Military Review

Anti-aircraft missile or loitering ammunition: Iranian product "358"

Anti-aircraft missile or loitering ammunition: Iranian product "358"
Missiles "358" at the parade, September 21, 2022. Photo by Telegram / ImpNavigator

Iran has developed and produces a wide range of anti-aircraft systems with missiles of various types. Of particular interest in it is the SAM, known under the code "358". During its development, there are several interesting ideas and unusual solutions, and the finished rocket is intended for delivery to friendly formations in the near abroad.

Mystery Revealed

Iranian industry is developing a new weapon in secrecy and shows only finished samples. In the case of the 358 missile defense system, the secret is still kept. There is no official information about her yet. Moreover, even the real designation of the product is unknown - the generally accepted digital index was assigned abroad.

According to known data, the Iranian missile was developed no later than the end of the 2019s and then went into production. Approximately in 358, deliveries of such weapons to friendly formations began. The first recipient of "XNUMX" was the Yemeni group "Ansar Allah". Disassembled missiles were delivered by sea to Yemen, where they were to be assembled and used.

In November 2019, the US Navy intercepted one of the Iranian transport ships carrying weapons for the Houthis. Kits for assembling a previously unknown rocket were found on board for the first time. A few months later, similar details were again found on another captured ship.

View from a different angle. Photo Telegram / ImpNavigator

In 2020, Pentagon specialists, having received all the necessary components, were able to assemble an Iranian missile. According to the main features of its appearance, it was possible to determine the class of weapons, their approximate characteristics and features of use. At the same time, the trophy product was assigned the symbol "358".

Subsequently, foreign states repeatedly reported new intercepts of missiles at the stage of transportation. The last such news arrived in July of this year. The delivery of the next batch of missiles was stopped by the ship of the Royal Navy of Great Britain. The number of missiles seized was never reported. Accordingly, it will not be possible to estimate the volumes and rates of deliveries.

On September 21, a military parade dedicated to the anniversary of the September Revolution was held in Sana'a. For the first time, various weapons of the Houthis were officially demonstrated on it. In particular, they showed tractors with semi-trailers, on which there were 10 launchers with 358 missiles. The missiles themselves were designated Saqr-1.

Combat application

Since 2020, the Houthis have repeatedly published videos of the combat use of 358 / Saqr-1 anti-aircraft missiles. The shelling and destruction of helicopters, planes and unmanned aerial vehicles of the coalition was demonstrated. Reports of the successful use of such missiles have been received regularly until recently.

Missiles intercepted by the US in 2019-20 Photo US Department of Justice

In all published videos, missiles successfully approach the intended target and are blown up at a minimum distance. From such an impact, air objects are immediately destroyed or critically damaged, after which they fall.

However, it will not be possible to assess the real effectiveness of missiles from such videos. The total number of launches and ammunition consumption is unknown, as is the proportion of successful and unsuccessful launches. In the published videos, predictably, they show only successful firing.

Thanks to the published videos, some features of Iranian missiles became known. In combination with already known data, this allowed us to draw very interesting conclusions. So, it turned out that the product "358" combines the qualities of an anti-aircraft missile and loitering ammunition. This gives it specific capabilities, and in addition, to some extent, simplifies the work of calculations.

In October last year, it became known that Saqr-1s are present not only in Yemen. A launcher with a partially understaffed missile was found on the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, not far from one of the airfields. How she got there, why she was brought there, and why the rocket was left without a starting engine, is unknown. However, this episode shows that Iran is able to smuggle its weapons not only to Yemen.

Rocket from Iraq, October 2021. Photo by Telegram / ImpNavigator

Technical features

The product "358" is of great interest already at the level of basic ideas and concepts. The general architecture and tasks to be solved make it possible to attribute it to the class of anti-aircraft missiles. Some design features and flight profile make us think of loitering ammunition. With all this, the missile system as a whole is simple and does without complex ground facilities.

Saqr-1 is built in a cylindrical body, on which four X-shaped sets of planes of various shapes and purposes are placed. The rocket body is made detachable and consists of several compartments; planes are also removed. This simplifies transportation to the war zone and delivery to positions. In preparation for the launch, the calculation assembles all the units into a single product, and this process does not require special equipment and skills.

The total length of the rocket in the starting position is 2,75 m, the body diameter is 152 mm. Weight - approx. 50 kg. To start, a solid-propellant starting engine 1,8 m long and weighing 15 kg is suspended under the hull.

Launcher. Photo Telegram / ImpNavigator

The missile has an atypical marching power plant. In this capacity, a small-sized turbojet engine is used, placed in the tail of the hull. In front of it are symmetrical side air intakes. The starting solid-propellant engine accelerates the rocket to 600 m/s, while the main engine provides half the speed. Depending on the flight mode, the range is estimated from 10 to 50-100 km.

"358" is equipped with an infrared homing head and an autopilot. The latter has navigation aids that give it special abilities. As reported, the missile is capable of immediately after the launch to capture the target and aim at it. The mode of loitering ammunition is also provided. In this case, the product rises to a certain height and begins to describe the eight, searching for the target. When it is detected, capture and subsequent defeat are carried out. The duration of such a flight can reach 15 minutes.

The product carries a high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing at least 10 kg. A fuse with non-contact detonation is provided. 16 laser target sensors are used.

The rocket is launched from the simplest launcher in the form of an inclined rail guide several meters long. Obviously, the complex also includes some controls. However, the operator's console has not yet been demonstrated.

Products seized by the UK Navy in July 2022. Photo by the UK Ministry of Defense

At the intersection of concepts

In general, the Iranian missile "358" can be considered one of the most interesting modern developments in the field of air defense. It is built on the basis of several relevant ideas and new solutions, due to which it was possible to obtain a successful combination of technical, combat and operational characteristics. In addition, special combat capabilities have been achieved that are not available in other modern air defense systems.

First of all, the technical appearance of the product attracts attention. The rocket is distinguished by its simple design, which is also made collapsible. At the same time, high technical and combat characteristics are achieved. As practice has shown, flight data, regular seeker and warheads are sufficient to deal with various air targets.

Of particular interest is the idea of ​​searching for targets in two modes. If there is a target in range, the product flies to it as a simple missile. Otherwise, the missile can remain in a given area and literally be on duty until the enemy is detected. The ability of the missile to barrage allows you to increase the likelihood of intercepting an air target assigned at launch or suddenly appeared. In addition, the overall consumption of ammunition is reduced.

It is noteworthy that the 358 missile does not need advanced and complex ground-based facilities. Such a "complex" includes only the simplest launcher and control panel. It can be easily transported from place to place in almost any transport.

The moment of defeat of an enemy UAV missile "358". Photo Telegram / ImpNavigator

In fact, the Iranian industry managed to create a specialized light air defense system for partisan or other similar formations. Due to the specifics of their activities, they cannot use full-fledged anti-aircraft systems, while portable ones do not always correspond to the tasks ahead. The product "358" should occupy such a niche and bring the firepower of the unit to a new level. At the same time, the special design simplifies the transfer of missiles to the combat zone without imposing restrictions on operation.

Accurate data on the use of Yemeni Saqr-1 is not yet available. But the available materials generally show that such weapons have a certain potential and are capable of solving combat missions. In addition, it is obvious that the presence of such missiles is much better than their absence.

New ideas

Thus, by developing and producing anti-aircraft systems, Iran is looking for and studying new concepts and solutions. A few years ago, the result of such a process was the 358 rocket with unusual capabilities. She was successfully brought to the series and is now being shipped to friendly formations. Those have repeatedly shown the successful combat use of the received missiles.

Obviously, foreign countries that managed to intercept the deliveries of Iranian missiles carefully studied them and drew conclusions. It is quite possible that as a result of this study, decisions will appear on the development of their own analogues of the "358". But so far, the original concept has not gained ground, and the Iranian missile remains one of a kind.

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  1. Buyan
    Buyan 9 November 2022 16: 05
    Judging by the effectiveness of mopeds, well done Persians !!!!!
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 9 November 2022 16: 42
      The concept of hypersonic prodigies turned out to be empty. But the rattling "mopeds" and simplified systems that do not require complex maintenance and launch systems made a real splash.
      1. vadimtt
        vadimtt 10 November 2022 11: 36
        It's all a little different. It should be in service with this and that and much more, including autonomous reusable anti-drones with buckshot.
  2. Dedok
    Dedok 9 November 2022 16: 13
    if so, then cool, even very
    there is no need to keep the Air Force in the air all the time, besides, due to the small EPR - it can be located above the territory of the enemy, and control it !?
    and this is all - "of snot and sticks"?
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 9 November 2022 16: 45
      Partisan missiles, I'm not even afraid of the word - terrorist. Both speed and maneuverability, and most likely the quality of the seeker, are insufficient against combat aircraft and missiles, but against helicopters, transport / passenger aircraft and UAVs, that’s it.
      But as a niche weapon - very witty.
      1. Pike
        Pike 10 November 2022 07: 21
        Partisan SAM

        For some reason, the author bypassed the topic of the name of the rocket.
        The Pentagon called it the 358 missile, as they are practically sure that the CIA plane over Afghanistan (board number 358, with the "killer Suleimani) could be shot down by such a missile, since the American plane was flying at an altitude where it could not be reached from MANPADS, but just within the range of "Rockets 358".
  3. maiman61
    maiman61 9 November 2022 16: 27
    Weapon of victory! Inexpensive, technologically advanced and can be applied in large quantities! And not golden rockets in a single copy!
  4. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 9 November 2022 16: 33
    Here we saved on infrared seekers for Thors and Shells, left radio command guidance, as a result, sometimes there is not enough channel to hit all targets. Such fold-wing rockets could do a better job of launching from a truck.
    1. Dimax-nemo
      Dimax-nemo 10 November 2022 13: 34
      It’s not a fact that IR guidance will help against targets with a weak IR signature, but there are such ones too. They did not save on Strela-10 here.
      1. Lt. Air Force stock
        Lt. Air Force stock 10 November 2022 14: 02
        Quote: Dimax-Nemo
        It’s not a fact that IR guidance will help against targets with a weak IR signature, but there are such ones too. They did not save on Strela-10 here.

        We need combined guidance, say, radio command + IR in the final flight segment and the GOS should be modern matrix of the latest generation. Yes, and all these Strela-10 and Sosna are of dubious effectiveness without radar, target detection purely by optical station. Need small radars like AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel
        1. Dimax-nemo
          Dimax-nemo 10 November 2022 15: 39
          Then the meaning is lost - you have both a fairly healthy, expensive missile guidance radar, and an expensive missile. Strela-10 must have a battery-operated CP Rangier. He could receive target designation from higher command posts or radars. A similar system was implemented for units armed with Igla MANPADS.
  5. Mikhail Maslov
    Mikhail Maslov 9 November 2022 16: 46
    With such dimensions and a range of up to 1000 km, something is doubtful.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 9 November 2022 20: 14
      Quote: Mikhail Maslov
      With such dimensions and a range of up to 1000 km, something is doubtful.

      Where did you see "1000 km"? belay
  6. Buyan
    Buyan 9 November 2022 16: 46
    Quote: Monster_Fat
    The concept of hypersonic prodigies turned out to be empty. But the rattling "mopeds" and simplified systems that do not require complex maintenance and launch systems made a real splash.

    Maybe they just have different tasks and goals?
    1. stelltok
      stelltok 9 November 2022 17: 25
      Quite right. Hypersound for other purposes. In-depth targets, or targets underground.
    2. Timur_kz
      Timur_kz 9 November 2022 18: 57
      You will be constantly reminded of this hypersound, and quite rightly, given how the SVO is developing. If, in parallel with the development of hypersound, there was the development of an effective and necessary weapon for the ground forces, no one would have said a word now. And so it’s some kind of oxymoron: we buy piston drones from Iran, already ballistic missiles ... and we all dream of drowning the NATO fleet with hypersonic.
  7. Boniface
    Boniface 9 November 2022 17: 48

    "Achievements of the Iranian drone industry"
    1. agond
      agond 9 November 2022 21: 09
      It turns out that rockets can be made collapsible and not only small ones, and why not, we carry the stages separately at the launch site, this simplifies transportation, and most importantly, the stages can be assembled for different ranges, this is very convenient, and no restrictive agreements are violated
      1. Eug
        Eug 10 November 2022 04: 54
        The layout of the stages at different ranges should provide for a change in the control laws, that is, the GOS should somehow vary, and in this version, not the simplest launch equipment is needed, which is not mentioned in the article.
  8. Roman Efremov
    Roman Efremov 9 November 2022 21: 24
    Quote: Monster_Fat
    The concept of hypersonic prodigies turned out to be empty.

    What prompted you to make this categorical judgment?
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 9 November 2022 21: 47
    Interesting interesting ! Well, we have already heard about anti-aircraft missiles that do not require complex and bulky equipment for launch ... for example, about SIAM! But the fact that the Iranians repeated the American idea in terms of their capabilities is very commendable! By the way, this idea can also be applied when creating anti-aircraft "minefields"! I am also familiar with the modular ("collapsible") construction of the rocket body and the function of barrage of missiles ... I myself had to "create" similar projects ... It's nice to know that my "projects" can have a practical implementation!
  10. PPD
    PPD 9 November 2022 22: 35
    the engine accelerates the rocket to 600 m / s, and the main engine provides half the speed. the range is estimated from 10 to 50-100 km.

    Loitering anti-aircraft missile.. wassat speed 300 m/s.... What the...
    What can be intercepted at such a speed? Yu 87?
    And how long will we barrage? And why? And you also need to point, but you can see the little things.
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 10 November 2022 03: 58
    Antimoped ZUR. The concept needs to be tested in real conditions. It is not clear how one's own and other people's goals will differ in the process of loitering.
    1. agond
      agond 10 November 2022 09: 29
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      By the way, this idea can also be applied when creating anti-aircraft "minefields"!

      A flying minefield of loitering air defense missiles will hang in the air for a very limited time, and then what to do with such a missile when the fuel runs out, self-destruct or parachute to the ground, it is better to make loitering radars based on drones, and launchers, as usual, on earth
    2. Dimax-nemo
      Dimax-nemo 10 November 2022 13: 27
      She, most likely, is even more expensive than the Shaheda-136. It is used by partisans, against whom nothing like the "Shaheds" was used. But they have to deal with helicopters of any size and reconnaissance aircraft from civilian aircraft.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 10 November 2022 12: 08
    This year, Iran has advertised itself as well as possible. And including, as a country that can independently supply weapons
    1. Vitaly gusin
      Vitaly gusin 10 November 2022 14: 40
      Quote: Zaurbek
      This year, Iran advertised itself as well as possible

      This year, you just faced it.
      Iran, being under sanctions, could not develop its air force in any way and replaced it with copying UAVs. All they have are copies that are inferior to the originals and from parts brought from China or from Europe through China. But this does not mean that this can be neglected, especially for countries that have not established detection and elimination.
      According to the UN decision, Iran cannot acquire and sell high-tech weapons of war, so even more difficult times await them in the near future.
  14. Dimax-nemo
    Dimax-nemo 10 November 2022 13: 14
    Strange thing. TRD, in theory, should be more expensive. In fact, it can act mainly against helicopters. The ability to patrol makes sense if the operator can control it while on patrol.

    By the way, about the birds. "Butterfly wings" as on the R-27. And disassembling into several parts is typical for the R-27. MiG-29s hit Iran, they should be familiar with this missile.
  15. Bayun
    Bayun 10 November 2022 19: 29
    While the Russian Federation and the United States were "showing off", Iran found a "third way".

    Now, who would now refuse hundreds of propeller-driven attack aircraft and bombers in the NVO zone? It is also possible in the UAV format. Or from thousands of T34s, also in the format of radio-controlled robots?
  16. Nord11
    Nord11 10 November 2022 19: 56
    So much for the Iranian economy torn to shreds. Americans, kill yourself against the wall ..
  17. Persia
    Persia 3 December 2022 18: 20
    i think the most important aspect of this project is proving that the iranians are not revealing their original weapons and the claim that the iranians are exaggerating their weapon capabilities is nonsense and they are legal not only because they are, given the reality, in this case they are most likely to be very pleased to be underestimated by their enemies
    I think, given that they are giving these weapons to Yemen, they must be quite old for them, and they have many more presented weapons with a new concept.
    remember that the Persians are the only people who managed to revive their empire, 3 times the last time was sasanian in all other empires when they died forever you don't do it being stupid they are extremely smart people and if you underestimate them you regret
  18. Persia
    Persia 3 December 2022 18: 21
    i think the most important aspect of this project is the proves that iranian do not unveil their original designed weapon and the claim that iranian exaggerate their weapon abilities is a nonsense and they are legit not only that they consider the reality in this case they are most likely to be quite happy to be underestimated by their enemies
    i think considering they pass this weapon to Yemen must be pretty old for them and they have many more unveiled weapons which have new concept
    remember Persians are the only people managed to revive their empire 3 time last on was Sasanian in all other empire when they died is for good you do not do that by being stupid they are extremely intelligent people and if you underestimate them, you be regretted