Military Review

Seleucus Nicator. Companion of Alexander the Great and the last of his diadochi

35
Seleucus Nicator. Companion of Alexander the Great and the last of his diadochi
Bust of Seleucus I, bronze, Naples



Talking about the collapse of the failed empire of Alexander the Great, we recently talked about the Hellenistic state created in Egypt by Ptolemy Soter, one of the Diadochi commanders and a childhood friend of this great king. But the state of his other comrade-in-arms, Seleucus Nicator, turned out to be even larger in size.

As we remember, after long disputes, Perdikka, the commander of the cavalry units of the Macedonian army, who was married to Alexander's sister Cleopatra, was chosen as the regent of the empire of the deceased Alexander. It was to him that the dying king gave the ring with the seal. Perdikka divided the conquered provinces between the closest associates of Alexander, who were declared diadochi, that is, successors. They were supposed to rule their regions on behalf of two co-ruler kings.

The first of them was the baby Alexander, the son of the great conqueror, born of him by Roxana. The second is Arrhidaeus, Alexander's feeble-minded half-brother. Officially, the diadochi were still called satraps, that is, in a literal translation from the ancient Persian language (xšaθrapāvan) “guardians of the kingdom”.

However, to “preserve the kingdom” in the conditions of an extremely weak central authority, and even more so to obey one of the former friends, there were no willing ones among the Diadochi. But simply unbearable was their desire to "privatize" the piece of the empire that had been "inherited", while pinching off as much as possible from the possessions of their neighbors.

As a result, Perdikkas, who was too serious about his duties as regent, was killed very soon. Then they got rid of Alexander the Younger and Arrhidaeus, who interfered with everyone (and at the same time from Hercules, the illegitimate son of the conqueror, born to the Persian Barsina).

Antigonus One-Eyed and his son Demetrius Poliorketes ("Besieger of the City") were the first to take the royal title, followed by Ptolemy. All the rest of the Diadochi followed their example.

The successors of Alexander the Great almost immediately began to fight among themselves. There were five of these wars, they lasted 20 years, and almost all of the first diadochi died a violent death. Only three of them died in their beds - Ptolemy, Antipater and his son Cassander.

But today we will talk about Seleucus.

Seleucus in the army of Alexander the Great


This man was born in the city of Europos, which is located in the north of Macedonia, either in 358, or in 354 BC. e. Recall that Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC. e.

Seleucus' father, Antiochus, served in the army of King Philip in a not very high command position. But to Seleucus, who received the crown, such an origin seemed too insignificant and even offensive, and therefore it was announced that Laodice, the mother of the future king, gave birth to him from Apollo, who allegedly took possession of her in a dream. In the same dream, God gave Laodike a ring with an anchor, and on the body of the newborn Seleucus there was a birthmark similar to an anchor, which, by the way, was also found on his children and grandchildren.

It is difficult to say whether Laodike really saw this erotic dream? Or was the story about him invented later and not even by Laodice? But he came in handy. Indeed, why is Seleucus worse than the same Ptolemy, who considered himself a descendant of Dionysus? Even better - Apollo will be more authoritative on Olympus. However, Seleucus still called the cities in his state Antioch, not Apollonia.

It must be said that Seleucus, unlike Hephaestion, Ptolemy, Nearchus or Crater, was not included in the inner circle of Tsarevich Alexander. In 334 BC. e. he went on a campaign against Persia in the rank of a lower-level commander, and some argue that he was even an ordinary infantryman. That is, the starting conditions for the future founder of a great state were much worse than for other Diadochi.

Seleucus took part in almost all major battles, including the battles of the Granicus (May 334 BC), Issus (November 333 BC), Gaugamela (October 331 BC) . With the army of Alexander, he reached Egypt, Bactria and Sogdiana, India.

His efforts and military merits were noticed, and in 329 BC. e. Seleucus was appointed one of the commanders of the "argiraspids" - an elite detachment of infantrymen who had silver-plated shields. Diodorus Siculus wrote of them:

"Infantry detachment with silver shields, distinguished by the brilliance of weapons and the courage of warriors."

And:

"Invincible troops, whose glory and deeds caused no small fear among the enemies."

And the same author calls them "troublemakers."

At first, the Argyraspids were led by Nicanor, the son of the commander Parmenion, who was killed on the orders of Alexander in 330 BC. e. He died of a fever, probably before the execution of his father and brother, Philotas. Then the Argyraspids were led by Neoptolem.

During the Indian campaign, Seleucus played an important role in the battle of the Gidasp River (May 326 BC): it was his detachment that repelled the attacks of the war elephants of King Por. After this battle, Seleucus began to be called Nicator - "Victorious".

However, Alexander, apparently, believed that this brave Macedonian did not have the gift of a commander, and therefore he never entrusted him with independent command: on the battlefield, he only clearly carried out the royal orders. If this is so, then we must admit that the great conqueror was mistaken: Seleucus then defeated his recognized generals. But, most likely, it was a matter of insufficiently high origin: representatives of the Macedonian aristocracy, who knew Alexander from childhood, simply did not want to obey Seleucus.

In 324 BC. e. Alexander in the city of Susa organized the marriage of 90 Macedonians and Hellenes with the daughters of Persian aristocrats. The king himself, who was already married to Roxana, married the daughter of Darius III Stateira and the daughter of Artaxerxes III Parisatis.


In this painting, painted by an unknown artist in the XNUMXth century, we see Alexander and Stateira in the center, next to Hephaestion and the Persian princess Dripetida

Seleucus went to Apama, whom most authors call the daughter of the Sogdian leader (and leader of the uprising) Spitamen, and Strabo - the daughter of the satrap of Bactria Artabazus. The marriage, apparently, was successful, because after the death of Alexander, only three people did not divorce Persian wives - Seleucus, Ptolemy and Eumenes.

Apama bore Seleucus four children, one of her sons, Antiochus I, became the second ruler of the Seleucid state. In honor of Apama, Seleucus later named three cities of his state.

Seleucus and Perdiccas


As we have already said, Seleucus, by virtue of his origin, was not included in the inner circle of Alexander's associates. And therefore, after his death, he did not receive his satrapy.

On this map we see the distribution of the satrapies by the regent of the empire, Perdiccas. The name Seleucus is not on it:


The brave and diligent servant Seleucus became the commander of the regent's hetairos - the position, of course, is very high and honorable, but in fact it should have been the pinnacle of his career. However, Ptolemy, appointed satrap of Egypt, stole the body of Alexander, which, in a luxurious sarcophagus similar to a small temple, was sent for burial in Macedonia. Meanwhile, a prophecy was received about the great future of the state, in which the remains of this conqueror would find eternal rest.

The indignation against Ptolemy was universal, and Perdiccas, as regent of the empire, organized a campaign against the rebellious Diadochus. Approaching the borders of Egypt, he summoned Ptolemy to the court of the Macedonian army. To his great surprise, Ptolemy appeared at the camp. He was popular with the troops and defended himself so well that he was acquitted by the soldiers.

Nevertheless, Perdikka continued his campaign. During an unsuccessful crossing of the Nile at the Egyptian fortress of Camila, about two thousand soldiers died. There could have been even more victims if it were not for the help that Ptolemy provided to his former comrades in a timely manner.

A powerful blow was dealt to the authority of Perdikkas, both the commanders of his army and ordinary soldiers showed indignation. The satrap of Media, Pithon, refused to obey the regent and announced that he was taking his people away. During this conversation, Seleucus and the new commander of the argyrospids, Antigens, burst into the tent, and dealt the first blow to the regent. Everyone else joined him. Perdiccas tried to defend himself, but soon fell, receiving many wounds, from which he died.

Antipater was elected the new regent of the empire, who took both kings to Macedonia.

Diadochus Seleucus Nicator



Damaged Roman copy of a bust of Seleucus, Louvre

According to an agreement concluded in Triparadis in 321 BC. e., the satrapies were also allocated to the murderers of Perdiccas. Antigen received Susiana, Seleucus - rich, but militarily very weak Babylonia. And therefore, it seemed that he had no chance in the fight against other Diadochi.

Indeed, already in 316 BC. e. Seleucus was forced to leave Babylon, occupied by Antigonus. He went to Egypt, where an alliance of Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Cassander was formed against Antigonus. In the battle of Gaza (312 BC), they managed to defeat the troops of Antigonus' son Demetrius. After that, Ptolemy allocated a detachment to Seleucus, with which he managed not only to return Babylon, but also to subjugate the Macedonian rulers of the eastern satrapies.

By 303 BC. e. the state of Seleucus already included Media, Persis, Susiana (Elam), Bactria and Parthia.


The possessions of the Diadochi before the battle of Ipsus (about 303 BC)

Sovereign Seleucus I Nicator


So the foundation of the future great state was laid, and in 306 BC. e. Seleucus proclaimed himself king. Even during his lifetime, he began to give divine honors. On coins, Seleucus I was depicted wearing a leather-covered helmet, decorated with a bull's horn and bull's ear, or wearing a diadem.


Seleucus I on a silver tetradrachm, minted between 300–281 BC BC e.


Seleucus I on a silver tetradrachm, 312–281 BC e.

In the summer of 301 BC. e. the army of Antigonus One-Eyed, in which his son Demetrius and the young Pyrrhus (at that time expelled from Epirus) were, met in Asia Minor at Ips with the allied forces of Lysimachus, Seleucus and Cassander. The forces of the parties were approximately equal, but the opponents of Antigonus had an advantage in the number of elephants - 480 versus 75. These elephants were received by Seleucus from the Indian king Chandragupta, who was married to some of his relatives in exchange for territories previously conquered by Alexander the Great - part of the Punjab, Gedrosia , Arachosia and Parapamisada.


Statue of Chandragupta at Lakshmi Narayan Temple

The cavalry of Demetrius overturned the horsemen of the son of Seleucus - Antiochus, but was too carried away by the pursuit of the retreating enemy. When Demetrius returned to the battlefield, everything was already over, and his father had died in battle.

The power of Antigonus was divided among the winners, Seleucus, following a new agreement between the Diadochi, annexed Northern Mesopotamia, Northern Syria and a significant part of Asia Minor to his possessions. Now on the lands of the former empire of Alexander the Great there were four kingdoms: Ptolemy with the center in Egypt, Lysimachus in Greece and Asia Minor, the huge power of Seleucus and Macedonia, where the son of Antipater Cassander was entrenched.

In 294 BC. e. in the family of Seleucus an amazing история, about which Appian tells in his work Syrian Affairs.

After the death of his first wife, Apama, Seleucus married Stratonicus, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, the granddaughter of Antigonus One-Eyed. And his eldest son and heir Antiochus suddenly became seriously ill, and the court physician Erazistrat stated that the cause of the disease was the love of the prince for his young stepmother. Seleucus immediately yielded Stratonikos to his son, appointed him his co-ruler and sent him as governor to "Upper Asia" (provinces located east of the Euphrates River).

Antiochus at that time was not a romantic 17-year-old youth, but a man of 30 years old, and his father was either 60 years old or 64 years old. Perhaps this whole performance with Antiochus's illness was arranged only so that Seleucus could, under a plausible pretext and without scandal, transfer Stratonikos to his son, avoiding an internecine war with him.

Stratonika gave birth to two sons and three daughters: the eldest daughter - from Seleucus, the rest of the children - from Antiochus.


Tetradrachm of Antiochus I

In the same year 294 BC. e. Stratonika's father, Demetrius Poliorket, who ruled in Macedonia, captured Athens. But he was defeated when he recklessly marched against Lysimachus. In 285 BC. e. he was forced to surrender to his son-in-law, Seleucus. For two years, as an honorary prisoner, Demetrius lived in the Syrian city of Apomea (named after the first wife of Seleucus) and died in 283 BC. e. In the same year, Ptolemy died in Alexandria. And the last of the Diadochi - 70-year-old Lysimachus and 80-year-old Seleucus, took a personal part in the battle of Kurupedion (Syria).


Bust of Lysimachus, XNUMXrd century AD e., Museum of Seljuk Culture, Kayseri, Turkey

Once Lysimachus managed to emerge victorious in a fight with a lion. Curtius Rufus claims that this happened during a hunt in Syria, Justin - that Lysimachus was thrown to be torn to pieces by order of Alexander the Great - as a punishment for daring to give poison to the philosopher Callisthenes, who was suffering cruelly in an iron cage. The image of a lion is present on the coins of Lysimachus.


Bronze coin of Lysimachus depicting a lion and Pallas Athena

But now Lysimachus fell in battle, and his soldiers went over to Seleucus - after all, it was he who turned out to be the only living ally of the great Alexander. Seleucus went to subjugate Greece and Macedonia, but in 281 BC. e. during the passage through the Hellespont was treacherously killed by the son of Ptolemy I (and the grandson of Antipater).

It is said that Seleucus was stabbed in the back while inspecting the altar, which, according to tradition, was erected by the Argonauts. This Egyptian prince was called Ptolemy Keravn (Lightning), most authors believe that he received this nickname for his penchant for spontaneous rash acts.

Ptolemy Ceraunos was expelled from Alexandria by his younger brother, and in this, unfortunately, far from original way, Seleucus “thanked” him, who declared him his “guest and friend”. The murderer stated that the reason for his act was revenge for Lysimachus.

However, it is more likely that the reason for the murder was the proclamation of Seleukos himself as king of Macedonia, while Ptolemy himself expected to become the ruler of this country. He, indeed, became the king of Macedonia, but already in 279 BC. e. died in battle with the Galatians. Now Antigonus Gonatas, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, came to power in Macedonia. He married his niece, Phila, the half-sister of Antiochus I and the eldest daughter of that same Stratonika, the wife of Seleucus and Antiochus. Phila was born from Seleucus.

By the way, the son of Antiochus I and Stratonika (Antiochus II, grandson of Seleucus Nicator) was married to his own sister, Laodike. He later divorced her in order to marry the Egyptian princess Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II. After the death of her ex-husband, Laodike poisoned her rival and her son. This was the cause of the Third Syrian War, which was waged by Berenice's brother Ptolemy III Euergetes and Laodice's son Seleucus II Kallinikos.

Hellenistic power of the Seleucids


The state created by Seleucus Nicator, which contemporaries often called "Syria", is striking in its size. The empire of Seleucus was so great that it had to be divided into 72 satrapies.


Seleucid state, map

But the power of Seleucus turned out to be much more “loose” than the state of the same Ptolemy Soter, formed around stable Egypt. The first capital of this "Syria" was the city of Seleucia on the Tigris, built in 305 BC. e. But then he lost this title to the one founded in 300 BC. e. Antioch the Great (on the Orontes). Now this place is the Turkish city of Antakya.


Louis Francois Cassas. Ruins of Seleucus Palace in Antakya, 1780s

In total, Seleucus managed to found 75 cities: 16 of them, in honor of his father, were named Antioch, and 5 - Laodicea, in honor of his mother. Nine cities became Seleucia. The name of the first wife was immortalized in the names of three cities, which received the name Apamea. In the name of the second wife (the one that Seleucus ceded to his son), only one city was named - Stratonikeia.

In grandeur and splendor, Antioch the Great was second only to Alexandria. It is said that in its best years the population of this city reached half a million people. But later, both Alexandria and Antioch the Great were eclipsed by Rome.

By the way, for some time even Jerusalem was ordered to be called Antioch. I must say that the Jews turned out to be very restless subjects, over the years: from 167 to 142 BC. e. they constantly rebelled (the so-called Maccabean War, described in the Bible), and in 134 BC. e. even achieved independence.

The richest areas of the Seleucid power were Northern Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Northern Syria. Of greatest importance was the territory called Seleucis, which included southeastern Cilicia, southern Commagene, and Upper Syria. Another name for Seleucis is Tetrapolis, she received it for the four main cities: Antioch, Seleucia (not to be confused with Seleucia on the Tigris), Apamea and Laodicea.

It must be said that Seleucus I turned out to be a very capable ruler who deserved high marks from ancient historians. Pausanias, for example, calls him "of all the kings, the most just man."

Like Ptolemy Soter, Seleucus relied on immigrants from Greece and Macedonia, who settled mainly in the west - in the territory of modern Syria, Turkey, Lebanon and Palestine. The cities founded by them enjoyed the rights of self-government. But Hellenic officials also ruled the Asian regions, and Greek-Macedonian garrisons were stationed in large cities.

Decline of the Seleucid Empire


The heirs of Seleucus Nicator turned out to be much less capable people. They were defeated by the Egyptian Ptolemies, Parthians and Romans, losing one province after another.


Seleucid state in 200–64 BC e.

The only strong king of the Seleucid state was Antiochus III, the great-great-grandson of the founder of the dynasty (222-187 BC). He conquered Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemies, again subjugated Parthia and Bactria, after which he tried to conquer Greece.


Antiochus III, marble bust, Louvre

It was to him that the famous Hannibal fled, fleeing from his enemies in Carthage. But Antiochus III was also defeated, having entered into a confrontation with Rome.

By the 64st century BC. e. from the huge state of Seleucus Nicator, only the lands of modern Lebanon and Syria remained. And in XNUMX BC. e. in this territory, conquered by Gnaeus Pompey, the Roman province of Syria was formed.
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  1. tlauicol
    tlauicol 23 November 2022 06: 51
    +6
    Oh, and Santa Barbara! No matter how many times I re-read the history of the Diadochi, I cannot remember beyond the first generation. Up to Pyrrhus and Demetrius Jr.
    it was announced that Laodice, the mother of the future king, gave birth to him from Apollo, who allegedly took possession of her in a dream
    Yes, who will believe that Apollo was able to master at least one girl lol
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 23 November 2022 08: 35
      +6
      Quote: Tlauicol
      Yes, who will believe that Apollo was able to master at least one girl

      Well, they believe that the Jewish God Yahweh took possession of the Jewish Mary, which is why she gave birth to a male baby Yeshua, who later became known as Jesus Christ.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 23 November 2022 08: 44
        +3
        I willingly believe. But what about Apollo ... To him, emnip, not a single girl shook hands feel No matter how much he tried
        1. VLR
          23 November 2022 09: 05
          +6
          But for some reason Apollo ran after the nymph Daphne:


          Maybe he wanted to ask, "how to get to the library"?
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 23 November 2022 09: 33
            +4
            Yes, he ran after a dozen girls. But none gave crying
            So the dream of mother Seleucus is a linden for the Greeks
            1. VLR
              23 November 2022 10: 56
              +6
              Apollo had "girlfriends" and children from them. For example, Asclepius is the god of medicine. Aristaeus - the patron god of beekeeping, the production of olive oil, as well as the summer winds - etesias. And even, according to one version, Scylla is from Hekate.
              The mortal Heron is the founder of the city of Chaeronea. Epidaurus and Delphi are also the founders of the cities of the same name.
              Apollo worked up a dozen or two children.
              1. tlauicol
                tlauicol 23 November 2022 11: 06
                +2
                Didn't hear. One Asclepius is perhaps, and that is not the fact that it is his. He caught up with more and more young men, and the girls somehow shied away from Phoebus all the way
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 November 2022 11: 08
              +4
              In the same dream, God gave Laodike a ring with an anchor, and on the body of the newborn Seleucus there was a birthmark similar to an anchor, which, by the way, was also found on his children and grandchildren.

              I would look at that medicus who tried to find a birthmark!
              On the question to Apollo, where was poor Seleucus to go. Zeus staked Alexander, Ptolemy - Deonis. So much better than Apollo, the goat-footed satyr!
              However, Antiochus still remains the throne name of the dynasty!
              Thank you Valery, good day comrades!!!
              1. know
                know 23 November 2022 11: 31
                +5
                The goat-legged is Pan, isn't it? Apollo's legs were normal.
                Here, by the way, are both Apollo and Pan, this is a medieval engraving from the Hermitage:

                1. VLR
                  23 November 2022 13: 09
                  +6
                  The mountain on which the man climbs in this engraving is apparently Helikon, on which the Muses lived - it is also called the habitat of Pegasus. And, probably, this is not Bellerophon: he caught and conquered Bellerophon with the help of Pallas Athena and Poseidon, and here - Apollo and Pan. And not Perseus, who killed Medusa Gorgon from the body of which this horse appeared. Perhaps a person climbs not for a horse, but to drink water from a source of inspiration that appeared where Pegasus hit the ground with a hoof.
                  By the way, about the "good" Greek myths: the original says that Medusa became pregnant with Pegasus after Poseidon raped her on the altar of Athena. And the angry Athena cursed the girl - she had snakes instead of hair and other attributes. That's interesting: why did Athena begin to take revenge not on Poseidon, but on the victim of his voluptuousness? Because it was necessary to react somehow, but to contact Poseidon (one of the three elder gods) is more expensive for yourself?
              2. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 23 November 2022 11: 45
                +4
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                So much better than Apollo, the goat-footed satyr!

                Er... goat-legged is Pan, and Apollo is a metrosexual with a wreath on his head.
              3. Catfish
                Catfish 23 November 2022 14: 04
                +3
                Hello Vladislav! smile

                . So much better than Apollo, the goat-footed satyr!


                From Oscar Wilde:
                Arcadian goat-footed god!
                So gray and old is our new world,
                Is it really in sadness the whole result?

                No more shepherd boys, what's the use
                Gather apples, figs;
                Arcadian goat-footed god!

                Not laurels, but a simple wreath;
                Not in gold - poor Pan and Sir,
                Is it really in sadness the whole result?




                "Goat-footed god of Arcadia, what is left of you?" (c)
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 November 2022 15: 57
                  +4
                  Thank you all for the comments, but I just missed the word "what"!
                  I didn’t write about Pan, who will understand them (women)! Suddenly, "goat-legged" Pan ....! laughing
                  1. VLR
                    23 November 2022 16: 02
                    +3
                    But the verses appeared in the comments. And beautiful pictures. As well as the opportunity to try to comment on one of them.
                  2. know
                    know 23 November 2022 18: 38
                    +2
                    and I just missed the word "what"!


                    A funny mistake that did not upset, but amused smile
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 23 November 2022 21: 24
            +2
            And these are the habits of the nymphs and girls of Ancient Greece - who will turn into a laurel from Apollo, who - into a lilac from Pan. And who in general will become a nut with the help of Dionysus.
          3. Metallurg_2
            Metallurg_2 23 November 2022 21: 34
            0
            At three in the morning?
            Moron!
            Sorry I'm not smart enough to write a long comment hi
      2. Metallurg_2
        Metallurg_2 23 November 2022 21: 37
        +1
        There seemed to be some kind of dove.
        "He flew into my window
        He sat on the back of the bed."
  2. Xenofont
    Xenofont 23 November 2022 07: 56
    +4
    With all due respect to the Author, but like the Indian king's name was Por, not Pyrrhus. And the article is wonderful, especially since there are no books about the Seleucid dynasty in Russian.
    1. VLR
      23 November 2022 08: 26
      +4
      like the Indian king's name was Por

      Well, you must! Thank you, we will remove this typo now.
      1. VLR
        23 November 2022 10: 15
        +3
        That's it, the typo in the name of the Indian king has been corrected.
    2. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 23 November 2022 09: 27
      +2
      I also don’t remember a separate work, but Droyzen closes the most interesting period.
    3. Engineer
      Engineer 23 November 2022 09: 35
      +4
      There are no books about the Seleucid dynasty in Russian.

      General work on the state of the Seleucids in Russian
      http://annales.info/greece/bikerman/bikerman.htm
      According to the Seleucid army in Russian
      http://simposium.ru/ru/node/13475
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 November 2022 11: 09
        +3
        Quote: Engineer
        There are no books about the Seleucid dynasty in Russian.

        General work on the state of the Seleucids in Russian
        http://annales.info/greece/bikerman/bikerman.htm
        According to the Seleucid army in Russian
        http://simposium.ru/ru/node/13475

        Sincerely thanks!
      2. Xenofont
        Xenofont 23 November 2022 12: 03
        +4
        There is a translated book on the structure of the state, but there is no consistent history of the dynasty. Edwin Bevin's two-volume "House of the Seleucids" in English.
    4. Sertorius
      Sertorius 24 November 2022 07: 17
      0
      there are no books about the Seleucid dynasty in Russian.

      Hello, we have arrived! Lots of jobs like this. In Russian and non-Russian.
      https://vk.com/wall-56611080_182635
      1. Xenofont
        Xenofont 24 November 2022 09: 53
        +1
        90 percent of the literature cited is small articles in specialized periodicals, and the well-known Bikerman writes specifically about the structure of the state. I did not find any monographs on the entire history of the Dynasty.
  3. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 23 November 2022 08: 04
    +4
    The second is Arrhidaeus, Alexander's feeble-minded half-brother.
    Along the way, on Arridea, nature rested.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 November 2022 16: 00
      +2
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      The second is Arrhidaeus, Alexander's feeble-minded half-brother.
      Along the way, on Arridea, nature rested.

      A classic example of conceiving a child while intoxicated!
  4. know
    know 23 November 2022 08: 21
    +2
    Antiochus at that time was not a romantic 17-year-old youth, but a man of 30 years old, and his father was either 60 years old or 64 years old. Perhaps this whole performance with Antiochus's illness was arranged only so that Seleucus could, under a plausible pretext and without scandal, transfer Stratonikos to his son, avoiding an internecine war with him.

    Familiar plot:
    You are already old, you are already gray,
    She can't live with you
    At the dawn of youth
    You will destroy her.
    It's hard without love
    She will answer you.
    And your wrinkles
    I don't like kissing.
    She gave herself to me
    Until the last day
    And swore by Allah
    That doesn't love you!"

    But Seleucus, on the path of the daring Khasbulat, did not want "the old man's head to roll into the meadow." I decided, probably: well, what for, if it suddenly itchs, I'll get by with concubines.
  5. Engineer
    Engineer 23 November 2022 09: 51
    +4
    The empire of Seleucus was so great that it had to be divided into 72 satrapies.

    Someone William Tarn:
    In the whole state, about 25-28 satrapies can be counted, including the extreme eastern provinces; Appian's statement that there were 72 satrapies is based on their confusion with the hyparchies, since each satrapy was divided into separate districts ruled by the hyparchs for administrative purposes.
  6. VLR
    23 November 2022 15: 55
    +3
    By the way, we are not quite done with the Seleucids yet. We'll talk a little more in the next article.
    1. Sertorius
      Sertorius 24 November 2022 07: 25
      +1
      Valery! Good day! The Seleucids are very interesting. Grab Eumenes already. The most interesting fate of diodes. Not life, but an adventure novel. I would read it with great pleasure in your presentation. hi
      1. VLR
        24 November 2022 09: 33
        +2
        Good morning. According to Eumenes - maybe. Right now I'm working on other topics, and then I'll take a look.
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  8. Diviz
    Diviz 30 November 2022 01: 43
    -1
    Who did they establish there? They only built fortresses. Cities were built and existed for thousands of years. The Greeks just took them and renamed them. And they dragged in all sorts of stories. They robbed and destroyed peoples and cities. There would be profit and there will be wolves. It’s the Romans who will then thoroughly take up filtering every inch of the earth, apparently just a different haplogroup, unlike the Pelasgian and Etruscan Greeks, who, as they are trying to prove right now, came out of Anatolia. which is much more interesting than this article.