and the European country that sold the most products to Turkey. Chromium, an essential component of steelmaking, was vital to both the Germans and the British. Germany did not have its own resources. On the other hand, in 1939 Turkey met 16% of the world's demand for chromium. The British wanted to harm the German war effort by trying to prevent Germany from buying chromium from Turkey. For this reason, in October 1939, Turkey and England had been together for 2 years already. They signed an agreement for the supply of 200 tons of chromium that year. This number exceeded Turkey's production. Thus, the British wanted to keep the Germans out of the chromium market. However, if Turkey did not sell chrome to Germany, Germany might not want to buy Turkey's other goods. For this reason, Turkey demanded that England take away her other goods as well. After that, England undertook to buy only 000 tons of chromium per year. Turkey recovered chromium from its 50 trade with Germany. But Germany needed chrome. He didn't want to provoke Germany by not selling chrome in Turkey, I can buy chrome Carl Clodius and his team from Germany came to Ankara for an interview. On October 000, 1940, Turkey and Germany signed a new trade agreement. This agreement is known as the Agreement of Clodius after Charles Clodius. Under the new agreement, Germany reduced chromium production to 18 tons in 1941 and to 90 tons in 1943. Turkey, on the other hand, will purchase military and other supplies from Germany.

      The translation is clumsy, but it is not difficult to see in it all the same phrases that are present in Barabanov.