Finnish "Storm" Myrsky
Enterprise "Valtion Lentokonedas" 8 June 1939, received an order for the design of a single-engine single-seat fighter. But the implementation of the project was postponed due to the Soviet-Finnish war that began in November, so the company was fully loaded with ongoing work. At the same time, Finland received more than 150 fighters from abroad (airplanes were supplied by Great Britain, Italy, the USA, France, Sweden), which greatly alleviated the problem. Only in the spring of 1940, after the Nazi occupation of Norway and Denmark, which cut off Finland from its allies, the project of its own fighter was reanimated. The development of the aircraft, which was called "Myrsky" ("Myrsky" - "Storm"), was headed by A. Illynen in collaboration with M. Vainio and T. Verkkola.
The created fighter was a single single-engine low-wing equipped with retractable landing gear. The fuselage had a mixed design. It was a metal truss, which in the tail section was reinforced with wooden stringers and frames. In the bow, the trim was made of duralumin, and in the tail - from the canvas. In addition to the engine, in front of the cockpit installed a compartment of synchronous machine guns and a fuel tank. The cockpit was closed by a lantern with a fixed visor and the middle part of the glazing, moving backwards. To improve the view, a part of the gargrotta was glazed behind the cabin. The two-spar trapezoidal wing had a plywood covering and a wooden set, and its mechanization was represented by flaps and ailerons. The tail plumage is solid wood. All deflected aerodynamic surfaces were covered with canvas.
The American engine was installed on the “Mirsky” - 14-cylinder radial double-row air-cooled hp 1115. R-1830-SC3-G "Twin Wasp" manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. It was completed with a three-blade propeller of variable pitch “Hamilton Standard”. The armament was also American and consisted of two 12,7-millimeter synchronous machine guns М2 of the company "Colt-Browning", installed in the fuselage, and four wing 7,7-millimeter machine guns of the same company.
The fighter project was completed by March 1941. It took about nine months to build the MY-1 prototype, and the 23 December 1941 was the first to fly into the air. Lieutenant E. Ityavuori, who piloted the aircraft, rated the first flight as "partially successful." There were no complaints to the airframe itself, however, the propeller-driven unit was not up to par - the car drove to the left. Since Finland had already entered the camp of the Axis countries, she could count on the help of Pratt & Whitney.
Engineers "Valtion Lentokonedas" attempted to cope with the problem on their own, using the rudder trimmer. Testing continued until May 1942, after which the car returned to flight tests. The tests showed the lack of effectiveness of this solution, and in December of the same year the prototype was returned to the enterprise for further refinement. During the modification, a new fin of larger area was installed on the MY-1. In addition, a number of measures aimed at reducing weight were carried out - the aircraft lost weight from 3242 to 2925 kilogram, as a result of which the wing load decreased (from 194 to 175 kg / m2). A new wooden VISH VLS 8002 was installed, the engine exhaust pipe system was changed, the electric landing gear was replaced by a hydraulic one.
In April, 1943 flew around the new aircraft configuration. During the MY-1 tests, the maximum speed in 519 km / h (flight altitude 3250 meters) was reached, the height in 5 thousand meters was collected in 6,5 minutes. Finally, managed to overcome the problem with the "lead" to the left. The car's glider had high strength, and the piloting qualities of the pilots were rated as good. At the same time, it was recognized that with modern Soviet fighters it would be difficult for the aircraft to fire, therefore “Myrski” was classified as an air defense interceptor fighter, intended primarily to counter bombers. 14 September 1943 of the year, during the next test flight, Captain Koko even attempted to intercept the Soviet plane, which was heading to the western coast of Finland, however, it was not crowned with success. To carry out complex tests in combat conditions, the aircraft was proposed to be transferred to the line of battle, but this was refused due to the lack of spare parts for the engine. 26 November 1943 of the year MY-1 made the last 162 flight. By the time the car managed to fly 142 h 20 min.
30 May 1942, even before the end of the prototype tests, ordered the first series "Myrski" - a pre-production batch that consisted of three aircraft (MY-2, MY-3, MY-4). The wingspan on these machines compared with the prototype, was increased to 11 meters. At the same time, its area increased to 18 м2, and the load decreased to 156 kg / m2. The machines installed 1065-powerful engines R-1830-SC3-G, which were produced in Sweden under license.
The weight of the pre-production aircraft was 2820-2850 kilogram, since the aircraft were not quite the same. On the MY-2 and MY-3, 3 synchronous machine guns of the 12,7 caliber mm were installed, and on the MY-4 - 4 of the same machine guns. MY-2 was equipped with a Hamilton Standard screw, while other machines were equipped with a VLS 8002. The MY-3 aircraft extended the engine hood, while the MY-4 aircraft had a thinner wing skin and hydraulic brakes on the wheels of the main landing gear (the other aircraft, including the prototype, had air brakes).
The MY-2 tests began on 30 on April 1943. However, the 6 of May already stopped the engine during an approach to the aircraft, and it did not reach the runway, it crashed. Captain Sowelius P.E. piloted the MY-2, was seriously injured.
On June 5, the MY-4 trials began, the MY-3 first flew on July 11. However, the 5 of August on the MY-3 failed to release the landing gear mechanism, and had to be put on the "belly". Repair of the car ended in October. Since the landing of the fuselage had been torn off during an emergency landing, it was replaced. However, the canvas was not at hand, and the tail was sheathed with plywood, as a result of which the MY-3 mass increased by 110 kg. Repairs were used to introduce another improvement: since during the tests, the Myrsky engines sometimes overheated during takeoff, tin blades were installed on the back of the screw, a fan that accelerated the flow of air under the hood. This solution proved to be effective, and subsequently it was used on production aircraft.
In early November, 1943, MY-3 returned to the test, but over the plane evil rock. During the 19 test in November, the car accelerated in a dive to 850 kilometers per hour. At the height of 2 thou. M, the tail and wing consoles were torn off. A. Siltavuori, who piloted it, could not leave the plane and died as a result of the accident. Therefore, the allowed dive speed for these aircraft was limited to 600 km / h, which was a low figure. Naturally, the accident did not contribute to the popularity among the pilots of the new fighter.
In contrast to the "brothers" MY-4 tests passed without problems. Probably, this was due to the fact that it was used, as a rule, for testing weapons and did not go to extreme regimes. It was decided to send the aircraft for military trials to the combat unit, but the poor reputation of the Storm played a role - not a single one wanted to accept the new plane aviation Group. Only on February 26, MY-4 aircraft could be identified in the HLelv 26 group, which flew on the G.50 Fiat. However, the combat career of MY-4 was short-lived - on March 19, 1944, the car shared the fate of MY-3, having collapsed during a dive, buried Lieutenant Martil I. under the debris
During the tests of pre-production cars, it turned out that the Myrsk has moderate flight characteristics. At sea level, the maximum speed was 467 km / h. But despite this, it was decided to order a serial batch. The corresponding contract was signed by 18.08.1942, which provided for the supply of 50 machines, including pre-production machines. Serial aircraft were assigned numbers from MY-5 to MY-51. At this time, E. Wegelius replaced the post of chief designer A. Ilinen.
Production of serial aircraft on the schedule lagged on 3-5 months - it was necessary to strengthen the design of the airframe, because during the tests revealed some problems. Since the first two production aircraft were assembled before the MY-3 and MY-4 disasters, they retained the old wing. The first of them - MY-5 - 21.12.1943 rose in the air, and the next - MY-6 - 02.02.1944. Both aircraft wanted to send to the front of the unit, but the pilots simply shied away from them. As a result, the aircraft remained at the factory and took part in the tests. 23 June 1943, the lieutenant E. Halme, who piloted the MY-6, dispersed the car in a dive to 640 km / h. The car lost the left elevator, but Hulme control over the fighter was able to save and put the damaged car. Due to this, they established the cause of these catastrophes - the weakness of the tail, as well as its tendency to flutter. The necessary changes were immediately made to the design of not only the two already flying aircraft, but also those that were on the assembly line. The maximum dive speed for serial cars was limited to 650 kilometers per hour, and the number of revolutions - 3600 rpm.
Production aircraft, which were sometimes referred to as “Myrski” II, differed significantly from their predecessors. The casing of the rear fuselage was replaced with a linen one for plywood. Solid wood ailerons were replaced with aileron of mixed construction with a predominance of aluminum. The glazing of the gargroth was reduced to two segments. Naturally, we tried to strengthen the plumage and the wing. The engine remained the same - Rl 838-SC3-G with VISH VLS 8002. The volume of the fuel tank was 300 liters. The armament consisted of four synchronized machine guns LKK / 42 caliber 12,7 mm (a licensed version of the product of the company "Colt-Browning"). Ammunition - 220 cartridges for each machine gun of the inner pair and 260 cartridges - the outer pair. The small arms were supplemented by a pair of winged bomb racks that allowed the bombs to be suspended up to 100 a kilogram or additional fuel tanks. The radio equipment was presented by the Telefunken radio station of German-made FuG 7А, which provided communications at a distance of up to 80 kilometers in the airplane-to-plane mode, and in the airplane-to-ground mode at a distance of up to 150 kilometers.
When the dive problem was resolved, it turned out that the “Myrski” was a rather maneuverable aircraft that listened well to the rudders. True, the unpleasant tendency to stall to the left during the landing remained, and it caused several accidents. The aircraft gained 3400 m height in 4 minutes and was able to reach 535 km / h on it. Prior to the delivery of mass-produced aircraft, an additional batch of ten cars was ordered.
In March 1944, the deliveries of the Myrsky II began. By the time of the signing of the truce between the USSR and Finland 4 September 1944, 30 aircraft were made. The contract for the additional lot was frozen on September 30 (30.05.1945 was finally canceled), but deliveries of the previous order continued. The last five from the factory released 30 December 1944 of the year, and without a flight test went to the warehouse.
By the time the serial “Myrsky” was delivered, Finnish fighter aircraft already had Bf 109G-6, and it would be simply unwise to re-equip aviation groups with machines that were significantly inferior to the Messerschmitt in flight tactics. In this regard, "Mirski" went to the reconnaissance aircraft. By the middle of 1944, the reconnaissance air group TLelv 12 was threatened with disbandment due to the complete deterioration of the material part. This group got "Myrski". The retraining of flight personnel took place at the airfield in Tampere. TLelv 12 to 23.07.1944 received the first "Myrski", and after two weeks she had 22 machines.
The TLelv 12 group, under the command of Major O. Tuomisalo, operated north of Lake Ladoga in the Mensuvaara region. Her 1 squadron 1 August 1944 of the year arrived at the front, having five new aircraft "Myrski". 9 August fighter baptism took place: Lieutenant Tuulensumu rose to intercept an enemy aircraft. Actually, in the role of "game" he was he - in the air, the lieutenant was met by a pair of Soviet fighters Yak-7. The quick air battle ended in vain, having received no damage, the opponents returned to their airfields. The 4 "Myrski" arrived at the disposal of the first squadron on the same day, and ten days later the second squadron of the TLelv 12 having the same type of 4 aircraft returned to the front.
The activity of the USSR aviation in the combat area of the TLelv 12 was insignificant, therefore the second meeting with the Soviet fighters occurred only on August 22. 6 "Mirski" of the first squadron that day flew along the route Mensuaraara - Ristisaari - Vitela - Mantsi - Mensuvaara for reconnaissance. Over Mantsi, they met with three Yak-9 fighters from the 195 Fighter Regiment. Lieutenant B. Linden knocked out one of the Yaks during the battle, damaging his left landing gear. True, the fighter reached for Ilya-Uuksu, where he sat on the airfield on the "belly". Not having time to look around, the Finns encountered the two La-5FN members of the same 195 fighter regiment. Captain Virkkunen fired a long line in the direction of one of the opponents, which turned out to be accurate. La-5FN with a damaged engine got on a forced one.
On September 3, the TLelv 12 air group performed the first bomb raid - 6 Myrski, led by captain Tilly, dropped 100-kilogram bombs on the Soviet headquarters of the rifle division in Orusyarvi. Lieutenant Tuulensuu on the same day made the last flight to Myrsky against the Soviet troops. An attempt to intercept the enemy’s airplanes in the region of Sortavala - Landepohya was unsuccessful.
Aircraft "Mirski" during the fighting against the Soviet Union made a total of 66 combat missions. Losses - three aircraft, all for non-combat reasons. Combat pilots considered "Myrsky" easy to fly and quite maneuverable aircraft, noting a good overview from his cockpit. As for the flaws, the pilots, in addition to the already mentioned restrictions on the maximum speed of diving and the tendency to stall, complained of weak weapons.
Before the signing of the truce, the Mirski planes began to arm the 2 th reconnaissance group - TLelv 16, headed by Major X. Pursialnen and stationed in Wyrtsilä. The first 2 "Mirski" entered the 18.08.1944 air group, and before 4 September 4 machines arrived in it. TLelv 16 did not even have time to complete one combat departure, managed to lose the plane - MY-29 crashed due to the engine being stopped. Lieutenant A. Kurki, who piloted the car, was killed.
After 4 September, there was a small peaceful respite, during which blue swastikas were replaced with new identifying marks — blue and white circles — on the “Myrski” (as well as on other aircraft of the Finnish air forces). 28 September 1944, the fighting resumed - now the enemy was part of the Wehrmacht, who were in the north of Finland and refused to voluntarily leave the country. "Myrsky" was involved in this campaign only a month later. 7 aircraft from TLelv 12 24.10.1944 flew to Kemi. There, the squad, which was led by Captain Tilly, was transferred to the operational subordination of the HLelv 26 fighter group equipped with Brewster В239 Buffalo aircraft. The sorties in Paloyoensuu-Enontecleu began on October 26. "Myrski" engaged in reconnaissance, not meeting the enemy. In November, only 13 flights were performed, and 7 was canceled due to adverse weather conditions. It turned out that the Myrsky aircraft was poorly adapted for use in arctic conditions: the steel elements of the structure were rapidly corroded, the batteries were instantly discharged, the ailerons froze. There were no casualties, but the MY-25 crashed at the start. The last combat mission of the Storm in the Lapland War was 23 on November 1944.
After the end of hostilities, the Finnish air force was reduced and reorganized. Part of the staff was demobilized. The TLelv 12 group was reorganized into HLelv 11, TLelv 16 - into HLelv 13. These groups became part of the LeR 1 Aviation Regiment and at the end of January 1945 were redeployed to the west of Finland in Pori. During the stretch, another plane was lost - due to a breakdown of the landing gear MY-27 crashed.
Aircraft "Mirski" after the flight to Pori joined the Bf 109G-2 and Hawk 75А fighters already there. All flights at the direction of the Allied Control Commission were temporarily suspended. They resumed only in August 1945 year. However, with "Myrsky" almost immediately there were a number of disasters and accidents. In search of a solution to the problems of reliability, the designers "Valtion Lentokonedas" decided to provide the wing with slotted slats. This decision was "peeped" at trophy LaGG-3. To work out the solution, the plane MY-50 was taken - one of the last “Myrski”, which immediately got from the factory to the warehouse. The refined 19 November Fighter 1946 of the year went on trials that showed promising results. According to his model, it was supposed to modify all "Myrski" remaining in the ranks. However, 9 in May 1947 lost another car - the MY-28 aircraft from the HLelv 13, overclocking to 850 km / h crashed in a dive. Captain K. Ikonen died under the rubble. After that, flights to the "Myrski" were banned.
10 February 1948, the last flight of the "Myrsky". Then they gave special permission to fly MY-50 to Tampere from Kauhava. In this flight, the fighter confirmed his reputation as an unlucky aircraft: during landing the pilot forgot to release the flaps, as a result of which the right landing gear broke and the propeller was damaged. This episode was the last of the "Myrsky" 51 flight incident. Over the years of operation, the 21 aircraft was lost, the 4 pilot died. The surviving "Mirski" sent for storage, and in 1953, they were scrapped.
Undoubtedly, the protracted process of creation affected the fate of the Finnish fighter. The characteristics of the aircraft, which were quite satisfactory for the 1941 of the year, were insufficient for the 1944 of the year when it was possible to establish its mass production. Another fatal circumstance affecting the "Bure", Finland's isolation from technical assistance from the component developers, first of all - the engine. The experience of this aircraft clearly shows the problems that accompany attempts to create an aircraft with high flight performance in a country that does not have the experience and traditions of independent aircraft construction.
Flight performance of the prototype:
Wingspan - 10,0 m;
The length of the aircraft - 8,25 m;
The height of the aircraft - 3,00 m;
Wing area - 16,70 m2;
Take-off weight - 2925 kg;
Set time 5000 m - 6,5 min;
Flight technical characteristics of pre-production aircraft:
Wingspan - 11,0 m;
The length of the aircraft - 8,35 m;
The height of the aircraft - 3,00 m;
Wing area - 18,00 m2;
Take-off weight - 2818-2848 kg;
Maximum speed at sea level - 467 km / h;
Maximum speed at the height of 3400 m - 519 km / h;
Flight technical characteristics of production aircraft:
Wingspan - 11,0 m;
The length of the aircraft - 8,35 m;
The height of the aircraft - 3,00 m;
Wing area - 18,00 m2;
Empty weight - 2337 kg;
Take-off weight - 2953 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 3213 kg;
Maximum speed at sea level - 470 km / h;
Maximum speed at the height of 2000 m - 508 km / h;
Maximum speed at the height of 3400 m - 535 km / h;
Maximum speed at the height of 5000 m - 524 km / h;
Cruising speed at altitude 3000 m - 438 km / h;
Set time 1000 m - 1,1 min;
Set time 3000 m - 3,5 min;
Set time 5000 m - 6,4 min;
Ceiling - 9000 m;
Normal flight range - 500 km;
Maximum flight range - 1200 km;
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