Military Review

Maxim's youth, Maxim's maturity, Maxim's return

72
Maxim's youth, Maxim's maturity, Maxim's return



Choo, choo, choo! Knocking, knocking hooves
Choo, choo, choo! The machine gun hit.
The White Guard is utterly defeated,
And no one will break the Red Army!

Lyrics: Julius Kim


Weapon XXI century. The first time I heard the name Maxim was when I watched the film trilogy Maxim's Youth, Maxim's Return, and The Vyborg Side on TV. It was in the year of the 60th of the last century.

From childhood, the song was especially remembered: “The blue ball is spinning, spinning, spinning, spinning overhead ...” Then we, the boys, how did we live? From one "movie" on "TV" to another. They show "Maxim" - everyone sings about the "blue ball", about Chapaev - they pull him to play "black crow, I'm not yours."


Classics of the genre: shots from the film "Chapaev" with Anka the machine gunner

And it is clear that by that time I had already seen the “namesake machine gun”, and more than once. But he didn't know the name. I asked my grandfather and he told me that it was "Maxim". "Why Maxim?" “And he invented it!” Well, since Maxim, it is clear that he was invented by a Russian. AND…

I thought so for quite some time. Until I got into the hands of the TSB, where something completely different was written. And the films with maxim went on and on: “Thirteen”, “Tachanka from the South”, “Package”, “They were the first” ...


Today, many have already forgotten it, although the film is very good. Frame from the movie "Thirteen"

Well, then I already found out what outstanding fighting qualities this machine gun possessed. I read in the instruction that with a supply of ammunition and water, a bold and skillful calculation - this machine gun is inaccessible to enemy infantry.

Well, “live” in our local history museum, he also impressed me, although even outwardly it was clear how heavy and clumsy he was. There, in the museum, next to the maxim, there was also a Goryunov machine gun, and again, even outwardly it was clear that it was much lighter than its predecessor.


Hiram Maxim firing his machine gun. Impressive, isn't it?

Gradually I came to know history maxim in chronological order, from the execution of the Matabele Negroes to his participation in the Korean War.

And it was also written everywhere that it was complex, expensive, heavy, but ... very reliable. That in the British army the main heavy machine gun was the Vickers Mk I - a classic machine gun that can still be found today even in the most remote corners of the planet, but in fact - the same "Maxim". It's just that Vickers engineers reduced its weight somewhat, when they took it apart, they found that some of its parts were completely unreasonably overweight. At the same time, they turned over the lever mechanism, and it began to open up, not down, which made it possible to significantly reduce the weight of the shutter.


And this is how the French at the beginning of the twentieth century imagined the war of 2000!

They also improved the muzzle device, where the gases were discharged during the shot and pushed the barrel back, which was the work of the automation. Their joint backward movement continued until the rear shoulder of the hinge bar hit the curly ledge and folded up. After that, the shutter was disengaged from the barrel, the empty cartridge case was removed and removed, and then cocked and reloaded.

The Vickers Mk I weighed 18 kg without water, and was mounted on a tripod machine that weighed 22 kg. Like the Hotchkiss machine gun, which had the same tripod, the barrel was aimed vertically by a screw mechanism. Sights made it possible to conduct even indirect fire and ... shoot at night. Cartridges of 7,7 mm caliber were loaded into a cloth tape for 250 rounds. Moreover, the rate of fire: 450-500 rds / min was quite high, although the machine gun could shoot only as long as water was poured into its casing.


One of the first versions of the maxim, 1890 Royal Arsenal, Leeds

At the beginning of the First World War, continuous fire was often practiced, although the trickles of steam knocked out of the casing unmasked the machine gun and machine gunners. Four liters of water could be poured into the casing, but still it boiled after three minutes of firing at a speed of 200 rds / min. However, the problem was solved by using a condensate tube that returned water back to the casing.


British Vickers. National Army Museum, Stockholm

The Russian maxim of the 1910 model on a wheeled machine with a shield weighed 45,2 kg. The rate of fire of 520-600 rds / min was higher than that of the Vickers. The speed of our rifle bullet was also higher.


"Maxims", "Schwarzlose" and "Colt-Browning" 1895 in service with an armored train car

Interestingly, at the beginning of the twentieth century, namely in 1904, the United States also adopted the Maxim machine gun, manufactured by the Colt company. 287 pieces were bought from British firms and another 197 were produced by Colt. The first British machine guns were chambered in .30-03, and all Colts chambered in the later .30-06.


So he was - the American "Maxim" in 1904. By the way, do not think that he has such a bulky gun carriage. A removable tripod is provided under the barrel, which is attached to the wheel travel! Photo forgottenweapons.com

The Model 1904 was the heaviest Maxim machine gun ever made: the machine gun itself weighed 24,8 kg and the gun carriage weighed 36 kg. Despite its superior reliability and durability, it was so heavy and bulky that American soldiers hated it. The final order for the M1904 was placed in 1908, but the very next year, the light M1909 Benet-Mercier of the Hotchkiss model was put into service.

By the time the First World War began, all these maxims had long since been put into storage. And I had to get them from warehouses to train troops before sending them to Europe, but these machine guns never found a more serious military application.


A feature of the machine gun was a very powerful muzzle, which hid the “cup” put on the muzzle. Thanks to this, the gas pressure on the barrel was used as efficiently as possible.

By the way, they also did not like them because it was very difficult to maintain such machine guns. For example, after every 10 shots, the barrel had to be changed. An experienced calculation needed only ... two minutes, with almost no loss of water. The adjustment of the cylindrical mainspring took a lot of effort. That is, Maxim and Vickers were not such machine guns that everyone could lie down behind them and shoot successfully.


Flip-up sight and spring tension regulator (“threaded wheel” on the left). This improvement, unlike the basic maxim, was very convenient for machine gunners, because it made it possible to adjust the spring tension in a much easier way.

But trained machine gunners showed class!

An example is the actions of the 100th machine gun company in the battle of High Wood on the Somme in the summer of 1916. In preparation for the attack on August 24, it was decided to support the infantry with the fire of 10 machine guns from the 100th machine gun company. In addition to their own ammunition, two infantry companies immediately gave their cartridges to the machine gunners. And during the attack, machine gunners fired continuously for 12 hours! The barrels were changed every hour. The first and second crew numbers were also changed so that the company could conduct heavy fire on German positions. Later it turned out that during the 12 hours of the battle, these 10 machine guns of the 100th machine gun company fired almost one million rounds of ammunition!


Very primitive handles. They could have been made out of wood. And so in winter all fingers will freeze! In the center is an iron semicircular corrugated safety key. Behind her is a T-shaped trigger

And here is how J. Hutchison described this combat episode in his book “The History of the 33rd Battalion of the Machine Gun Corps”:

“Ten machine guns were concentrated in the Savoy Trench, from where there was a magnificent view of the German line from a distance of about 2 yards ...
On the afternoon of 23 August and the following night, our entire company, in addition to the two infantry companies assigned specifically for this purpose, brought water and ammunition to this point. <…>
During the attack on the 24th, ten machine guns fired only 250 rounds less than a million; to cool the constantly boiling guns, absolutely all the water stored in gasoline cans was used, in bottles collected from all companies, and when it was still not enough, tins for soldier urine were collected from all over the neighborhood, ammunition was brought almost continuously.
Each fighter of the machine-gun crew who fired the most shots was promised a bonus of five francs. The money, as well as the Distinguished Service Medal, went to the crew of Sergeant P. Dean, who set a record by firing more than 120 shots.

(About the British attack on the High Forest at the Battle of the Somme in 1916)


Machine gun "Vickers" Mk I period of the First World War. Museum of Horse and Field Artillery. Australia

Interestingly, according to the experience of the war in the 30s, attempts were made to provide machine guns of the Maxim type with the ability to fire at distant invisible targets. Such shooting was to be carried out with the help of a monocular machine-gun sight and a machine-gun goniometer - a quadrant.

However, the practice of using machine guns during the Second World War showed that it was simply not possible to massively train machine gunners in such shooting. The need for mathematical calculations, and rather complex ones, and often the educational level of the soldiers themselves did not allow them to confidently master this type of fire. In addition, how to correct this very fire? After all, even flashes from explosive bullets with such shooting are not visible to machine gunners. Therefore, the machine gun, up to the present day, has remained a weapon of “direct fire”, that is, the principle of “I don’t see, I don’t shoot” was put at the forefront of its use.

And, of course, the “mobility” of weapons, on which many armies were literally obsessed, so that even gun frames began to be made of titanium. The maxim machine gun was written off as obviously outdated, but today's media reports that somewhere a rifle-caliber machine gun was fired continuously for one hour cause genuine delight.


The Russian PKP Pecheneg machine gun weighs 8,7 kg and has a cooling system similar to the Lewis machine gun. Thanks to this, it can fire 600 shots in a row without overheating!

Meanwhile, for maxim machine guns, this is ... not an indicator at all.

Likely return of maxim


And today, when we see an amazing return to trench warfare, it makes sense to think about the "return of the maxim." And about returning on a new basis. In symbiosis with a reconnaissance UAV, which from a height would correct the firing of such a machine gun at an invisible target. And in a certain sense, such fire would be more profitable and more effective than mortar shelling. An invisible rain of bullets falling from the sky will undermine the stamina of any number of fighters who find themselves under such a “rain”. For example, a heavy bullet of the 7,62-mm D grade, developed in the USSR back in 1930, pierced a standard army helmet at a distance of 1 m. .

Well, what if we replace them with the same proven bullet shape, but with a steel core and a signal explosive charge in the back? Then she will be able to hit the target, and hitting such bullets will not be difficult to track with a modern drone. And then the data from it is transmitted to the ballistic computer, including the wind speed parameters, and it produces a ready-made sight. Well, the current adjustment is carried out according to the same flashes from bullets when firing.


The American "electric machine gun" "Minigun" M134 is undergoing ground tests in Vietnam. Weight 30 kg. Maximum range: 300 m (effective); 1 m (lethal), 500 m (bullet flight). Cartridge 3 × 000 mm NATO

When firing at such an intensity, it will be difficult for the enemy soldiers, if it is simply impossible, to go “before the wind”, not to mention firing from trenches through the parapet!

High ammo consumption? Well, this is how to say, besides, the war today is already becoming more expensive day by day. And if today 100-200 people are considered significant losses, then the time will soon come when even 1-2 people killed will be considered a serious success.


One of the ground mounting options for the M134 GAU-2 B/A "Minigan" machine gun. It cannot withstand any comparison with the maximum in terms of weight, compactness and reliability. Although, probably, with the adjustment with the help of the UAV, it is also likely that it can bring down “bullet rain” on the enemy. Royal Arsenal, Leeds

It is interesting that constructively the “new maxim” can only be improved purely technologically. Lighten all heavy parts through the use of modern high-strength alloys. Make the water cooling casing titanium. The machine is universal, allowing firing from closed positions and also against enemy UAVs. Accordingly, the tape should be metal, link ...

In the conditions of a positional war, such a machine gun will be just a godsend for the one who makes it and will be the first to use it on the battlefield!

So we had the “youth of maxim”. There was also his maturity, proven in battles. Whether the “return of the maxim” awaits us (except for the already existing use of old stocks of the Armed Forces of Ukraine) - who knows ?!
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 25 November 2022 05: 15
    +11
    Birch trees rustled on the border,
    Where now we had to fight
    There served, two namesakes were friends -
    And both call Maxims.

    There was one - an intelligent machine gunner.
    (Meet Maxim mine!)
    And the other - the machine gun was easel
    Nicknamed also "Maxim".

    Strongly bound by old friendship,
    Took terrible fights
    Inseparable friendly couple
    Both namesakes are my Maxims.

    Very accurately suggests the gunner,
    And "maxim", like lightning strikes.
    "Well, well, well!" - says the gunner,
    "Well, well, well!" the machine gun says.

    From a fragment of a German grenade
    It did not happen to save them:
    The machine gunner was injured guys
    The machine gun was damaged "Maxim".

    Days of healing pass by
    And my friend was made a repair,
    And again, both namesakes of Maxima
    Returning together to the front.

    And at the front - hot and biting
    The hurricane fight is buzzing again
    And again serve — two namesakes are friends,
    And both call Maxims.

    Again, just pointing the gunner,
    With the maximum force beats.
    "Well, well, well!" - says the gunner,
    "Well, well, well!" - says the machine gun!
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 25 November 2022 07: 47
      +6
      For each question there is a clear answer:
      We have “maxims”, they don't have it.


      Whatever happens, we have got
      The Maxim gun, and they have not.

      — The Modern Traveler (1898)

      So wrote Hilaire Belloc.
      1. Aaleks1974
        Aaleks1974 25 November 2022 10: 13
        +1
        Also, these lines immediately came to mind!
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 November 2022 05: 21
    +13
    Good morning everyone! Thanks to Vyacheslav for Maxim!
    I dare to suggest that the theme of Maxim and Mosinka is the longest-running "balad" on the branch. You can take apart Savedzhi, Mausers, Colts and Brownings for a long time, but we will always return to the "markers" of childhood, when each machine gun is a "Maxim", only a "Mosinka" rifle and only two "PPSh" and "Kalashnikov" machine guns!
    Thanks again...and have a great day!
    Regards, Kote!
    1. Terran ghost
      Terran ghost 25 November 2022 12: 40
      +1
      You can take apart Savedzhi, Mausers, Colts and Brownings for a long time, but we will always return to the "markers" of childhood, when each machine gun is a "Maxim", only a "Mosinka" rifle and only two "PPSh" and "Kalashnikov" machine guns!

      Well, I don’t even know - neither about “each machine gun is a Maxim”, nor about “only two machine guns.” Especially with the second one, given the presence of at least a “Schmeisser” (actually MP38 / 40), which was in service with the Nazis- the Nazis during the Great Patriotic War, and the same American-made Thompson assault rifle (by the way, once upon a time, in my childhood, I was sincerely convinced that the American military still (it was the first half of the 1990s) used just such automatic weapons and go * laughs out loud *)
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 November 2022 14: 50
        +3
        I wrote about my childhood!
        Later, a wave of literature on weapons began. Unfortunately, this was not the case in the early 80s.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 25 November 2022 23: 13
          +2
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Later, a wave of literature on weapons began. Unfortunately, this was not the case in the early 80s.

          Not certainly in that way ! For example, I studied the "range" and the history of weapons from books "about the war", from films "about the war" ... according to Fedorov's book "In Search of Weapons" ... Markevich's "Handguns" ... For example, about the Hotchkiss machine gun I learned from the film "The Golden Bullet" (1966) ... This machine gun impressed me so much that under my "guidance" the boys of our street assembled a "sample" of Hotchkiss from wood and pieces of iron! And the rest happened in a similar way! In the "Military Book" stores, "Instructions on small arms" were sold with a description of the design, the procedure for disassembling and assembling various small arms ... later "went", weapons, a series of articles in the magazines "Technology-Youth "and in some other magazines ... And the initial military training at school? (Talk to the military hand ... he will "bring up such couples" for you, talking about weapons and military equipment!) Whoever seeks will always find!
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 November 2022 02: 14
            +1
            Good day Nikolaevich!
            Once again I repeat, I described my impressions from childhood. I've been making wood weapons myself since second grade. And I got “Schmeisers”, and far from AK and PPSh. From the third grade, VZO, YuT and TM were prescribed at home. Shot from revolver, PM, TT, AKMS from the age of 12. The first "pugach" blinded in class 7-8. By the 90s, there were self-made replicas (curves of course) of the weapons of the first militants made of wood. They played war games all the time, however, as in soldiers. In the hall there were self-made strategy games, on historical themes. The rules were much more complicated than the foreign battletechs. From his grandfather, another 86 knew about PPD (with whom he served the first half of the war), Tom, Bern. As a regular military man, he tried to explain to me on his fingers the device of German anti-tank guns with a conical barrel.
            But for most of my peers it was what I described above. I remember for all my classmates, weapons from films about Commissar Katani suddenly became relevant. Immediately, most of the MP-40 homemade products were remade with a variant with a side magazine. And when I tried to talk about a machine gun with a magazine from the top, my classmates laughed at me that “for fools they came up with such nonsense - you’re lying.” I remember looking for a drawing of a Degtyarev machine gun for a long time.
  3. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 25 November 2022 05: 37
    +5
    Good morning everyone!
    Yes, Maxim, Maxim ... as the poet said:
    to a difficult question, a simple one has an answer - we have a maxim, they do not have it.

    Thank you for the article!
  4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 November 2022 05: 39
    +6
    On the issue of recreation of machine guns such as Maxim. I think they have no future in modern military conflicts. All the same, the role of stationary rifle-caliber machine guns can be more successfully (and most importantly at longer distances) performed by heavy machine guns (chambered for 12,7 and 14,5 mm).
    It will be more interesting to use "maxims" in ensuring the protection of stationary objects (as an installation on ground-based robotic systems and self-propelled drones). In this case, the DRG or drone will need to have something more powerful than 7,62. In addition, the stationary complex can be well booked.
    However, the theory of heavy fire is not new.

    Based on the Fedorov machine gun

    Based on Degtyarev machine guns.
  5. Bingo
    Bingo 25 November 2022 05: 41
    +12
    Well, we’re dragging mounted machine-gun fire, as well as salvo fire from rifles - outdated its own not because of the lack of UAVs, but because of the lack of targets wink The goal for him is the accumulation of infantry, and unprotected infantry. If a battalion gathers in a beam, gathered in chains to attack positions, then it is logical to shoot with a canopy - it will shorten it a little. And if in the same beam the reconnaissance group crumbled and looked in all directions, where something was crawling, you could rape a machine gun before Morkovkin’s incantation and not hit anyone
  6. handwriting
    handwriting 25 November 2022 05: 47
    0
    I immediately recalled Shumilin's memoirs "Vanka the Company", where the author, being a truly professional in shooting, at least twice very effectively used the mounted fire of Maxim's machine guns against the Wehrmacht.
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 25 November 2022 06: 21
    +5
    “At the beginning of the First World War, continuous fire was often practiced, although the streams of steam that escaped from the casing unmasked the machine gun and machine gunners. Four liters of water could be poured into the casing, but still it boiled after three minutes of firing at a speed of 200 rds / min .However, the problem was solved by using a condensate tube that returned water back to the casing.
    Does a scheme for such an "action" (steam condensation and water return to the casing) exist ???
    1. Bingo
      Bingo 25 November 2022 08: 54
      +6
      It always amazed me that the tank is attached to the drain pipe)))

      Here in the bunkers it is clear - the upper tube is for steam, the lower one is for water - steam is pumped under pressure into the casing, the handle closes the water supply.
      1. insafufa
        insafufa 25 November 2022 15: 12
        +1
        Yes, the good old Maxim is our everything and a mosquito.
        Vyacheslav Olegovich Shpakovsky, so your colleague turns out to be your fellow countryman Mikhail Timin, the infamous who filled up the Luft Waffe with the corpses of Soviet pilots with a score of 10 to 1 in favor of the Germans, although the Germans themselves wrote 1k 1,2 for any period of the war. I read an alternative history article about the T-34 Vyacheslav Shpakovsky.
        Our tank panopticon: T-34, which were and which could be
        . Interesting article
      2. old_pferd
        old_pferd 25 November 2022 19: 22
        +3
        This is not a drain pipe, it is used to remove steam
        1. Bingo
          Bingo 25 November 2022 19: 30
          0
          Amazingly irrational design))) That's why the hell not to just connect to the top hole through which water is poured? There can be no rational explanation for this.
          1. old_pferd
            old_pferd 25 November 2022 19: 54
            +1
            And how does it aim if a hose sticks out from above? The cork is somewhat on the side in the back of the casing, visible in your picture. The hole is small, as I understand it, just under the spout, which was wrapped around the neck of the canister.
            1. Bingo
              Bingo 25 November 2022 20: 07
              0
              An L-shaped hose is easier to make than a jacketed steam line. Even if you want to weld a tube onto a casing and make a hole, it’s also easier. Moreover, episodic ingress of boiling water into the steam pipeline will happen with any design, including with the steam pipeline inside the casing. Well, something like this.
              And if the drain-gulf is behind (I believe you, the manual did not download), then this is also the second constructive joint, again illogical - it is equally inconvenient to both drain and fill, on Maxim it is made more logical
              1. old_pferd
                old_pferd 25 November 2022 20: 20
                0
                The Finns acted most logically, following their example, ours - a wide filler neck so that you can shove snow.
                1. Bingo
                  Bingo 25 November 2022 20: 27
                  +1
                  Quote: old_pferd
                  The Finns did the most logical
                  wink
                  "Maxim" M / 32-33 was developed by the Finnish gunsmith Aimo Lahti in 1932


                  Again, the hose is embarrassing) Although, of course, the childhood of automatic weapons inevitably led to jambs, but still - these are illogical things. somewhat surprising.
                  1. old_pferd
                    old_pferd 25 November 2022 20: 48
                    0
                    I don't understand why the Finns left the hose. If it’s to remove the unmasking factor, then I don’t see the point - where the queues come from and you can see it, but to save water, this is true for the British when the war is going on in the desert, and there are no problems with water in Finland.
          2. old_pferd
            old_pferd 25 November 2022 19: 58
            +1
            If interested, here is a link to the Vickers guide
            https://www.tommy1418.com/uploads/1/2/7/3/12733599/36291497-handbook-of-the-vickers-machine-gun-model-1915-with.pdf
            Download via VPN.
          3. balabol
            balabol 26 November 2022 00: 13
            +2
            Maybe there are rational explanations. The steam extraction system consists of 2 fittings, which are equipped with a movable tube. It plays the role of a valve that cuts off water from entering the tube when the barrel with the casing is tilted up or down. The steam outlet must always be above the liquid level, otherwise the steam will push the water into the steam outlet. Blowing steam up is a bad idea, it will make aiming difficult, the steam tube will also interfere less if it is attached at the bottom.
            In fact, engineers are cunning and rational people, especially gunsmiths. It is worth taking a closer look at their products, and ideally reading the instructions.
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 25 November 2022 22: 04
          0
          I know that.
          How did water condensed from steam get back into the machine gun casing ???
          That's the "trick"!
          1. old_pferd
            old_pferd 26 November 2022 08: 03
            +1
            Once again - water is poured back from the canister. For convenience, a regular tip is put on the neck of the canister (it can be seen on the side of the canister in the figure), since the filler hole is of small diameter.
    2. old_pferd
      old_pferd 25 November 2022 19: 26
      +1
      The steam was removed into a canister filled 2/3 with water, where it condensed, and the water was drained back manually.
      https://vickersmg.blog/in-use/accessories/water-cooling-and-condensing-equipment/
  8. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 25 November 2022 06: 44
    +7
    Interesting article, thanks. But all the same, the return of Maxim is unlikely, all the same, the machine is outdated, albeit reliable. By the way, yesterday I saw Vyacheslav Olegovich on TV. Congratulations on your debut on TV!
    1. kalibr
      25 November 2022 09: 49
      +7
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      Congratulations on your debut on TV!

      Thank you! I haven't been to CT yet. There will be four programs of the Battle of the Gunsmiths program on the Zvezda channel with my participation, there will be many people there. Well, I worked on TV Penza and Kuibyshev for a total of 10 years.
      1. Alex 1970
        Alex 1970 25 November 2022 10: 33
        +3
        I have seen it in this cycle. I always thought that you were a specialist in the Middle Ages, it turns out not only in it wink
        1. kalibr
          25 November 2022 10: 59
          +5
          Quote: Alexey 1970
          not only for him

          Alexey, I have been dealing with tanks since 1980, how many articles, books I have published, I had my own magazine from 1991 to 96, and then too ... And the Middle Ages is younger - since 1995. The first book in 1998... So I can do tanks and the Middle Ages.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 November 2022 14: 03
            +6
            Vyacheslav, good afternoon and thank you for Maxim. smile
            I do not want to talk about possible prospects, because, in my opinion, it does not make sense. And this machine gun for me is associated with childhood memories, in particular the film "We are from Kronstadt", when the commissar, having fired at the White Guard chain, says: "Well, we will consider Comrade Maxim's speech approved." smile
            And, of course, "Chapaev" and "Thirteen".


            Well, I'll add a "cherry", Maxim arr. 1970, though this is practically a 37 mm cannon.

            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 25 November 2022 17: 15
              +3
              Quote: Sea Cat

              Well, I'll add a "cherry", Maxim arr. 1970, though this is practically a 37 mm cannon.

              Here is the 37-mm "Maxim" in anti-aircraft version - domestic (left) and British (right).

              But the crown of the design is a two-pound version from Vickers.

              This device in various versions was the most popular naval heavy MZA in Britain of the last big war - even more popular than the Bofors.
              1. kalibr
                25 November 2022 17: 31
                +3
                Quote: Alexey RA
                even more popular than Bofors.

                Especially the 4-barrel, right?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 25 November 2022 17: 45
                  +7
                  Especially the 4-barrel, right?

                  Monsters, but impressive...

                  By the way, I read that in 42-43 they were all removed from the ships and replaced with the same Oerlikons with Bofors.

              2. hohol95
                hohol95 25 November 2022 22: 00
                +1
                In the USSR, they did not establish the serial production of these MZA.
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 28 November 2022 10: 21
                  +2
                  Quote: hohol95
                  In the USSR, they did not establish the serial production of these MZA.

                  So...no wonder. "Vickers" were made by the Obukhov plant - a serious production with experienced personnel. He also made the first domestic 37-mm MZA - 11-K on its basis. But its production was transferred from OSZ-Bolshevik to plant No. 8, which in the USSR was responsible for ZA. And this plant failed its production - just like it failed the production of 20-mm "Rheinmetals". Well, I didn’t go out with the Kalinins stone Flower stable working machine - right up to the end of the 30s.
          2. Alex 1970
            Alex 1970 25 November 2022 14: 25
            +1
            It's great! By the way, I drove through Perm by car in the summer and drove into the Kungur cave, beautiful places.
      2. cat Rusich
        cat Rusich 26 November 2022 01: 24
        +2
        With all due respect.
        M-134 GAU-2 is not very suitable for replacing Maxim in a trench.
        The "Minigan" has a drive for turning the block of barrels - ELECTRIC, power 1,5 кВт- that is, the Minigun machine gun does not work without electricity, you need at least three 12 volt batteries
        There is also such a version of the "Minigan", a wire with a plug is clearly visible ...
        hi
    2. Terran ghost
      Terran ghost 25 November 2022 11: 54
      +2
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      outdated machine, albeit reliable

      There is only one moment - reliable by what standards? More precisely - the standards of what time period.
      "Maxim" is so very demanding on the maintenance and technical readiness of the calculation. But here you need to understand - THEN (at the end of the 19th - at the very beginning of the 20th century) there were no machine guns capable of withstanding "barbaric" operation. And ALL machine guns of that time required careful maintenance and competent operators.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 25 November 2022 17: 26
        +2
        Quote: Terran Ghost
        "Maxim" is so very demanding on the maintenance and technical readiness of the calculation. But here you need to understand - THEN (at the end of the 19th - at the very beginning of the 20th century) there were no machine guns capable of withstanding "barbaric" operation. And ALL machine guns of that time required careful maintenance and competent operators.

        It's funny that in modern times "Maxim" in the same way would be considered unreasonably complicated. First of all, due to the presence of a large number of mechanical adjustments (just look at his NSD).
        I already wrote about the problems of the Americans with the simpler Ma Deuce: in the late 90s, they were forced to start developing a simplified version of the machine gun, from which the ability to adjust the shutter mirror and the striker position was thrown out. Simply because the personnel, for the most part, were unable to work with their hands, correctly setting the values ​​​​required by the instruction - and, putting them at random, ruined the equipment and crippled themselves.
        1. Terran ghost
          Terran ghost 28 November 2022 09: 46
          0
          Quote: Alexey RA
          that in modern times "Maxim" in the same way would be considered unreasonably complicated. First of all, due to the presence of a large number of mechanical adjustments (just look at his NSD).

          Well, that's exactly how it is considered today. Then (at the end of the 19th century), when it first appeared, the H. Maxim system was rightfully considered an absolutely revolutionary innovation in military technology.
          And probably one more interesting moment. The fact is that as far as I remember there is one small nuance. When the term reliability is mentioned in English-language sources in relation to weapons or military equipment, this means precisely the reliability of the system under normal operating conditions. With its normal (scheduled) maintenance with scheduled regularity. The ability of the system to maintain operability in difficult operating conditions in English-language sources is called durability.
    3. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 25 November 2022 23: 24
      +4
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      But all the same, the return of Maxim is unlikely, all the same, the machine is outdated, albeit reliable.

      Well, how to say, how to say ... Never say "never"! wink

      "Army-2021"....
      1. kalibr
        26 November 2022 08: 04
        +2
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        "Army-2021"....

        Everyone thought: will someone find it or not? You ++++++++++++++++++ for inquisitiveness!
  9. sergan m
    sergan m 25 November 2022 06: 45
    +3
    Spinning, spinning blue ball...
  10. hunter shooter
    hunter shooter 25 November 2022 08: 20
    0

    The American "electric machine gun" "Minigun" M134 is undergoing ground tests in Vietnam. Weight 30 kg. Maximum range: 300 m (effective); 1 m (lethal), 500 m (bullet flight). Cartridge 3 × 000 mm NATO

    What is it that suddenly became so different from .308 from 54R? Why are we writing about Maxim
    For example, a heavy bullet of the 7,62-mm D grade, developed in the USSR back in 1930, pierced a standard army helmet at a distance of 1 m. .


    ??? They are the same in ballistics, the weight of the bullet is the same, so why is the m134 effective up to 300?)
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 25 November 2022 16: 19
      +2
      Did you miss the killer distance of 1500m?
      WikiWiki
      7,62 D gzh (GRAU index - 57-D-423) - a cartridge with a heavy (long-range) bullet D and a bimetallic sleeve,
      7,62 D gl (GRAU index - 57-D-422) (1930) - a cartridge with a heavy (long-range) bullet D and a brass sleeve.
      The American machine gun is effective up to 500 meters.
      Probably further there is a strong dissipation!
      1. hunter shooter
        hunter shooter 2 December 2022 10: 36
        0
        I didn't miss anything. It's just that the cartridges are so close that there is no difference. The scattering of all machine guns is quite strong. Only m134 is installed on equipment, incl. on helicopters and about 300 (exactly so much in the article) we are not talking at all.
  11. Baker
    Baker 25 November 2022 10: 41
    +4
    Interestingly, according to the experience of the war in the 30s, attempts were made to provide machine guns of the Maxim type with the ability to fire at distant invisible targets. Such shooting was to be carried out with the help of a monocular machine-gun sight and a machine-gun goniometer - a quadrant.

    Shooting from closed positions was originally intended for machine guns. It is easy to verify this by opening, for example, the "Machine Gun Manual" of 1917 edition, which describes in detail the methods of firing at squares, from closed positions and at night. And in the same place, on page 223, it is indicated that shooting from closed positions is ineffective and should be used only in exceptional cases.
    As for the statement about the impossibility of teaching machine gunners complex calculations, the author apparently learned this "wisdom" from a certain Markin. In fact, all "mathematical calculations" are carried out by a "specially trained officer", informing the machine gunner of the necessary settings.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 25 November 2022 11: 38
      +6
      Quote from Baker
      As for the statement about the impossibility of teaching machine gunners complex calculations, the author apparently learned this "wisdom" from a certain Markin. In fact, all "mathematical calculations" are carried out by a "specially trained officer", informing the machine gunner of the necessary settings.

      In the Second World War, the problem was just with specially trained officers - educated personnel were sorted out even before the infantry. As uv. M. Svirin, seven classes of education then meant a direct path to future battery commanders.
      1. Baker
        Baker 25 November 2022 13: 10
        +5
        In the Second World War, firing from a machine gun from closed positions was firmly forgotten. It is enough to look at the "Combat Regulations for the Infantry of the Red Army" of 1942, part one, p. 71.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 25 November 2022 15: 28
          +3
          Quote from Baker
          In the Second World War, firing from a machine gun from closed positions was firmly forgotten. It is enough to look at the "Combat Regulations for the Infantry of the Red Army" of 1942, part one, p. 71.

          I met descriptions of several cases of firing from heavy machine guns with PDO in that war. But there it was especially emphasized that the commanders of the pulrot were experienced officers.
    2. ArchiPhil
      ArchiPhil 25 November 2022 18: 24
      +2
      Quote from Baker
      the necessary settings.

      Eh, dear, you came to the site a little late. Too late. In the recent past, you could well have competed in knowledge with VikNick! An interesting fight would be, very interesting. hi bully
  12. Baker
    Baker 25 November 2022 11: 14
    +3
    Make the water cooling casing titanium.

    Still, pies must be baked by a pie-maker.
    The thermal conductivity of titanium is 3-5 times lower than the thermal conductivity of steel. Therefore, the water will boil much faster.
    1. Sergey Aleksandrovich
      Sergey Aleksandrovich 25 November 2022 12: 35
      +3
      Oh really? The first table that caught my eye says otherwise Titanium 21,9 vs. Steel 15 W/(m*K)
      1. Baker
        Baker 25 November 2022 12: 53
        +3
        The first table that caught my eye says otherwise.

        It's because it's the first one that comes across. And if not the "first available", then quite the contrary.
        Open, for example, Gorokhov V.A. Finishing of titanium alloys, p. 25, Lakae V.M. Processes and apparatuses of the chemical industry, second edition, page 23, or Petrunko A.N. Titanium in new technology, p. 6.
        1. Sergey Aleksandrovich
          Sergey Aleksandrovich 25 November 2022 13: 09
          +5
          I referred to stainless steel, it is precisely on it that one should be guided, ordinary steel is unlikely to be appropriate in modern conditions.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 25 November 2022 15: 48
      +3
      Still, pies must be baked by a pie-maker.


      Good day, colleague! smile
      Once a pie in a titanium shell was introduced and Milo Minderbinder was remembered when he tried to sell cotton wrapped in chocolate under the guise of candy. laughing Off topic, but it came to mind. request

      "The Egg Trade in Wartime" wassat laughing

      I read the book in the year 72-73, but still does not let go. Movies don't give a complete picture.
  13. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 25 November 2022 11: 27
    +7
    And this is how the French at the beginning of the twentieth century imagined the war of 2000!

    The French did not guess in one thing - TOYOTA should be written on the back of the car. smile
    1. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 25 November 2022 13: 07
      +5
      The French did not guess in one thing - the back of the car should be written TOYOTA

      I thought about that too :) feel
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 November 2022 13: 18
        +6
        Hi Ivan. hi
        We three have thoughts in the same direction. smile
  14. Terran ghost
    Terran ghost 25 November 2022 13: 49
    0
    that somewhere from a rifle-caliber machine gun they fired continuously for one hour, cause genuine delight.
    Meanwhile, for maxim machine guns, this is ... not an indicator at all.

    Here it must be clarified that this is not a feature specifically of the machine guns of the X. Maxim system (this is not entirely true), but of any machine guns with water-cooled barrels (and only them, variations of the Maxim system with air-cooled barrels (and there were such, SUDDENLY) no more fundamentally resistant to overheating than weapons of other systems).
    The principle here is very simple - as long as there is water in the casing of the machine gun, the temperature of the barrel cooled in this way will not exceed one hundred degrees Celsius. Ordinary physics.
    It is interesting that constructively the “new maxim” can only be improved purely technologically. Lighten all heavy parts through the use of modern high-strength alloys. Make the water cooling casing titanium. The machine is universal, allowing firing from closed positions and also against enemy UAVs.

    Why, by modern standards, the already outdated system of H. Maxim is really needed here is a big question. You can attach a water cooling system even to the PCM, even to the MAG / M240, even to the M60E4.
    Well, what if we replace them with the same proven bullet shape, but with a steel core and a signal explosive charge in the back? Then she will be able to hit the target, and hitting such bullets will not be difficult to track with a modern drone. And then the data from it is transmitted to the ballistic computer, including the wind speed parameters, and it produces a ready-made sight. Well, the current adjustment is carried out according to the same flashes from bullets when firing.
    When firing at such an intensity, it will be difficult for the enemy soldiers, if it is simply impossible, to go “before the wind”, not to mention firing from trenches through the parapet!

    And again the question is - why, in order to solve such a combat mission, use a rifle-caliber machine gun at all, and not an AGS or a mortar?
    In the conditions of a positional war, such a machine gun will be just a godsend for the one who makes it and will be the first to use it on the battlefield!

    Well, it would most likely really be a find. During the First World War. And now, in the 21st century, modern armies have a lot of ways to suppress and destroy machine gun emplacements.
  15. faterdom
    faterdom 25 November 2022 16: 35
    +3
    Vyachelav Olegovich, a couple of generations have already changed, and already adult 40-year-old people of both sexes have not seen the films "Chapaev", "Maxim's Youth", and therefore not in context when they are mentioned.
    Now (still) relevant for the associative series is "a machine gun from" Brother-2 ", with which Sukhorukov mowed down bandos on a Jeep in a dead-end courtyard", then yes: "Ah, this is" Maxim "! I see."
    1. kalibr
      25 November 2022 17: 33
      +3
      Quote: faterdom
      Clear."

      Andrew! That's why it's written that way. Arouse interest...
    2. John22
      John22 27 November 2022 18: 36
      0
      By the way. In this film, Maxim's work was shown incorrectly. When firing point-blank showed a wild spread of bullets. But Maxim sawed trees from 100 m.
  16. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 25 November 2022 19: 03
    +2
    There is no bad weapon, there is wrong use.
  17. acetophenone
    acetophenone 25 November 2022 20: 43
    0
    The issue of throwing bullets at the enemy with a canopy is now effectively and quickly solved by a mortar.
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2022 08: 09
      0
      Quote: acetophenon
      fast

      Fast?
  18. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 25 November 2022 23: 55
    +2
    Surely a respected author is going to start a series of articles under the general heading: "Back to the Future!" ? So, you look, and we will read: Paklya's flintlock submachine gun in the wars of the 21st century ..."! "angle" to fall! And "harmful-mercury" capsules are not needed! Although the flint can be replaced ... for example, with a piezocrystal ... + electric capsules! An electric motor instead of manual rotation I give an idea for a modest reward ... for example, a bottle of "Ararat "from the fee! wink And you profit, and I'm pleased! feel
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2022 08: 08
      +1
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      "Ararat"

      Ararat is expensive, and the fee is small, so thanks, but there will be no series.
  19. Sergio66
    Sergio66 28 November 2022 02: 41
    0
    It's funny, am I the only one who read in childhood the autobiographical story of Valentina Chudakova "Chizhik-bird with character"? A girl who, at the age of 16, got to the front as a nurse, later became the commander of a machine-gun platoon, and then a company. And in one of the chapters, she describes in detail mounted shooting with the help of a "quadrant goniometer" and, by the way, shed light on how to correct it.
  20. Ezekiel 25-17
    Ezekiel 25-17 22 January 2023 15: 54
    0
    On Maxim's account there are more victims than from atomic bombings ...