Military Review

Automatic machine in the layout "bullpup" A-91

20
Automatic machine in the layout "bullpup" A-91


If you suffer for a long time, then something will turn out. The automata in the bullpup layout, although not very rare among weapons and in some countries they are even adopted in the form of basic models, but nevertheless they have a lot of flaws, which is why they lose weapons in the classical layout. Naturally, most of the negative qualities of weapons in the bullpup layout are more likely a matter of habit than real negative moments, but there are also those that cannot be tolerated. For example, the window for ejection of spent cartridges is located close to the shooter, which makes firing less comfortable, and in the case of using weapons with an emphasis on the left shoulder without the possibility of adaptation to a left-handed / right-handed person, it is completely unsuitable for firing. Of course, manufacturers are trying to at least partially compensate for such shortcomings of weapons, but not always solutions that are applied to a particular problem are successful. Let us try to get acquainted with what local designers have done, so that the weapon in the bullpup layout finds its place in the army using the example of the А-91 machine gun and its modernized version А-91М.

Work on this model of weapons began in the early 90-ies of the last century. Despite the rather difficult economic situation and complete confusion in the country, the Tula Design Bureau found the means for A-91 to be born. The project was already led by a fairly well-known designer V. P. Gryazev. It must be said that the development of this sample was approached quite thoroughly, and even without delving into history the creation of weapons, it can be understood that gunsmiths were threatened, if not on a machine gun for universal weapons, then clearly on weapons that would have been taken in special forces. First of all, and most importantly, all the complaints about the 5,45 cartridge were taken into account, but since there was no money for designing a new, more effective cartridge, we decided to take 7,62х39 (the export version of the machine uses 5,56 cartridges). Thus, in the weapons in the composition of the bullpup, this ammunition behaved more obediently and at the same time retained all its positive qualities. In order to exclude complaints about the balancing of weapons in such an arrangement, it was decided to hang a grenade launcher on it, but here the most interesting thing was that it was initially located not entirely usual. Apparently, under the influence of the bullpup layout, the gunsmiths decided to make the weapon even more unusual and to make a barrel-mounted grenade launcher. It had no obvious advantages, but the weapon really turned out to be a very interesting appearance. In addition, there were disadvantages. First of all, it should be noted that the use of a nadstvolnogo grenade launcher was less convenient than a grenade launcher. In addition, it was necessary to abandon the front sight mounted on the barrel of the weapon, since it simply had no place to put it, not on the grenade launcher. Sights in the first model of the machine located on the handle for carrying weapons, which made the aiming line very short, and this could not affect the accuracy of the weapon.

In order to eliminate these shortcomings, it was decided to move the grenade launcher under the barrel of the weapon, and to fly the fly on a high rack. As a result, weapon balancing only won, and the sighting line increased, which allowed the machine to be used even at distances in 600 meters with relative efficiency. And the appearance of the weapon was better from this. A new, modernized model of the machine became known as A-91M, and A-91 was abandoned away and quite reasonably acted.

But the main drawback of weapons in the bullpup layout is still not the balance and the location of the store, which you can get used to. The main disadvantage is the spent cartridges, which are ejected rather close to the shooter’s face, and accordingly, can distract from unaccustomed, and also irritate the mucous membrane with the powder gases. To solve this problem, a channel is made parallel to the barrel of the weapon to retract the spent cartridges forward. This system works as follows. The slide, moving back, removes the cartridge case from the chamber, but does not throw it through the window to eject the cartridge case, but moves it into the channel where the cartridge case remains for some time. Having reached its rearmost point, the shutter stops for a split second and begins to move forward, under the action of a return spring. He pulls a new cartridge from the store and at the same time, driving it into the chamber, pushes the cartridge case through the canal to release it. Thus, the spent cartridges are thrown ahead of the weapon. This allows not only to exclude the impact of powder gases on the mucous membrane of the shooter, but also to make it possible to shoot both from the right and from the left hand without any manipulations with the machine gun. It is noteworthy that this system is called revolutionary and they say that it completely reverses the idea of ​​weapons in the bullpup layout, but these words are intended solely for the average man in the street, who does not clearly represent the nuances of the automata in this arrangement, so this A piece of "advertising" is absolutely useless. People who are interested in firearms know about the Abakan contest, as well as that Stechkin, who implemented in his machine gun, such an original scheme of ejection of spent cartridges, participated in it. Although there were similar decisions before him, this example is the most well known, and it is not far from A-91M. So there is absolutely nothing revolutionary in this, just a good solution, which is mentioned and made of it the main feature of the weapon, which this model stands out among many others, but to say that this idea was first implemented in А-91, by no means case is impossible.

The appearance of the weapon turned out quite modern. Notable features include the presence of two triggers, or rather one trigger of the machine itself and the ring of a grenade-mounted grenade launcher. In addition, it is impossible not to notice the automatic fuse on the trigger of the machine, similar to that in the short-barreled weapon, but here, as it seems to me, it is superfluous. The picatinny-type mounting bracket is located on the carrying handle of the weapon, and the shutter handle is located under the handle. The translator of fire modes also has a position that puts the weapon on the fuse, it is made of a rather large detail, but is located above the weapon shop, which makes switching it rather difficult, since you have to take your hand off the pistol grip, which is not very good. Behind the fly on high ground is a folding sight for a grenade launcher. The machine is powered by detachable box magazines with a capacity of 30 cartridges, 7,62x39 ammunition, as well as 40 millimeter grenades.

Due to the layout of the bullpup, it was possible to significantly reduce the length of the weapon to 660 millimeters, while the length of the barrel of the machine gun remained normal - 415 millimeters. But the weight of the weapons disappoint and strongly. Without a grenade and a magazine, the machine weighs almost a kilo of 4, which is clearly overkill. The rate of automatic fire from the weapon is 600-800 shots per minute, the effective range of use is equal to 600 meters for the automatic part of the weapon and 400 for the grenade launcher.

In general, the A-91M makes a rather pleasant impression, but its weight spoils everything. Automatic weapons built according to the scheme with the removal of powder gases from the barrel, the barrel is locked when you turn the shutter. The trigger mechanism of the weapon allows firing, both in automatic mode and in single shots. The cut-off of two or three rounds decided not to introduce.

Not without negative moments. First of all it is, of course, the weight of the weapon, which is clearly not the smallest. And this is with quite active use of plastic in the design of the machine. The second minus is a handle for carrying a weapon, on which the rear sight is strengthened, its height makes the arrow show its head to the enemy “to its fullest”, it is convenient to take aim, but it’s still more convenient to live without extra holes in your head. In addition, do not forget that on top of the carrying handle you can install an additional aiming device, the use of which is just as conveniently hardly possible to call. Well, the remaining problem of the bullpap - the weapon shop is very close to the shooter, which makes its replacement not quite convenient, but in this case, if it were otherwise, then the bullpup would not be a bullpup.

Speaking in general, the weapon turned out to be quite simple, relatively convenient, if you close your eyes to the distinctive signs of the bullpup layout, the location of the fuse switch and the weight. You can also talk about a fairly high reliability of this sample and its resistance to adverse operating conditions, since the weapon has quite a few holes through which the same sand or dirt can penetrate, but this does not mean that the machine is completely immune to contamination. Like any weapon, A-91M likes cleanliness and lubrication, it will, of course, work in the most adverse conditions, but the question is how much this automaton is enough for such bullying - the resource is also not forever. An interesting point is that despite many years since the end of work on the creation of these weapons, only recently they began to be promoted and introduced in more detail, however, perhaps this time was spent on fine-tuning weapons, which is a longer process compared to design and prototyping.
Author:
Photos used:
weaponland.ru
20 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. andrey9031
    andrey9031 29 October 2012 08: 06
    +2
    Appearance must be ennobled
  2. Slevinst
    Slevinst 29 October 2012 09: 50
    0
    not a very promising scheme, it should be convenient to shoot and maximum safe, and the weight should be less, whatever one may say, and the classic layout is still preferable and hardly inventing something more convenient
  3. understudy
    understudy 29 October 2012 09: 56
    +5
    Quote: andrey9031
    Appearance must be ennobled


    This "nobility" will result in an increase in the weight of the entire structure. For me, this is a pretty decent weapon for "city" specialists.
    1. Sanches
      Sanches 29 October 2012 12: 18
      0
      On the contrary, when using polymers, not only will the look become more modern (after all, 1991 has passed a long time ago), but the weight will become acceptable, in the region of three kg with a grenade launcher. Another question is whether we are able to make the same high-quality polymers as in Germany, we still have to introduce a cut-off mode of 3 rounds to avoid melting. Pleasing sighting range - 800 m, a cutoff of 3 on it is very handy
      1. Kir
        Kir 31 October 2012 19: 09
        0
        Quote: Sanches
        . Another question is whether we can make the same high-quality polymers as in Germany.

        It depends on which polymers, for some Yes, Germany for others, ours for the third, someone else, just did not study this issue very much, but I studied "synthetics" and I know something, so you can see a specific polymer, but the biggest "ambush" "the fact that the technology must be" hard-won "and tested, otherwise it can turn out almost a hundred times worse than using traditional materials.
  4. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac 29 October 2012 15: 08
    +5
    a little strange system, Kalash peeps strongly, in the form of a receiver. and with my weight everything is fine - how much the AK-74 + GP-30 weighs 3,3 + 1,3 = 4,6 kg. so 0,6 kg already saved
  5. Astartes
    Astartes 29 October 2012 15: 49
    +2
    This is a weapon and not a car for show-off, to make it more convenient for the shooter, this is certainly correct in every possible way, but just "ennoble" for the sake of beauty, nonsense.
    1. andrey9031
      andrey9031 29 October 2012 16: 02
      0
      See which machine made under license from Israel, a toy
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 29 October 2012 19: 28
        +4
        And the appearance of ours is changing a bit.
        In addition, a two-medium automatic was created on its basis (for firing both on land and under water):
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 30 October 2012 08: 00
          0
          The two-medium machine is still not in the series.
          1. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 31 October 2012 00: 05
            +2
            Quote: Pimply
            The two-medium machine is still not in the series.

            The factory representative said (at one of the arms exhibitions) that the Moscow Region was buying them for the Army, but the procurement parties were scanty.
      2. Old skeptic
        Old skeptic 29 October 2012 22: 51
        +1
        Quote: andrey9031
        See which machine made under license from Israel, a toy

        Weapons are made for war, not for games. Here beauty must be justified technically, and not to satisfy the aesthetic needs of the public. For me, even a brick would be convenient, efficient and reliable.
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 30 October 2012 08: 04
          0
          Tavor was just made for war and in war. Shock-resistant plastic, a good balance - very successful, I would say that the machine literally sticks into the shoulder, good ergonomics, large elements, reliable - according to reviews, at the AK level, accurate, the ability to rebuild under the other hand, modularity - can be done by simple manipulations in the field change caliber conditions, for example.

          1. Lech e-mine
            Lech e-mine 30 October 2012 08: 10
            +1
            Add-on for war in countries with hot climates.
            I’m wondering if you get into this VASYUGAN BOG with this gun with this gun and in the morning when the frost hits, QUESTION WILL IT SHOOT?
            1. Pimply
              Pimply 30 October 2012 08: 20
              +2
              Dear, 80% of the Israeli military-industrial complex is export. Yes, and most countries work for military exports and take into account extreme conditions. For example, the same Tavor is given a guarantee for efficient operation up to - 60 degrees.



              For example, a dirt test. And there are the same ones with tests for water, sand, snow, etc.
              The world does not stand still. Many Western companies managed to achieve AK reliability while maintaining accuracy and greater convenience of models for fighters.
              1. Lech e-mine
                Lech e-mine 30 October 2012 08: 28
                +1
                Dear ADVERTISED ADVERTISING Israelis Ate the dog. These pictures impress only novice students. In this case, the opinion (for me) of our fighters and commanders (such as SHAMANOV) is THOSE PEOPLE WHO specifically fight with weapons.
                1. Pimply
                  Pimply 30 October 2012 08: 50
                  +2
                  Dear Alexey. How can such an opinion be, if Tavor is not in the arsenal of the Russian army, and with the exception of a hundred or two people, no one would hold him in their hands, not even shoot. At the moment, it is in service with 15 countries; it is actively used by Tsahal, India, Colombians, Thailand and Vietnam. In order for the Russian fighters to have an opinion on him to the extent that you want, he must undergo Russian military tests.

                  The company gives certain guarantees for quality, durability, frost resistance, etc. Approach this from the perspective that countries use this weapon very howling, and there aren’t any complaints about it.
            2. Blat
              Blat 30 October 2012 09: 43
              +2
              in fact, you and your Vasyugan swamps should have asked the question and found out that Kalash is not as reliable as the stories tell about it. And it happens to an old woman ..... reliable, but different fantastic stories. WEAPONS TO CLEAN AND FOLLOW IT
  6. crambol
    crambol 29 October 2012 20: 31
    +1
    The design, of course, is interesting, but for mass weapons, in my opinion, is not very good. The old man is out of competition.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 29 October 2012 23: 21
      +1
      Quote: crambol
      for mass weapons

      "This sample was originally intended for arming the special operations forces of the army and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, as well as for export" - that is, we are not talking about any massive machine gun.
      As for the appearance, it is not only aesthetics, but on the other hand, not every beautiful gun is the most convenient and reliable.
  7. georg737577
    georg737577 29 October 2012 23: 43
    +1
    I will express my personal opinion. The bullpup scheme was never "classified", in Soviet times they experimented with it, as a result they came to the correct conclusion - it is appropriate only when reducing the length of the weapon while maintaining (relative) accuracy of shooting is the main task. An example is an IED. In one of the comments, I have already pointed out that this scheme is most fully implemented in structures with a longitudinal store location and an unconventional way of extracting the sleeve; example "FN P90". As for the presented machine gun, my first question is shooting from a prone position (for example, they were pressed against the asphalt, as the worst case ...), will it be convenient? The answer is to those who shoot you - yes. The Germans did not cheat, their G - 36 is made according to the classic scheme, and this (in my opinion, shot from it) is the best weapon in the world in terms of ergonomics. Altering AK for the hundred thousandth time, getting another monster from a normal machine gun (I have not seen the manufacturing quality of this product, let's hope it is acceptable ...) is beneficial only for developers - minimum changes, maximum talk ... "Revolutionary" scheme for extracting the sleeve forward , through a special channel, has long been implemented in the serial "FN 2000", and falling into the mud, followed by a real opportunity to clog the hole in the extraction channel and there raises questions ... It's not that simple ...
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 30 October 2012 08: 14
      0
      And the Austrians began to cunning. And they came out with a completely successful and actively used AUG. For example, Australians in Afghanistan.



      The Israelis use Tavor - also quite a successful bull-pop turned out.



      France, Famas