Military Review

Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Dictatorship and renunciation of power

60
Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Dictatorship and renunciation of power

In the previous two articles (first, second) was told about the political and military career of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his victory in the civil war. Today we will finish this story.


Sulla's reprisals


I must say that it was Sulla who became the author of the idea to buy the heads of his enemies. He set a very high price - 12 thousand denarii for a free man and liberation for a slave. So that those wishing to earn extra money knew who to look for and did not bring extra people to him, he compiled the so-called proscription lists (from the Latin proscriptio - “publish in writing” or “announce”).


This idea was very liked by all the ambitious people of Rome and was widely used. The proscriptive lists, for example, were the triumvirs Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus.

In the first proscription list, Sulla entered the names of 40 senators and 2 horsemen. All of them were sentenced to death, the property of their families was subject to confiscation, the sons and even grandchildren of the executed were deprived of Roman citizenship. Then new lists were published, and in total at least five thousand Romans (including 600 senators) became victims of terror.

The monuments erected in honor of the victories of Gaius Marius were destroyed (later Caesar would order them to be restored), Sulla ordered the corpse of this commander to be thrown into the Anio River (a tributary of the Tiber). It is curious that before Sulla's death, fearing that his remains would be treated in the same way, he ordered "to put his body on fire."

Plutarch, describing these tragic events in Rome, states:

“Husbands were slaughtered right in the arms of their wives, sons in the arms of their mothers.”

Moreover, the rich and noble were in the greatest danger. Plutarch reports that a certain Quintus Aurelius, a person far from politics and state affairs, finding his name in the proscription list, said:

"Woe is me! My Albanian estate is chasing me!”

Of course, there were many abuses, and many of Sulla's associates then amassed a huge fortune in sales of confiscated property - including Crassus, Lucullus and Pompey. Crassus became so insolent that he began to enter the names of wealthy citizens in the proscription lists without the consent of Sulla. The dictator did not like such arbitrariness and even seemed to be an attempt on his powers. Despite his merits in the Battle of the Collins Gate, Crassus was barred from participating in this profitable "business".

It was at this time, by the way, that the famous and catchphrase appeared in Rome:

“Let them hate, as long as they are afraid.”

Seneca later wrote about her:

“It is immediately clear that it was written in the time of Sulla.”


Portrait of Sulla on a denarius of his grandson Quintus Pompeius Rufus, 54 BC e.

In one of the proscription lists was the name of the young Gaius Julius Caesar, but he escaped death, thanks to the intercession of his influential relatives from among the supporters of Sulla. The dictator did this reluctantly, saying that "there are many Marievs hiding in the boy." This phrase of Sulla is reported by both Plutarch and Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.

Many warriors and even commanders of the armies of Sulla's opponents were sold into slavery. And for Rome, this had very unpleasant consequences during the uprising of Spartacus. Sallust claims that in the army of this mysterious "Thracian" (who, according to many, was called a Thracian for his gladiatorial specialization), were

"people free in spirit and glorified, former fighters and commanders of the army of Marius, illegally repressed by the dictator Sulla."

Plutarch even writes that some of the rebels were imprisoned

“into a dungeon for gladiators due to the injustice of the master who bought them, who dared to send Roman citizens to the arena who heroically defended freedom from the tyranny of Sulla.”

Finally, Varro directly says that he himself

"Spartacus was unfairly thrown into the gladiators."


This is an illustration for the first chapter of R. Giovagnoli's novel "Spartacus": already as a private person, Sulla goes to watch gladiator fights, in one of which the protagonist of this work will take part

These people, "glorified" and "free in spirit", Sallust clearly separates from other categories of rebels. Because, besides them, in the army of Spartacus there were people "cruel in character" - apparently, robbers. "Shamefully forgotten about their homeland" - probably referring to the Roman deserters and defectors. And finally, those who “due to their slavish nature” did not strive for “anything but prey and satisfaction of their cruelty” - that is, slaves.

The presence of "illustrious people" explains the success of the rebels: their leaders turned out to be extremely capable military leaders, and Spartacus, of course, was an outstanding commander. Spartacus and the commanders of his army knew the geography of Italy very well, moving numerous troops across it like pieces on a chessboard. And they categorically did not want to leave Italy. According to this (quite plausible) version, Spartacus was probably a repressed Roman citizen.

But Crixus (literally “Wearing a bracelet”, a Greek name often found in the Oskov tribe), Kannikas (“Shining with victories” - no more, no less), he is Gaius Gannicus and his deputy Kast (“Spotless”) are clearly representatives italic tribes. And it becomes clear why the troops of the rebels suddenly split up: the Italians and the main army of Spartacus had different interests and goals. And the detachment of Enomai (a Greek name common among hereditary slaves) had completely different goals. This compound, broken at the battle of Vesuvius, seems to have been dominated by criminal elements.

Sulla's reforms



Denarius of Faustus Sulla (Hercules with the features of a dictator)

Since the last Roman consuls, Marius the Younger and Gnaeus Papirius Carbon, were already dead, Sulla turned to the Senate with a demand to elect an interrex (literally, “inter-prince”), who was to announce the choice of either new consuls or a dictator.

This was Lucius Valery Flaccus (not to be confused with the Marian commander, who during the Mithridatic War was sent to replace Sulla as commander-in-chief, but was killed in Chalcedon during a soldier's rebellion). Not daring to argue with the sovereign master of Rome, Flaccus, for the first time in the last 120 years, submitted to the national assembly a proposal for the election of a dictator.

Tradition set the term of dictatorship at 6 months, but Sulla was appointed dictator "until Rome, Italy, the entire Roman state, shocked by internecine strife and wars, is strengthened." His title was as follows: dictator legibus scribundis et rei publicae constituendae - "dictator without a time limit for the preparation of laws and the establishment of a republic."

Sulla received the right not only to impose the death penalty and confiscate property, but also to found colonies, to give orders to build or destroy cities, to grant and take away the thrones of neighboring states with his will. Retrospectively, all the orders and instructions given by Sulla were declared legal.

To show everyone respect for the old laws and traditions, Sulla did not interfere with the election of consuls for 81 BC. e. However, to make it clear to everyone that he stands above the consuls, 24 lictors with fasces walked in front of the dictator, as in front of the king.
The former interrex, Lucius Valerius Flaccus, was thanked by Sulla by giving him command of the cavalry.

The soldiers of Sulla's army received allotments of land that had previously either been the property of persons included in the proscription lists, or confiscated from the Italic urban communities in Campania, Samnia and Etruria. Thus, the dictator created a layer of loyal population in these rebellious areas. These measures led to the impoverishment of many peasants and unrest that lasted for almost 10 years.

The Cornelian laws (lex Cornelia annalis), adopted under pressure from Sulla, were supposed to strengthen the regime of the aristocratic republic in Rome. The rights of the people's tribunes (including the right of veto) were severely limited, and they lost the right to nominate themselves for other magistracies, now available only to patricians and horsemen. The powers of the Senate were significantly expanded. It was now possible to occupy a similar public position only 10 years after the expiration of the first term. Laws aimed at limiting luxury were also passed.

However, Sulla himself did not comply with the requirements of his laws. First, in 81 BC. e. he announced his intention to run for consulship, although only 8 years had passed since his first consulship. And becoming a private person, he also violated the law on luxury, becoming famous for squandering. Plutarch claims that during his feasts

“the surplus of prepared supplies was so great that every day a lot of food was dumped into the river, and forty-year-old and even older wine was drunk.”

Renunciation of power


Around 79 B.C. e., after two years of dictatorship and terror, Sulla surprised everyone by relinquishing power. Before that, he issued a decree forbidding any army to enter the territory of Italy, and disbanded his legions.

He declared that he was ready to give an account of his actions (but no one dared to demand such a report). At the same time, he was so confident in himself that he walked around Rome without guards. And, it must be said that only one incident is known, about which (apparently because of its exclusivity) Appian reports:

“Some youth began to revile him (Sulla) and did not stop scolding until the former dictator reached the house. The same, before entering the house, remarked: this boy will serve as a hindrance to anyone else who wishes to relinquish power.

And adds:

"A short time passed, and the Romans realized how right Sulla was: Gaius Caesar did not lay down his power."

According to tradition, after the expiration of the consular term, Sulla was assigned to Cisalpine Gaul, but he did not go to this "his" province and did not take part in its administration.

Sulla did not interfere with the election of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as consul, who did not hide his hostility to his reforms, while a devoted supporter of the former dictator, Quintus Lutacius Catulus (son of the consul in whose army Sulla fought in the battle with the Cimbri under Vercellach). Both were elected, but Lepidus, who was supported by Gnaeus Pompey, who had previously been loyal to Sulla, received more votes. According to Plutarch, Sulla only said to Pompey:

“I see, young man, that you are happy with your success. How noble and wonderful of you that Lepidus, a notorious scoundrel, was elected consul by your intercession before the people, and even more successfully than Catulus, one of the most respectable people. The time has come for you not to doze off and be on your guard: after all, you have acquired an enemy much stronger than yourself.

Looking ahead, let's say that after the death of Sulla, Lepidus, sent to suppress the uprising in Fezuly, led it himself, promising to return the confiscated lands to their former owners. It was defeated by Catulus and Pompey.

In the meantime, Sulla moved to his villa, located between the cities of Cuma and Puteola, where he hunted, fished, and also wrote 22 books of his memoirs, dedicating them to Lucullus, a successful commander who was glorified not by victories, but by the cooks he hired (this is what matters competent work with personnel).

Sulla's illness and death


It is known that Sulla suffered from some kind of skin disease, the manifestations of which were itching all over the body and a red rash on the face. Plutarch, for example, reports that Sulla's face resembled "a floured mulberry." He also writes:

“All the features of the external appearance of Sulla are conveyed in his statues, except perhaps for the look of his light blue eyes - heavy and penetrating - and the color of his face, which made this already hard to bear look even more terrible. His whole face was covered with a red uneven rash, under which only white skin was visible in some places.


Lucius Cornelius Sulla, bust. Museum of Archeology, Venice

After the victory in the Mithridatic War, Sulla's condition worsened, and before leaving for Italy, he had to be treated with hot springs on the island of Euboea. But in Italy, the disease worsened again, and after the victory over the army of Gaius Norbanus at Capua, Sulla was again treated with water from local sources. Feeling relieved, he, according to Velleius Paterculus,

"given thanks to Diana, the goddess to whom the area was dedicated."

On the one hand, because of this illness, Sulla was ridiculed. But, on the other hand, then they believed that only unusual and outstanding people suffer from some rare and unusual diseases. A rare illness of some king or emperor sometimes in the eyes of the people served as proof of his "divinity" (for example, Caesar's epilepsy).

For a long time, attempts have been made to establish the illness of Sulla. They called phthiriasis (a disease caused by pubic lice), scabies, skin cancer. But the manifestations of these diseases are local, limited. Most likely, it was some kind of common eczema, but possibly allergic dermatitis. Sulla's illness was certainly painful, but it did not cause his death.

The reports of ancient authors that the former dictator was literally eaten by lice are fantastic and clearly have nothing to do with reality. Plutarch, for example, wrote that the body of Sulla

“became covered with a myriad of lice. Many were busy taking them off day and night, but what they managed to remove was only a drop in the ocean compared to what was born again. All his clothes, bath, washing water, food were teeming with this decaying stream. Many times a day he immersed himself in water to wash his body and purify himself. But it was all useless."

Pliny reports:

"The dictator Sulla was devoured by phthyriasis, when from the very blood of man the creatures that gnaw at the body are born."

These fantasies about the incredibly rapid spontaneous generation of lice against the background of "excess moisture in the body" are taken from the writings of Aristotle, whose authority was indisputable. In fact, lice have a long development cycle, relapses are possible, but only after a certain time.

It is believed that these stories about lice devouring Sulla belonged to his political opponents who want to defame the former dictator. Pausanias, for example, in his work "Description of Hellas" wrote that phthiriasis allegedly became the punishment of Sulla "for the atrocities committed in Athens."

However, if we believe the same Plutarch, we learn that excessive lice was the lot of other famous people, including quite positive ones. She allegedly caused the death of Callisthenes, imprisoned by Alexander the Great, the consul Mucius Scaevola (either father or son), a certain Eunus, who led one of the slave uprisings, even the Argonaut Acastus, the poet Alkman and the philosopher Pherekides (about death due to lice of the last two, Plutarch, apparently, learned from the works of Aristotle). Diogenes Laertes also added Plato to this list of “victims of lice”.

In fact, the same Plutarch wrote that Sulla died after some kind of “abscess” “erupted” in him and started vomiting blood. Perhaps it was pulmonary bleeding on the background of tuberculosis or some kind of abscess. But bleeding from varicose veins of the esophagus is not excluded, which happens, for example, with cirrhosis or liver tumors. But this, of course, has nothing to do with skin disease.

But Appian, on the contrary, claims that Sulla led an active lifestyle until the end of his life and died suddenly:

"By evening he fell ill with a fever, and died at night."

Before that, he allegedly had a dream in which he saw a genius calling him. Having told his friends about this, Sulla managed to draw up a will. Appian writes:

“It was, apparently, as his name also showed, the happiest person in everything until the end of his life, if we consider the fulfillment of his desires as happiness for a person.”

At the time of his death, Sulla was about 58 years old (some write - 60). It is reported that mourning was declared throughout Italy, the former dictator, with a huge gathering of people, was buried at the state expense on the Field of Mars, where only kings had previously been buried.
The grave inscription, compiled by Sulla himself, read:

"Here lies a man who, more than any other mortal, has done good to his friends and evil to his enemies."

The "Cornelian laws" began to erode shortly after Sulla's death. The political parties again began to flirt with the plebeians by restoring free distributions of bread. Tribunes again received the right to occupy other magistracies. Participants in the uprisings of Lepidus and Sertorius were amnestied.

In 70 BC. e. under the consuls Pompey and Crassus, the jury was transferred to the horsemen. Julius Caesar restored the rights of the descendants of persons included in the proscription lists.

But the Roman Republic was already living its last days. Caesar, who became the new dictator, was killed, but a new civil war brought Octavian to power, whose full title was: “Emperor, son of the Divine Caesar, Augustus, Great Pontiff, Consul 13 times, Emperor 21 times, endowed with the power of the people’s tribune 37 times, Father Fatherland" (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Consul XIII, Imperator XXI, Tribuniciae potestatis XXXVII, Pater Patriae).
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 17 November 2022 06: 06
    +8
    Flaccus, for the first time in 120 years, submitted to the popular assembly a proposal for the election of a dictator.
    Tradition set the term of dictatorship at 6 months, but Sulla was appointed dictator "until Rome, Italy, the entire Roman state, shocked by internecine strife and wars, is strengthened."
    Something here reminds, not long ago, in another country, really. smile
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 17 November 2022 07: 06
      +6
      Further analogies lead to the Teutoburg Forest.
      Hi Aleksey!
      1. Alexander Salenko
        Alexander Salenko 17 November 2022 08: 19
        +2
        Good day, but here's the thing, 3 legions died in the Teutoburg Forest, and 5 eagles were found in the camp of Crixus, after he separated and was defeated. I'm not sure if they were all killed in combat, but the number is still impressive. There, with the uprising of Spartacus, the truth is not so clean. An army of slaves sounds ridiculous, it's one thing in Sicily they are sitting there, it's another thing to walk around Italy up and down.
        1. iury.vorgul
          iury.vorgul 17 November 2022 11: 01
          +1
          The science fiction writer Andrei Valentinov has a book-study "Spartacus". It also mentions the fact about 5 eagles in the camp of Crixus, and many other interesting, but little-known facts about the uprising.
          1. Alexander Salenko
            Alexander Salenko 17 November 2022 12: 26
            +1
            Yes, I just forgot my last name, I read it a long time ago. There, the topic boils down to the continuation of the allied war, and yes and no. But what is certain is that the uprising was not purely slave.
  2. know
    know 17 November 2022 06: 21
    +4
    dedicating them to Lucullus, a successful commander who was glorified not by victories, but by the cooks he hired (this is the importance of competent work with personnel)

    We also have an example: a meat dish was invented by the chef Dupont, but it glorified its owner, Count Stroganov. Which now, if not for beef stroganoff, no one would have remembered.
    1. Fat
      Fat 17 November 2022 09: 38
      +6
      hi Greetings, Alex.
      Quote: vet
      Count Stroganov. Which now, if not for beef stroganoff, no one would have remembered.

      At the end of the 16th century, the merchants Stroganovs gave their name to the school of Russian icon painting. The best masters of the school were Moscow icon painters who worked in the royal workshops.
      The Stroganov family, first merchants, then barons, later counts, is known not only for the meat dish of the cook Dupont...
      Baron, then (1826) Count Alexander Grigoryevich Stroganov (December 31, 1795 (January 11, 1796) - August 2 (14), 1891) - Manager of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire (1839-1841), Adjutant General (1834), General of Artillery (1856) ), the head of a number of provinces, including the Novorossiysk and Bessarabian Governor-General (1854-1863).
      His older brother Sergei founded the "drawing school in relation to arts and crafts", "stroganovka", now the RSPCU, which bears his name.
      Bad example, don't you think?
      1. know
        know 17 November 2022 09: 45
        +4
        Good morning Andrey. I did not mean the Stroganovs in general, but one of them. How many adjutant generals, governors and other things were there in the Russian Empire? Who remembers their names now? Here Sergei Stroganov, who founded the "drawing school", really contributed to the development of Russian culture. And Alexander, thanks to his French chef, who invented a successful dish, remained only in the history of cooking.
        1. Fat
          Fat 17 November 2022 10: 15
          +4
          The first recipe for "Stroganov-style beef with mustard" was published in the book "A Gift to Young Housewives" by Elena Molokhovets in 1871. The dish is named after Count Alexander Grigoryevich Stroganov. That's who he owes his "glory" to (according to the main version).
          Alexander Grigorievich lived for 95 years, of these years he was a general for almost 60 years ... A record for the Russian Book of Records laughing
          1. know
            know 17 November 2022 10: 23
            +5
            But the dish was not invented by Molokhovets. Here's how it happens: one appropriated the name of a dish invented by Dupont, the other used Dupont's recipe in her book. And personally, Dupont didn’t get anything - except for the salary that he already received.
            And as for the "young generals" - in pre-revolutionary Russia, this was more of a rule, not an exception. If you were born "with a silver spoon in your mouth" - you will have titles almost from the cradle, and orders. Now, by the way, everything is coming back to this. You come to the ministry (the regional one - after all, the "government" and "ministers" are sitting there now), and there all the offices are filled with boys and girls - the children of "necessary and useful" people. Right after the universities (which used to be called institutes) - no experience of practical work, no special knowledge - but they lead with all their might. We, reading their papers, only have time to swear.
            1. Fedot
              Fedot 17 November 2022 23: 31
              +1
              So Ilyich's light bulb was invented by Lodygin, not Ilyich.
              Invented the electric charcoal incandescent lamp (1872).
              1. VLR
                18 November 2022 06: 59
                +3
                Another example: Caesar salad. Everyone thinks that it is named after Gaius Julius. But in fact, the name of the salad was in honor of the inventor - the chef Caesar Cardini, who was an American, albeit of Italian origin. And therefore this salad is a dish of American, not Italian cuisine, and is most popular in the USA.
              2. know
                know 18 November 2022 08: 34
                +1
                "Ilyich's lamp" - probably, it is understandable: now it is difficult to imagine what impression this electric incandescent lamp made on the peasants and even on the inhabitants of provincial cities. Probably comparable to what a self-assembled tablecloth would produce.
  3. know
    know 17 November 2022 06: 29
    +5
    because of this illness, Sulla was ridiculed. But, on the other hand, then they believed that only unusual and outstanding people suffer from some rare and unusual diseases.
    .

    Nekrasov on this matter:
    What are you laughing at, you fools?
    Angry unexpectedly
    The doorman screamed. —
    I'm sick, but can I tell you
    What do I pray to the Lord
    Getting up and lying down?
    I pray: "Let me, Lord,
    my honorable illness,
    According to her, I am a nobleman!
    Not your vile sickness,
    Not hoarse, not a hernia -
    noble disease,
    What only happens
    From the first persons in the empire,
    I'm sick man!
    Yes, the game is called!
    To get it -
    Champagne, Burgundy,
    Tokay, Hungarian
    You have to drink for thirty years ...
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 17 November 2022 06: 55
    +5
    Thanks, Valery. A convenient way to replenish the budget and encourage supporters is proscription lists.

    True, a country does not always respond well when blood is released to its citizens.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 17 November 2022 12: 11
      +3
      Hello, Sergey! smile

      I join you in your gratitude to Valery. good

      a country does not always respond well when its citizens are bled.


      True, Sulla lived to an advanced age and died a natural death, however, a very strange one, they say about such people: "God punished."
      But he left the glory on his own.

      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 17 November 2022 16: 02
        +3
        Hi Constantine!

        You liked this bas-relief with severed heads.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 17 November 2022 16: 22
          +3
          You liked this bas-relief with severed heads.


          No, it's just that if it was displayed in marble, then an exhaustive description of the hero of this article. request
          As the cinematic Muller said there:
          People die, memories remain. Even if it's like this.

          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 17 November 2022 18: 38
            +3
            Especially once something solid was burned, or more blood was shed.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 17 November 2022 19: 35
              +3
              Fortunately, not all of the human race is so vile, there were others.

              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 17 November 2022 19: 50
                +2
                I have already said that I really appreciate Merezhkovsky's book “The Resurrected Gods. Leonardo da Vinci". Only the personality is very difficult. And who among the legends will understand - what is true.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 17 November 2022 20: 17
                  +1
                  . And who among the legends will understand - what is true.


                  Is it necessary? That he is a genius is undeniable. smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 17 November 2022 21: 00
                    +1
                    Undoubtedly. Although not much is left of it.

                    And the degree of genius of paintings is difficult to measure.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 17 November 2022 21: 57
                      +2
                      And the degree of genius of paintings is difficult to measure.


                      To be honest, I am not particularly delighted with his "La Gioconda", and her barely perceptible smile somehow did not "hook" me. Maybe I'm too "thick-skinned" and I lack the sophistication of a true connoisseur? God knows. I can only be excused by the fact that I have never seen this work "live", only reproductions, and a reproduction, it is a reproduction. request
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 17 November 2022 22: 15
                        +2
                        I saw it live. There is always a crowd around her.
                        One of the examples when the reputation works for the picture.

                        But from some of the paintings of the Impressionists you can go crazy. The reproduction does not convey this.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 17 November 2022 22: 48
                        +2
                        But from some of the paintings of the Impressionists you can go crazy.

                        Well said! There is such an option.
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 18 November 2022 00: 00
                        +1
                        I caught myself in two thoughts. The second is that the painting wants to break out of its frame and escape.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 18 November 2022 11: 57
                        +1
                        Also good! The whole question is from whom to escape: from the viewer, from the author, or from yourself? laughing
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 18 November 2022 18: 46
                        +1
                        To freedom. And you can't run from yourself. No matter how hard you try.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 18 November 2022 18: 58
                        +1
                        To freedom.


                        Does she exist? "That sweet word is Freedom."
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 18 November 2022 23: 12
                        0
                        Yes. But not everyone knows what to do with it.
                2. Fat
                  Fat 17 November 2022 22: 38
                  +2
                  Greetings, Sergey ... I watched the series "Da Vinci's Demons" not so long ago, a very bright thing, More mystical than historical ... In general, I liked it. smile




                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 17 November 2022 23: 00
                    +1
                    Greetings, Andrew!

                    Were historical characters involved in the series?
                    1. Fat
                      Fat 18 November 2022 05: 57
                      +1
                      Good morning. Oh yeah! Quite. Pope Sixtus IV. Girolamo Rario Della Rovere, Lorenzo and Giuliano Medici brothers, Clarissa Orsini de Medici, Lucrezia Donatti, Andrea Verrocchio, Amerigo Vespucci, Nicolo Machiavelli... All the Pazzi family, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Sovonarola, Federico da Montefeltro (Urbino)... Almost all collected and more added. That's just not the whole plot "within the historical environment of the quattrocento", for the most part - alternative fiction.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 18 November 2022 08: 45
                        +1
                        Good morning, Borisovich!

                        I can't imagine watching the series. But the list is encouraging.

                        "Spartacus" and then I will not inspect in any way.
              2. Fat
                Fat 17 November 2022 22: 43
                +3
                Greetings, Konstantin.
                Man is 60% chemicals
                40% of lies and rye ...
                But 1% of Michelangelo!
                That's why I make stained glass windows.
                (C)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 17 November 2022 22: 47
                  +3
                  Good evening, Andrew! smile

                  That's why I make stained glass windows.


                  I don't do anything, at least for now. laughing
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 17 November 2022 16: 30
      +4
      Quote: Korsar4
      True, a country does not always respond well when blood is released to its citizens.

      It depends on which citizens)))
      Here, as in the case of Khodorkovsky. Many were indignant, but some because he was imprisoned, and others because only him ... request
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 17 November 2022 18: 37
        +2
        Huberman Garik is remembered:

        For all the Jews there is a judge.
        For liveliness. For the mind. For stoop.
        For the fact that the Jew shot at the leader.
        For the fact that she missed.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 17 November 2022 19: 40
          0
          For the fact that the Jew shot at the leader.
          For the fact that she missed.

          This testifies not only to mediocre shooting training in the Socialist-Revolutionary squads, but also to a very strange selection of personnel for the said operation.
          I believe that modern Fanny coped with this matter better. smile

          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 17 November 2022 19: 52
            +1
            But the leaders began to be thoroughly guarded. However, Olof Palme, Indira Gandhi and others are quite exceptions.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 17 November 2022 20: 20
              +1
              But the leaders began to be thoroughly guarded.


              Or maybe just an urgent need did not happen, with the current means of destruction. smile

              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 17 November 2022 20: 58
                +1
                Often it is not so important and who is the leader.

                Something no one comments on either the weapon or its owners.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 17 November 2022 22: 01
                  +1
                  Something no one comments on either the weapon or its owners.


                  The evening is late, the people are tired, and there is nothing new in weapons here. The girls are really good, but if there is a wife nearby, then you won’t comment much. wink
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 17 November 2022 22: 16
                    +1
                    As if there is nothing to wash, wash or cook. No scientific organization of labor.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 17 November 2022 22: 53
                      +1
                      There is too much energy, not all is spent on washing and cooking, and in such families we are not talking about sex, I'm not talking about love. They live out of habit, or rather exist.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 17 November 2022 23: 15
                        +1
                        Variations on the theme "Goldfish". However, the old woman had yarn.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 17 November 2022 23: 19
                        +2
                        There, my grandfather had at least a choice: go fishing, go to the garden, or even pick mushrooms, but in the city you can get away - only in a tavern. request

                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 17 November 2022 23: 48
                        +1
                        With a grandson, you can stir up a prank.

                        And there is no reason to collect bottles, unlike in Soviet times.

                        Probably one job remains.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 18 November 2022 11: 58
                        +1
                        Probably one job remains.


                        Unless you're retired, of course. smile
          2. know
            know 18 November 2022 09: 37
            +1
            In fact, Kaplan, according to the official version, did not miss. And as for the Israeli girls with machine guns, these are just advertising pictures. In hostilities, women in Israel are not used and in general they are not allowed to go close to dangerous places, as they are afraid that they will be taken prisoner and raped.
  5. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 17 November 2022 08: 35
    +4
    However, Sulla himself did not comply with the requirements of his laws.
    Laws are for the execution of others, but the publisher, why fulfill? Published today, canceled tomorrow... smile
  6. faterdom
    faterdom 17 November 2022 11: 28
    +3
    Emperor 21 times

    The record has not yet been broken by anyone.
    Although, then the meaning of this title was somewhat different ...
    As for Spartacus, I also hold the opinion that he was from the locals who suffered from proscriptions, and not a Thracian at all. For a Thracian, it would be an unequivocal decision to go to
    Greek and Thracian lands, full of recently defeated veterans of the Mithridatic wars, and recently conquered and sacked Athens. They would only have an intelligent and successful military leader, which Spartak certainly was ... But he hangs back and forth across the Apennines, breaking the Roman legions along the way, then generally wants to go to Sicily .... No, he is not a Thracian and not a Greek, for sure .
  7. VLR
    18 November 2022 06: 54
    +3
    By the way, did you notice that Sulla made a mistake in assessing Caesar? He saw the potential, but mixed up the "polarity": in Caesar there were many not Mariev, but precisely Sull.
  8. Illanatol
    Illanatol 18 November 2022 09: 20
    +1
    Quote: faterdom
    As for Spartacus, I also hold the opinion that he was from the locals who suffered from proscriptions, and not a Thracian at all. For a Thracian, it would be an unequivocal decision to go to
    Greek and Thracian lands


    And by what route could Spartak go to Thrace?
    Or by sea, like by land? But he is still not Jesus Christ, and he did not have his own fleet.
    I am sure that the idea would not have come to the local to create an army of slaves of different tribes and fight with his native power, no matter how offended he was by "illegal repressions". Not the mindset of the Romans.
    1. VLR
      18 November 2022 09: 29
      +2
      It is possible that under the term "Spartacus's uprising" historians who later wrote united three different military campaigns that took place at the same time: Spartacus proper, the allied army of the Italian Crixus, and the army of Enomai's slaves.
    2. faterdom
      faterdom 18 November 2022 11: 05
      +1
      There would be a goal, and the routes from the Apennines to the Balkans in those days were known not only to everyone, even the blind Homer would have reached, and they would have been fed along the way.
      The locals repeatedly came up with the idea to gather an army, from whom it was possible, and fight with their native power. Or even combine different forces, such as Pugachev - poor Cossacks, warlike Bashkirs deceived by the empire and serfs who joined, under Catherine were already essentially slaves.
      The only thing that characterizes such motley armies is that they do not last long, even if they win. There is no economic base, no common ideology, goals are usually illusory or even fantastic.
      The most successful such uprisings are known, perhaps, in China, when as a result the dynasty simply changed, and the latter became the first, and the first vice versa.
  9. Illanatol
    Illanatol 18 November 2022 13: 39
    +1
    Quote: VlR
    It is possible that under the term "Spartacus's uprising" historians who later wrote united three different military campaigns that took place at the same time: Spartacus proper, the allied army of the Italian Crixus, and the army of Enomai's slaves.


    And Crixus was independent? Like he was an associate of Spartacus.
    However, it might have been.
  10. Illanatol
    Illanatol 18 November 2022 13: 51
    0
    Quote: faterdom
    There would be a goal, and the routes from the Apennines to the Balkans in those days were known not only to everyone, even the blind Homer would have reached, and they would have been fed along the way.
    The locals repeatedly came up with the idea to gather an army, from whom it was possible, and fight with their native power. Or even combine different forces, such as Pugachev - poor Cossacks, warlike Bashkirs deceived by the empire and serfs who joined, under Catherine were already essentially slaves.


    Who would feed them there? Hannibal, for example, was strongly "fed" by the Gauls when he went through the Alps? Although the Romans were not particularly favored by the Gauls.
    Who would allow a huge army to pass through their territory so easily? Yes, even hostile to mighty Rome? Quarreling with Rome? For what? I doubt.

    What does Pugachev have to do with it? Another country, another era. You give an example from Roman history when it was not just about the redistribution of power, but about the real threat of the destruction of the Roman state itself.
    By the way, a lot of myths have been invented about Pugachev. HZ who he really was. His army was perfectly organized and armed (artillery was even in abundance). On the territory controlled by the Pugachevites, economic activity was quite normal (Pugachev even had his own commissars), and the factories producing weapons worked more productively than under the tsarist administration.
    It took the genius of Suvorov to defeat Pugachev. I do not rule out outside help to Pugachev.
    As, by the way, and Spartacus. The collapse of great empires can be beneficial to its enemies, so why not play out the scenario of the "uprising of the oppressed masses"?
  11. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 24 November 2022 19: 34
    0
    make films about him .. at least a series