Military Review

Skin blister agents. Thiol poisons and plastic exchange modifiers

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Skin blister agents. Thiol poisons and plastic exchange modifiers



In continuation of the consideration of toxic substances of cytotoxic (including blistering) action, we turn to very insidious toxins.

Thiol poisons



The main mechanism of action of thiol poisons on the body is the ability to bind to sulfhydryl, or otherwise called thiol, groups. This is a duo of sulfur and hydrogen atoms, which is part of proteins and is involved in their creation and maintenance. Mammalian ribosomes contain about 120 thiol groups, and about half of them are very important for protein synthesis.

The action and toxicity of thiol poisons are different. Basically, this group includes metals: arsenic, mercury, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and their compounds. More than 6 inorganic and organic arsenic compounds have already been synthesized. Of these, arsenic trioxide (As000O2), arsenic acid (HAsO3) and its salts, in particular sodium arsenite, and lewisite (β-chlorovinyldichloroarsine), are considered the most dangerous from a military point of view.


Lewisite lesions are very similar to mustard lesions, with the only difference being that the latent period is practically absent. Symptoms are observed from the first minutes of contact, namely: severe pain, rapid development of an inflammatory reaction with profuse hemorrhage and fluid release.

Lewisite is a vascular poison that causes a progressive drop in blood pressure.

Affected lethargic, refuse food, reflexes are weakened. The state of oppression is observed throughout the intoxication up to the absence of a reaction to stimuli before death. The action of the toxin causes an increase in vascular permeability, in connection with which the liquid part of the blood exits into the pleural and abdominal cavities, as well as into the intercellular space of tissues. In this regard, the victims develop pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and so on. In severe cases, hemorrhages in the internal organs are possible, first pointwise, then extensively. This "dehydration" leads to thickening of the blood, which can eventually lead to death.

Toxic plastic exchange modifiers



All reactions in a living organism can be divided into two groups and attributed either to plastic exchange, when a substance is created, or to energy, when a substance is split. On these principles, metabolism or metabolism is built.

Plastic exchange modifiers include polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and although the likelihood of their combat use is low, these extremely toxic compounds, which are characterized by the ability of long-term cumulation and persistence in the environment, require special attention.

The compounds got their names from the number of oxygen atoms in the molecule. One oxygen atom - halogenated dibenzofurans, two oxygen atoms - dioxins, if the substances do not contain oxygen - these are halogenated biphenyls.

The diversity of dioxins is provided by a large number of combinations of chemical structure. The presence of chromium or bromine, two oxygen atoms and the ability to change the position of halogens in the molecule gave rise to several dozen families of these poisons, and the total number of compounds exceeds a thousand.

The most toxic member of the group is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). Over the past 40 years, more than 2,3,7,8 people have been affected by numerous accidents and incidents in the production of chlorinated phenols, in which 1-TCDD, among other substances, was also released into the environment. The main component of the Agent orange mixture used by the United States during the Vietnam War was 500-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and dioxin was present as an impurity. In total, during the war, approximately 2,4,5-200 kilograms of dioxin entered the environment, which greatly affected the health of the US military personnel who took part in the hostilities.

2,3,7,8-TCDD is a crystalline substance that does not dissolve in water and is easily carried by air currents. It boils at a temperature of 305 degrees Celsius and has practically no ability to evaporate. This is an extremely persistent substance that accumulates both in environmental objects and in the organisms of living beings, being transmitted through food chains. The half-life (“half-life” of a substance in the blood) is 1–1,5 years, but under certain climatic and geographical conditions and the nature of the soil, this period can be much longer.


From the description it is clear that dioxin enters the body with contaminated food or by inhalation. After entering the blood, the substance is distributed in tissues and organs. Adipose tissue is a favorite tissue for dioxin accumulation. In a number of Vietnamese residents, even 15 years after the end of the chemical war, the content of poison in adipose tissue was 3-4 times higher than in Europeans and the United States.

In fatal poisoning, symptoms of general intoxication first appear (exhaustion, anorexia, general depression, a sharp decline in strength, problems with blood composition), then symptoms are added that are characteristic of damage to the liver, tissues and immunity. Edema refers to the characteristic signs of intoxication. The fluid accumulates in the subcutaneous tissue, first around the eyes, then spreading to the face, neck and torso. With the most severe terminal edema, fluid is found even in the chest and abdominal regions.

With a mild degree of poisoning, the earliest and most common sign of damage is the appearance of "chloracne" due to the transformation of the sebaceous glands. A similar symptom can be seen in the third president of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko.


Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs for short, is a synthetic chlorine-containing substance. Depending on the type of experimental animal and the variant of the compound, the lethal dose ranges from 0,5 to 11,3 g/kg, which is quite a lot. High heat resistance, chemical stability and dielectric properties have made PCBs widely used in electrical engineering, dyes, lubricants, hydraulic systems, and even textiles and paper. In addition, PCBs were used in the manufacture of products where the use of other refrigerants was associated with a high risk of explosion or ignition.

PCBs can enter the body through the skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Once in the blood, substances quickly accumulate in the liver and muscles, and then redistributed to adipose tissue. In addition, PCBs, like dioxins, are enhancers of the action of other chemicals alien to the body.

PCB intoxication is similar to the effects that develop from dioxins. The toxic process that takes place in humans has not been studied enough. Acute damage by dioxins and PCBs often goes unnoticed due to the extremely slow development. That is, a person loses weight, begins chloracne and hair loss, edema, inhibition of the red bone marrow, impaired reproductive function, and all this lasts so long that symptoms can be detected and correlated only with specific experience, and only through careful monitoring of personnel .

There is no antidote for polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons.


Conclusion


As you can see, from the rapid damage caused by mustard gas, the functionality of poisonous substances gradually shifted to cumulative properties, poisoning by which is very difficult to detect.

Thus, the substances of this described group alone are capable of providing their owner with a variety of effects on the target, if he has the proper imagination, of course. In addition, it must be remembered that some toxic substances are practically not inclined to react with other substances, which means that they can be used simultaneously.

Toxicology in general and the military in particular is a whole world, similar in essence to intelligence and counterintelligence, only they write about this medical science not so often. The following articles will be devoted to poisonous and toxic substances of asphyxiation.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 24 November 2022 05: 10
    +4
    Horror what. belay
    You read as if you got into the workshop of the devil ... on the shelves there are a variety of tools of his work ... all the same, a good chemist is a profession that is relevant and in demand at all times.
    1. Pankrat25
      Pankrat25 24 November 2022 06: 34
      +1
      a good chemist is a profession that is relevant and in demand at all times

      Therefore, those who are especially brilliant in such an industry simply need to be physically eliminated so that millions or billions of people do not suffer later because of one evil genius !!
      1. hwostatij
        hwostatij 24 November 2022 06: 44
        +1
        Therefore, those who are especially brilliant in such an industry simply need to be physically eliminated so that millions or billions of people do not suffer later because of one evil genius !!

        And burn chemistry books. And in general, to ban chemistry in order to avoid.
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. 24 November 2022 07: 04
          +1
          Quote: Hwostatij
          burn chemistry books. And in general, to ban chemistry in order to avoid.

          Well, in the internet they banned literature on especially dangerous things. smile
          The hour is uneven, some madman will bungle a ton of plastid and set off fireworks somewhere ... or worse, boil a barrel of cyanide and throw it into the subway.
          So people must be protected from themselves in time by isolating those especially gifted in scientific sharashkas ... let them have fun there for the benefit of the state under its control.
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 24 November 2022 08: 01
          +1
          Quote: Hwostatij
          And burn chemistry books. And in general, to ban chemistry in order to avoid.

          Few.
          Quote: Griboyedov "Woe from Wit"

          ...No! If evil is to be stopped:
          Take away ALL books would be burned.
          1. Lech from Android.
            Lech from Android. 24 November 2022 08: 29
            +3
            Quote: Nagan
            Take away ALL books and burn them.

            Manuscripts do not burn. smile
      2. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 24 November 2022 07: 05
        +3
        Quote: Pankrat25
        especially brilliant in such an industry, it is simply necessary to physically eliminate

        Stalin created sharashkas working for the good of the country. Where geniuses were in control.
      3. Duncan
        Duncan 24 November 2022 13: 32
        +2
        Undoing the achievements of civilization, you will fall into the stone age. You will have to live there in harmony with nature (parasites, worms, cholera-plague, or you will simply be eaten by predators or cannibals).
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 24 November 2022 09: 15
      +3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      You read as if you were in the workshop of the devil ...

      That's right, you said horror, and the Americans used this horror in Vietnam to bring "Western democracy" to the Vietnamese, Hitler also carried the "new world order, but even he did not use this" horror ", unlike" wolves in sheep's clothing ".
      Yesterday, the European Union adopted a resolution on Russia, but no one, neither the UN, nor a single country in the world, except the USSR, said a word when the United States flooded the whole of Vietnam with "orange", the consequences still haunt the Vietnamese. No one in the West has said that America is a country of terrorists.
      There have been no publications about the Vietnamese events in the press for a long time, but they must be heard and they must be constantly written about, because the United States was the first in the world to use nuclear weapons and toxic substances against the civilian population. Here it is not covered terrorism is evident.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 25 November 2022 02: 46
        -1
        Quote: tihonmarine
        That's right, you said horror, and the Americans used this horror in Vietnam to bring "Western democracy" to the Vietnamese
        In this case, the Americans themselves did not know what they had. Everyone believed that it was a herbicide, or rather a defoliant, and used it on greenery to reduce the ability of the Viet Cong to hide in this greenery. The American military personnel themselves did not enjoy any protection when they worked with this horror. That's when the military began to get sick together, then they only began to study in detail the properties of this chemical, and the researchers simply got their eyes out and their jaws fell off from the results of the study. There are carcinogens, and genetic changes in spermatozoa, and a hell of a lot more. It ended with a ban on the use of this horror everywhere and for all purposes, including the military. So no matter how you pull the owl on the globe, you won’t be attracted by the ears to the use of combat OV, especially intentional.
        Quote: tihonmarine
        The United States was the first in the world to use nuclear weapons and poisonous substances against civilians.
        Yadrenu bomb - yes. But then several times, using different methods, they calculated the situation “what if they hadn’t applied it,” and it turned out that there would have been many, if not orders of magnitude, more victims. Including among Russian soldiers who were planned to be used as amphibious assault forces on the Japanese islands. But these bombs gave Hirohito a chance to capitulate with "saving face".
        And as for chemistry, here you hit a finger where you know. The first to use chemistry against civilians was paint Tukhachevsky, who ordered to shoot shells filled with military agents at the Tambov peasants.
    3. Duncan
      Duncan 24 November 2022 13: 28
      +2
      Much of what is described is in laboratories and people work with it almost daily.
      In the last note it was about alkylating poisons, so without them org. there is no synthesis, many drugs cannot be synthesized.
  2. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 24 November 2022 06: 42
    +1

    Therefore, those who are especially brilliant in such an industry simply need to be physically eliminated so that millions or billions of people do not suffer later because of one evil genius !!

    Oh, don’t say it’s a pity Nobel wasn’t spanked in time ... and no one would have invented dynamite ... I’m not talking about the creators of the atomic bomb.
    It would be necessary to put the same Einstein on a barrel of uranium and send it to the constellation Andromeda.
    It is a pity that the inventor of gunpowder is unknown ... immediately put him on a barrel of gunpowder unambiguously and give him a light.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 24 November 2022 07: 13
      +3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      It is a pity that the inventor of gunpowder is unknown ... immediately put him on a barrel of gunpowder unambiguously and give him a light.

      Berthold schwarz
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berthold_Schwarz
      And in principle, he could not light a cigarette, since he lived before the discovery of America, from where tobacco was brought to Europe.
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 24 November 2022 07: 16
        +3
        Quote: Nagan
        Berthold schwarz

        It is doubtful ... the Chinese used gunpowder in their fireworks much earlier.
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 24 November 2022 07: 51
          +2
          In fireworks and it seems like even primitive rockets were used, but they didn’t finish the gunshot. And Schwartz, according to the legend, inadvertently dropped the pestle into a metal mortar, in which he ground a mixture of coal, sulfur, and saltpeter into dust, and it banged so that the pestle flew into the ceiling. Mortar in Latin Mortarium, and in English Mortar. And the word Mortar means "mortar" and "mortar". Mortars were the earliest artillery.
          In addition, propellant gunpowder is somewhat different from the explosive formulation, EMNIP content of saltpeter. So the Chinese have nothing to do with gunpowder as a propelling charge.
          1. Duncan
            Duncan 24 November 2022 13: 21
            +1
            Differences in compositions have little effect on the ability to throw something. Any Chinese rocket, in principle, could fire a plug or nozzle. Only she was not made of metal and did not hold much pressure. In Europe, a firearm was invented by pouring a powder mixture into a metal glass.
    2. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 24 November 2022 07: 42
      0
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      It is a pity that the inventor of gunpowder is unknown ..

      how not known? What about Berthold Schwartz? What about Christian Shenbein?
    3. Pankrat25
      Pankrat25 24 November 2022 13: 51
      +1
      In vain you are being ironic, the same coronavirus has already been finished off from a lethality of 3-5% to a lethality of 80%, and all because of what? Guess for yourself as they say, Are there many people on the planet who can do this?
  3. aybolyt678
    aybolyt678 24 November 2022 07: 03
    +1
    It was noticed that when affected by mustard gas, patients became less susceptible to pain. The phenomenon was investigated, worked out and received the best drug for anesthesia - Ketamine (Calypsol), which has few side effects and is loved by surgeons. He saved many lives.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 24 November 2022 07: 33
      0
      I have been operated on several times in America, and soon there will be more, and each time they used propofol for anesthesia, and after the operation they put a dropper with morphine and an electronic dosing valve with a button that is activated every 4 hours. And on discharge from the hospital, oxycodone tablets were prescribed, at the rate of 10mg every 4 hours.
      And for some reason, ketamine is not used. Maybe because it was first isolated from the banned hallucinogen PCP.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 24 November 2022 09: 20
        +1
        Quote: Nagan
        and every time they used propofol for anesthesia

        propofol is a drug with a narrower therapeutic window. Requires constant control of the heart and breathing. But does not require a license to work with drugs. As a veterinary surgeon, I have the best memories of when ketamine was available.
  4. Vladimir Mikhalev
    Vladimir Mikhalev 24 November 2022 07: 09
    -2
    You scared all the amers with your articles. So you will make them stutterers.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 24 November 2022 07: 52
      0
      Do not intimidate.lol
      The text of your comment is too short and, according to the site administration, does not contain useful information.
  5. gsev
    gsev 24 November 2022 10: 05
    -1
    Quote: aybolyt678
    Stalin created sharashkas working for the good of the country. Where geniuses were in control.

    It took Stalin a few years to understand the perniciousness of sharashkas. You understand that all Soviet fighters could be on an equal footing with the Me-109, having only a double numerical superiority, and the good Soviet bombers, which were designed by the sharashkas, had big problems with launching into a series. In tank building, where sharashkas were rare, the models of equipment were not inferior to the German ones and there were no problems with mass production. And the Grabin design bureau, where no one was repressed during the war, was able to organize the production of guns in general in unimaginable quantities for Europe. In principle, an employee of the NKVD in the Stalin era in our life is an effective manager from the Higher School of Economics who behaves in production like an elephant in a china shop. In the end, the Putin administration orders furniture for him not from factories controlled by the FSB, but from a citizen of Tajikistan who started out as a construction worker in Moscow, but now having the best woodworking plant on the territory of the former USSR.
    1. Jager
      Jager 27 November 2022 20: 33
      0
      Started with Stalin, finished with Tajiks... amazing...
  6. sifgame
    sifgame 24 November 2022 10: 19
    +4
    They are the most enlightened in everything, especially they know well how to kill and kill a lot.
  7. Duncan
    Duncan 24 November 2022 12: 52
    0
    halogenated biphenyls were poured into the capacitors of the Soviet daylight fluorescent lamps that were everywhere.
    Then they were thrown away during replacements and they rusted somewhere behind the house (school). We picked them as children, not knowing about the danger. Their scent is very persistent.
  8. Kotofeich
    Kotofeich 24 November 2022 16: 16
    0
    The author is a huge plus.
    And, in the photo, a fire plane extinguishes a forest fire. drinks
  9. Alex92
    Alex92 24 November 2022 18: 57
    -1
    I look at these photographs, and I think what kind of moral freaks you have to be in order to open your mouth towards Russia after all sorts of "Butches" and the like ... Even if it were true, a simple execution of people looks like pure humanism compared to the consequences of using CW for civil
    1. Jager
      Jager 27 November 2022 20: 35
      0
      Any serious accident at a chemical plant leads to very "fun" consequences.