Military Review

Helmets made of iron: if you don’t touch, then at least look

79
Helmets made of iron: if you don’t touch, then at least look
Drawing by the artist V. Korolkov based on the ceiling painting in the Alhambra, depicting a battle between Muslim and Christian warriors of the XNUMXth century. The Christian rider is wearing a barbute helmet with a nosepiece



“In his right hand he holds the sword of victory;
The spear shines like a star;
Blood flows from copper mail;
A beard curls on the helmet.

A. Pushkin "Ruslan and Lyudmila"

stories about weapons. Middle Ages. “Having given the word, hold on, not giving it, be strong,” says the old folk wisdom, and since you promised to continue the story about medieval helmets, you should. And if last time these were miniatures, now let iron helmets appear before the eyes of VO readers in photographs of exhibits of the most famous museums in the world.

Today it will be two museums: the Royal Arsenal from Leeds (UK) and the Armory of the Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna (New Castle). We have already presented some of their collections here, but “something” is far from everything, so there will be a lot of new things that have not been presented here before.

So, let's begin.

Spangenhelm (frame, segmental helmet) appeared a very long time ago and, most likely, intuitively.

As a boy, in the 2nd grade, without knowing anything about helmet designs, I also made it from cardboard and paper, and all because the manufacturing method suggested itself. Such helmets appeared already in the troops of the late Roman Empire, as well as among their Germanic and Alanian opponents. They are found in burials and, perhaps, they were put there to emphasize the wealth of the buried. Similar finds of helmets were also made in the mounds of Japan and Northeast Asia.


The photo shows a six-part spangenhelm, V - mid-VI centuries. Hofburg, New Castle, room I. Possibly made in Upper Italy (Ravenna?) or Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople?). Crown made of forged iron segments covered with sheets of silver foil. Ornament: bronze leaf, gilding, embossing


Another segmental helmet from the Hofburg exposition. The photo clearly shows its details - the base of copper segments that form its own frame, and with which, with the help of rivets, the internal plates of iron were connected. Naturally, rust destroyed the iron parts, while the copper parts were preserved.


Bandhelm or “ribbon helmet” (XNUMXth century): this name was given to it in the Armory of the Hofburg Castle, and all because it is made of three crossed iron ribbons connected by rivets. The gaps between them in the form of curved and convex iron triangles were small in size, and it was not difficult to make them. Hofburg, New Castle, room I

He was also found in the troops of the late Roman Empire, among the Germans, Franks and many other "barbarians". And again, they were known both in Japan and in the countries of Northeast Asia.


Conical iron helmet with a fixed nosepiece. Hofburg, New Castle, room I

Such helmets were used mainly in the High Middle Ages, from the 955th to the 1066th centuries; moreover, it is believed that they go back to Iranian models. The helmet in Vienna is forged from a single piece and has no decorations. Due to the fact that similar helmets are depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry, which demonstrates the conquest of England by the Normans, helmets of this form have become incorrectly called "Norman". Two dates: the death of St. Wenzel (Wenceslas) - XNUMX (whose similar helmet is in Prague) and the battles of Hastings - XNUMX - give us the approximate time period in which this helmet could probably have been made.

In addition to a large almond-shaped shield and a knee-length chainmail shirt, the spandenhelm was the rider's protective armament, and was worn over a chainmail hood, so he had no lining. Only a few examples from this group of helmets have survived, including this Viennese helmet and the helmet of St. Wenzel (Wenceslas). The Viennese helmet was found in 1864 near Olmütz in Moravia.


Helmet of Albert von Prank (c. 1350). Hofburg, New Castle, room I

The main drawback of the helmets of the early XNUMXth century was that their face protection was completely inadequate. As a result, by the middle of the XNUMXth century, a "grand helmet" topfhelm appeared. The collection of the Vienna Arsenal exhibits a “grand helmet” of the mid-XNUMXth century. Moreover, it is so heavy that it was probably used only as a tournament.

The helmet is riveted from two frontal plates, two neck plates and a flat round "crown" plate, which ultimately gives the helmet the appearance of a pot. However, increased protection brought with it the disadvantage of a significant limitation of the field of view. Knights in huge helmets could only see their surroundings through narrow slits.

Another inconvenience was the lack of air to breathe. The Viennese helmet should be regarded as a particularly valuable example of its kind, since of the dozen surviving "grand helmets", only the Viennese helmet and the helmet of the Black Prince of Canterbury have helmet decorations.

Since the complete covering of the face made it difficult to identify the knight, the upper part of the helmet began to be used to place the armorial figures painted on the shield. These decorations, called "zimier" (zimier), were mainly made of wood, leather or parchment. In the case of Prank's helmet, it is shaped like buffalo horns.

At first, the "Viennese helmet" hung as a funeral over the hereditary burial of the Styrian von Prank family in the Augustinian monastery of Sekau. But in 1878 it was bought for the imperial collection and thus ended up in Vienna.

It is believed that the original owner of this artifact may have been Albert von Prank, whose seal, dated 1353, shows an almost identical Viennese "pot helmet".


Helmets in the form of a small cap, tightly fitting the crown, turned out to be, so to speak, “out of time”. Before us is an artifact from the Royal Arsenal in Leeds, and dates back to 1500-1530. But at the same time, if we recall the miniatures we saw earlier, it becomes obvious that they were worn in the 135th, 910th, and 185th centuries, they were so comfortable. Helmet height XNUMX mm. Weight XNUMX g. Width XNUMX mm

Well, they, again, owe their appearance to the “grand slam”. It was impossible to stay in it all the time. But in what then it was possible to be constantly? The chain mail hood no longer provided the required protection, and this is how the Servillier helmet-balaclava appeared.


Now warrior-at-arms 1331-1370. looked like this photo. Instead of a hood, a balaclava helmet with a removable aventail-aventale attached to it. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


The chain mail mask, among other things, could be pulled off with the help of a lace threaded through the rings and generally cover half of the face! Royal Arsenal, Leeds


The balaclava began to stretch upwards and so the bascinet helmet appeared. Moreover, this photo shows not just a bascinet, but a “grand bascinet” of the early 360th century, the side holes on which indicate that it could be equipped with a visor. Helmet height 265 mm, width 3,07 mm. Weight XNUMX kg. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


Bascinet 1370. On the earliest bascinets with a visor, it was attached to only one upper loop. Because of their characteristic shape, they were called "pig snout"! Helmet height 254 mm. Width 210 mm. Helmet weight 1 g. Visor weight 420 g. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


However, almost at the same time, bascinets with a visor on two loops also appeared. Bascinet 1371–1399 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


He gave protection no worse than the "grand helmet", but was much more comfortable to wear. And breathing in it was also much easier! Bascinet 1371–1399 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


Its main drawback was the complexity of manufacturing the visor. We thought - what if we remove it, leaving only a T-shaped slot for the eyes and ... beard on the front surface? This is how the barbut helmet turned out, and in the photo it’s not just a bartute, but made in Venice in 1440. The height of the helmet is 255 mm, the width is 200 mm. Weight - 1 g. Such helmets were called "Venetian salad" (or sallet). Royal Arsenal, Leeds

In general, the second half of the XNUMXth century, associated with the end of the Hundred Years War and the War of the Scarlet and White Roses, was extremely rich in various improvements in terms of armor and helmets.

Very simple barbute helmets appeared.


For example, here is the one in the photo - helmet 1 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


The brigandine armor also became widespread - it looked like a sleeveless jacket made of fabric lined with metal plates like tiles. One could guess that they were only by the presence of rivet heads, usually copper, on its surface. Royal Arsenal, Leeds

Helmets-sallets (salads) of various, including national, forms spread. Moreover, not just apprentices were engaged in them, if only to make a larger number, but at a cheaper price, but also true masters of their craft. Here, for example, the helmet of one of them ...


Sallet (1471–1499) open with applied gilded copper alloy border. This masterfully crafted helmet bears the mark of the maker in the form of two crossed keys below the open crown. It is attributed to the Milanese gunsmith Domenico Barini Detto, known as Negroli (d. 1526). Son of Giovanni Barini, who worked for the prominent Missaglia family of gunsmiths. By the end of the 1452th century, Domenico had established himself as a highly skilled gunsmith. In subsequent years, his business dominated the market for the production of armor of princely dignity. The beauty of this helmet, made from a single piece of steel, lies in the subtle study of the anatomy of the human skull, and the elongated tail creates an aesthetic s-curve, both along the bottom edge and at the back of the neck. In order not to detract from the overall shape, the sallet decoration was limited to a finely detailed Greco-Roman style gilded copper alloy border, and a plume holder with an engraved shield was attached to the front. Although this type of helmet is often found in Italian paintings of the period, such as that of the Florentine painter David Ghirlandaio (1525–XNUMX), surviving examples are comparatively rare, making this helmet all the more valuable. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


Well, this is a mass "serial production". Sallet 1471–1499 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


So he looked with a visor. Sallet 1471–1499 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


Another so-called "closed helmet". In fact, this is a bascinet with a chin rest, but without a visor. Helmet 1485 Dimensions: height 305 mm; width 180 mm; weight: 2 Royal arsenal, Leeds

Many of our readers with engineering degrees are interested in the metal from which these helmets were made. Unfortunately, not all helmets from the collection of the Royal Armory were subjected to metallographic analysis. Nevertheless, we managed to find one helmet, about which such information is available ...


South German sallet (1480–1490) with a hinged neck guard made of riveted plates. The material is mild steel containing a mixture of ferrite and a small amount of perlite (perhaps 0,1% C) with a large amount of slag inclusions. It appears to be made from two pieces of different material, forged together during manufacture. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


The same helmet. Front view


Another sallet from 1470. Covered in red velvet and decorated with gilded lilies! Weight: 2 Royal Arsenal, Leeds


And this is a tournament salad of 1520 - belonging to the Rennenzoyg - tournament armor for one of the varieties of Rennen - an equestrian tournament, in which it was forbidden to hit the helmet. Dimensions: length 370 mm, width 230 mm


The penultimate one at our today's exhibition of "iron" is the "iron hat" (1471-1499), called capaseta in the specification of the Vienna arsenal. As you can see, it is suitable for both an infantryman and a knight, especially if he wears it with a bouvier chin! Royal Arsenal, Leeds


And this is how she looks in profile ...


Siege helmet (1610-1650) - that's what it is! Consists of two parts, connected by a pair of rivets in front and behind, and a line of rivets along the edge of the crown. The decoration is a thin “braid” along the edge with notches and a gilded perforated holder for a plume, on the upper edge of which three fleur-de-lis are depicted. There is a large recess on the right side of the helmet. And although this is clearly a bullet mark, it is obvious that this is not combat damage, but a "control shot for quality control." Helmet of light metal with traces of gilding along the edge bordered with piping. Overall dimensions: helmet height 215 mm, length 382 mm, width 323 mm, weight 8,68 kg

For a long time in this, of course, it was simply impossible to walk. But on the other hand, there was no such bullet that could pierce it from a long distance.

To be continued ...
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  1. polpot
    polpot 8 November 2022 05: 49
    +5
    Thank you, as always interesting and wonderful illustrations.
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 November 2022 06: 17
    +6
    These decorations, called "zimir" (zimier),
    Another name is kleinod.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  3. Luminman
    Luminman 8 November 2022 06: 20
    +2
    I'm not a helmeted guru. And I was always interested in what warriors wore on their heads under such helmets? A blow to the head with an ax, a sword, or an arrow with great inertia will immediately take the owner of such a helmet out of combat. Moreover, it will take you out of the battle with the best outcome ... Probably, felt? This is the first thing that came to my mind...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 November 2022 06: 47
      +4
      And I was always interested in what warriors wore on their heads under such helmets?
      A cap was worn under the helmet.
      1. Georgy Sviridov_2
        Georgy Sviridov_2 9 November 2022 14: 14
        +1
        A balaclava was sewn into the helmet. A bascinet was worn under the tophelm, into which a balaclava was sewn. There could either be nothing on the head itself or a cap.
    2. kalibr
      8 November 2022 06: 51
      +4
      First, a cap was put on, quilted. He is wearing a servillier helmet, He is wearing a chain mail hood. Or a servillere on a mail hood. Then a roller stuffed with horsehair so that the "big helmet" does not fidget on the head. It was lined with leather. So you have to try to get to the head there. And, nevertheless, in the Maciejowski Bible it is well shown (and not only in it!), How these helmets are cut with axes and swords! The iron was soft. Because of what they are almost all destroyed by rust!
    3. Nephilim
      Nephilim 8 November 2022 11: 16
      0
      hit by an arrow with great inertia

      Kinetic energy.
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 8 November 2022 11: 58
        +1
        Quote from Nephilim
        Kinetic energy.

        Kinetic energy is manifested only in the movement of an object. When its movement changes, for example, when an arrow hits a helmet, the object retains inertia...
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 8 November 2022 12: 13
          +1
          Refresh your knowledge of physics, read Landsberg or something.
          1. Luminman
            Luminman 8 November 2022 13: 03
            +1
            It's all in the textbook... wink
            1. Nephilim
              Nephilim 8 November 2022 14: 03
              +1
              Well, at least read it, you can still attract a tutor.
              1. Luminman
                Luminman 8 November 2022 14: 24
                +2
                I suspect you need a tutor.
                And not just in physics...
                1. Nephilim
                  Nephilim 8 November 2022 14: 39
                  +1
                  Try to read before you write. Although it is possible that here we look at the option in the book - we see a fig. Since your ambitions clearly do not correspond to your "comprehensible" knowledge. This happens.
                  1. Luminman
                    Luminman 8 November 2022 14: 52
                    +2
                    Your degree of adequacy is a subject for research by specialists. And not in the exact sciences at all ...
                    1. Nephilim
                      Nephilim 8 November 2022 15: 03
                      0
                      I understand you. In the current difficult time, resentment for the whole world haunts many in various manifestations and not everyone can cope with it. But we must strive. Work on yourself. Good luck on this difficult journey.
                      1. Luminman
                        Luminman 8 November 2022 16: 15
                        +2
                        I hope Monsieur is only a theoretician?
                        ------------------------------------
  4. Luminman
    Luminman 8 November 2022 06: 53
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    A cap was worn under the helmet

    It is clear to the horse that the helmet was worn not just on the head.
    What was the material? The production of composites was not established then ... wink
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 November 2022 07: 11
      +5
      If the horse understands, why are you asking questions?
    2. kalibr
      8 November 2022 07: 15
      +4
      Quote: Luminman
      The production of composites was not established then.

      Linen, wool, horse hair
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 8 November 2022 12: 04
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Linen, wool, horse hair

        The topic interested me so much that I dug up something on the Web:




        Well, this is a modern version:
        1. kalibr
          8 November 2022 18: 41
          +4
          Quote: Luminman
          Well, this is a modern version:

          You will have a photo of a balaclava from the museum ... there will be an article about this.
  5. tlauicol
    tlauicol 8 November 2022 07: 25
    +4
    8,5kg to put on your head! I take it he doesn't lean on his shoulders? Horror
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2022 07: 37
      +6
      Quote: Tlauicol
      Doesn't he lean on his shoulders?

      No. It's a hat!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 8 November 2022 09: 38
        +1
        Q. Oh, and try to drag 8 kg yourself.
        I think Tada will appreciate this "hat".
        Now, I remembered, the old French film: "Straw Hat". As listed: Georgette, Musette
        1. kalibr
          8 November 2022 10: 21
          +1
          Quote: vladcub
          Q. Oh, and try to drag 8 kg yourself.

          You write in such a way that you might think that I invented it and force someone to wear it ...
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 8 November 2022 10: 37
            +1
            Fig knows you, perhaps, and force. Joke
        2. ee2100
          ee2100 8 November 2022 12: 11
          +2
          "Straw Hat" is a Soviet color two-part musical feature television film, staged at the Lenfilm studio in 1974 by director Leonid Kvinikhidze based on the vaudeville of the same name by Eugene Marin Labiche and Marc-Michel in 1851.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 8 November 2022 09: 32
      +3
      Tlaicol hello,
      I agree, drag 8 kg on your head. brrr
      Probably, a similar "pot" was put on before the assault.
      - Hans, get me a helmet. I'm going to attack now.
    3. Nephilim
      Nephilim 8 November 2022 11: 22
      +8
      I take it he doesn't lean on his shoulders?

      It all depends on the design. For siege helmets, the weight of 8 kg is not the limit, there were helmets with a weight of more than 10 kg, so emphasis was placed on the shoulders.

      Siege helmet from the period of the English Revolution with shoulder pads.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  6. steeldrone
    steeldrone 8 November 2022 08: 13
    +1
    I understood correctly. Didn't they come up with under-helmet depreciation at that time? Except as a balaclava, sometimes multi-layered but still directly bordering on the head. And a blow to the head, even if the helmet held out, led to concussion?
    Some helmets have holes around the perimeter, maybe these are traces of rivets on which depreciation belts were attached?
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 8 November 2022 08: 42
      +5
      There were no shock absorbers. Gasket(s) only
      Holes around the perimeter are usually for attaching mail.
      Why do you think a blow to the head is necessarily a concussion? Buhurtsmen with practically similar protection do not complain.
      The energy of a cold weapon strike is not so high. 100 J for a sword according to tests.
      Modern helmets must protect against bullets and shrapnel with hundreds of joules of energy.
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 8 November 2022 08: 52
        0
        Quote: Engineer
        Why do you think a blow to the head is necessarily a concussion?

        A blow to the head with a weapon, even if it is covered with a helmet, is at least a shell shock ...
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 8 November 2022 08: 54
          +5
          Look at least one bugurt before writing such a thing.
          1. Luminman
            Luminman 8 November 2022 08: 56
            +1
            This is just a simulation of a real battle.
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 8 November 2022 09: 02
              +4
              They just hit from the heart, often with weighted weapons. And the design of the under-helmet layers does not fundamentally differ from the medieval ones. With its own coloring like the legendary plush turtle instead of a horsehair roller
              1. Wildcat
                Wildcat 8 November 2022 14: 31
                +3
                hi
                IMHO, it seems that those who want to live with a whole neck take helmets with some kind of support, but on the shoulders / shoulder.
                And the inner padding is to avoid contact of the helmet with the head.
                IMHO, again, but a parachute-type suspension or rollers on which the helmet rests will not spare the neck in such a situation.

                и
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 8 November 2022 14: 44
                  +2
                  I already posted this chela here and even talked with him a little in the comments here
                  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=buuVQZb6V_M&t=162s

                  Firstly, a lot of burgers perform in more or less exact copies of historical helmets.
                  Secondly, the main goal of this man is the sale of Griffons. Although the fact that he knows about buhurts an order of magnitude more than me is never questioned.
                  Thirdly, we are increasingly moving away from the main topic. The thesis that I dispute is that any blow to the head, even covered with a helmet, is a shell shock. It is obvious that this is not the case at all. Generally not so.
                  1. Wildcat
                    Wildcat 8 November 2022 15: 25
                    +3
                    The thesis that I dispute is that any blow to the head, even covered with a helmet, is a shell shock. It is obvious that this is not the case at all. Generally not so.
                    I agree.
                    But at the same time, the "tile on the cap" is good protection against cuts and not very good against blows; a helmet with a parachute / rollers will distribute the impact better and have good protection against penetrating wounds, but still burden the neck; a helmet with shoulder support - good protection, but poor visibility and heaviness ...

                    I already posted this guy here
                    - thanks for the link, I'm interested to see how the time will be!
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 8 November 2022 15: 28
                      +3
                      I wrote there that amplitude strikes were still in the Middle Ages.
                      Well, I'll repeat
                      medieval combat meant at times or an order of magnitude less picking up blows to the head than buhurt.
      2. steeldrone
        steeldrone 8 November 2022 10: 42
        +2
        Quote: Engineer
        Why do you think a blow to the head is necessarily a concussion?

        Field experience :-)
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 8 November 2022 11: 19
          +2
          What matters most in practice?
          Correctly. Safety.
          Buhurtsmen solved the problem of blows to the head so much that they hold an amplitude blow with a halberd. No high tech
          It is strange to think that the knights did not solve this problem, especially since the medieval battle meant several times or an order of magnitude less picking up blows to the head than a buhurt.
          1. Luminman
            Luminman 8 November 2022 14: 26
            0
            Quote: Engineer
            Buhurtsmen solved the problem of blows to the head so much that they hold an amplitude blow with a halberd

            A plastic halberd? Or paper?
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 8 November 2022 14: 36
              +4
              Is it really so interesting to portray parsley?
              1. Luminman
                Luminman 8 November 2022 14: 44
                0
                Is it really so interesting to portray parsley?

                Do you want to convince me that these are real halberds? If a real halberd is hit on the head in such a helmet, then nothing will remain of it, the head ... There were a few more blows to the hands ... These are real parsley wink
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 8 November 2022 14: 50
                  +2
                  The "fullness" of the weapon is visible at least from how inertial the movements of the fighters are and how the less experienced fighter collapses with a blow.
                  It's useless. I'll play one procurator
                  1. Luminman
                    Luminman 8 November 2022 15: 10
                    0
                    The "fullness" of the weapon is visible at least from how inertial the movements of the fighters are and how a less experienced fighter collapses with a blow

                    They are not dressed in tracksuits and sneakers, but in heavy armor. One wrong move - and you can lose balance even from a weak blow ..!
      3. Fat
        Fat 8 November 2022 20: 42
        +2
        hi Greetings Denis. Modern assault helmets, despite the use of titanium alloys and Kevlar (aramid), are not light pieces. for some modifications, the weight exceeds 4 kg (together with a visor), for example, "mask" helmets
      4. saigon
        saigon 9 November 2022 13: 33
        0
        I'll tell you a secret, hitting a pumpkin, even in a buhurt, is not in vain, and if everyone is not stupid, but tightly and bitingly, there is clouding in the eyes. Therefore, they try not to fool around in the head there.
        Pumpkin is a necessary thing (but not for everyone)
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 9 November 2022 13: 42
          0
          I'll tell you a secret, hitting a pumpkin, even in buhurt, is not in vain

          I will also answer in confidence that there can be knockdowns and knockouts on the buhurt, especially if it arrives from a blind zone.
          Apparently I need to write a third time
          The thesis I dispute any a blow to the head even covered with a helmet is a shell shock
          1. steeldrone
            steeldrone 9 November 2022 14: 10
            0
            The thesis that I dispute is that any blow to the head, even covered with a helmet, is a shell shock

            Well, maybe I didn't put it that way. Not a shell shock - but a temporary disorientation up to a knockdown, a knockout according to the boxing interpretation. Which is basically a mild concussion.
            If the cushioning does not allow the helmet to move at least a little without moving the head, but at the same time extinguishing the force and speed of the impact. That she saves from chopping-stab wounds. But it does not save from light and not very concussions that cause disorientation.
    2. Vladimir 290
      Vladimir 290 8 November 2022 08: 46
      0
      These cushioning belts are not always used today. Look, for example, at the Soviet helmet "Sphere", it is clear that it is old and heavy, but if it fits well on the head, it sits like a glove, and the protection is quite decent.
    3. Nephilim
      Nephilim 8 November 2022 14: 33
      +5
      I understood correctly. Didn't they come up with under-helmet depreciation at that time? Except as a balaclava, sometimes multi-layered but still directly bordering on the head.

      Wrong. You just need to break out of the narrow framework of the Runet and take advantage of the modern unlimited possibilities of the Internet. Everything is there.

      1. Engineer
        Engineer 8 November 2022 14: 47
        +3
        The material is good, but still it is necessary to make a reservation about the specificity of this particular head.
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 8 November 2022 14: 59
          +2
          You understand, within the framework of the commentary, it is not realistic to cover in detail the device of helmets "from dawn to dusk".
      2. steeldrone
        steeldrone 9 November 2022 14: 03
        0
        Thank you. And it was strange how such a simple option was not thought of. In any case, this option was not voiced in the article.
        PS Lord, what a holivar caused a completely non-wine question. :-)
  7. Wildcat
    Wildcat 8 November 2022 14: 09
    +4
    crying
    Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    Do not order to execute, order to say a word!
    Drawing by the artist V. Korolkov based on the ceiling painting in the Alhambra, depicting a battle between Muslim and Christian warriors of the XNUMXth century. The Christian rider is wearing a barbute helmet with a nosepiece

    The artist, V. Korolkov, misled you!
    There is no barbut there (a bascinet is there, IMHO, with a raised visor), a nose guard, a huge bouvier and roses on a surcoat. And there is no sword, the warrior has a spear in his hand, not a sword. And another shield, with a cutout for a spear...


    And the second warrior is not very similar and he has a sword on the left:


    I already posted a general photo of the soldiers ...
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2022 18: 47
      +3
      Quote: Wildcat
      I already posted a general photo of the soldiers ...

      We had a bad photo. It was difficult to see the details. So he drew what could be. And the roses and bouvier are taken from the Spanish effigy of a certain Cabrera ...
  8. Luminman
    Luminman 8 November 2022 15: 01
    +1
    Quote from Nephilim
    You just need to break out of the narrow framework of the Runet and take advantage of the modern unlimited possibilities of the Internet.

    Oh yeah! The Internet is a bottomless fount of wisdom! Do you draw your "knowledge" from there?


    I agree with this! There must be some kind of air cushion between the head and the helmet! And there was no under-helmet depreciation for the one who was completely beaten off by the brains with a halberd ... wink
    1. Nephilim
      Nephilim 8 November 2022 15: 36
      +2
      And there was no under-helmet depreciation for the one who was completely beaten off by the brains with a halberd ...

      Lord, what passions, they beat you with a halberd? Wow, how interesting!
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 8 November 2022 16: 12
        0
        My template cracked, but held. Yours doesn't seem to be...
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 8 November 2022 19: 34
        +7
        Well, you are a wicked man. laughing
        Still, maybe, "you need to be gentler with people," especially since there are enough "bigger" problems in the world anyway.
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 8 November 2022 19: 48
          +1
          To people - perhaps and it is necessary. But this is for the people. And they often do not appreciate it.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 8 November 2022 20: 10
            +5
            But this is for the people.

            And in real life, it’s not always immediately possible to determine what a person is in front of you and how much a person he is, and that’s it ... And what they will appreciate or not appreciate, you won’t approach everyone, holding this thought in your bosom, somehow it's too calculated.
            1. Nephilim
              Nephilim 8 November 2022 20: 17
              +2
              And in real life, it’s not always immediately possible to determine what a person is in front of you and how much a person he is, and only then ...

              Just "here" and not a problem. But in real life, yes, you can make mistakes.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 8 November 2022 20: 40
                +4
                Just "here" and not a problem.

                Oh, I would like your confidence. But in life, yes - and now I would have pulled someone out of the coffin and finished off again.
                1. Nephilim
                  Nephilim 8 November 2022 20: 46
                  +2
                  Oh, I would like your confidence.

                  Not the fact that having received it, you would be delighted. Have you read Lame Fate by the Strugatskys?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 8 November 2022 20: 57
                    +3
                    I read it, but for a very long time I did not understand what you mean.
                    1. Nephilim
                      Nephilim 8 November 2022 21: 25
                      +3
                      You have to pay for everything, he thought, you don’t get anything for free, and the more you get, the more you have to pay, for a new life you have to pay with the old life ...
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 November 2022 21: 48
                        +4
                        Old truth, but always true.
                        "New Life"... I don't know what I would pay for it, I know what I wouldn't pay for, but it doesn't matter, there won't be a new one.
                      2. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 8 November 2022 22: 01
                        +3
                        there will be no new one.

                        You mean life in the natural biological sense, as a set of physical and chemical processes occurring in the body. I meant life in the metaphysical sense, as a process of thinking contemplating the world. Here you can live several lives.
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 8 November 2022 22: 30
                        +5
                        Here you can live several lives.
                        Truly so! I'm on my fifth or sixth...
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 9 November 2022 05: 59
                        +2
                        For myself, I took the starting point - about seven years. In general, cyclicality is an interesting thing.
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 November 2022 06: 25
                        +2
                        After each turn of fate, I get used to the new reality for a long time.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 November 2022 22: 50
                        +4
                        Here you can live several lives.

                        It is possible, but still everything depends on banal biology. When a person has a progressive cancer, he is not at all up to metaphysics, he has repeatedly observed how this went on in a variety of people.
                      7. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 9 November 2022 00: 01
                        +3
                        We are not discussing a particular case. Although in this case life "before the diagnosis" and life "after the diagnosis" are already two different lives. It is in the metaphysical sense.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 November 2022 02: 26
                        +4
                        All life consists of special cases, others' or own, some hurt, others leave indifferent. But one thing is true, the "before" life and the "after" life are completely different lives.
  9. Wildcat
    Wildcat 9 November 2022 00: 05
    +4
    Front and just well known wink helmets




  10. Wildcat
    Wildcat 9 November 2022 00: 17
    +3
    Helmets and balaclava


    Children's helmets with armor, next to adults for comparison:



    Morion and cabasset

  11. Georgy Sviridov_2
    Georgy Sviridov_2 9 November 2022 14: 17
    0
    I have a question, why did the author take that this is a barbute? I zoomed in on the picture, there are no stiffeners, no developed cheeks. This is a standard bascinet.