Military Review

Miniatures from manuscripts about shields, "shields", stirrups and spurs

118
Miniatures from manuscripts about shields, "shields", stirrups and spurs
Frame from the movie "Knight's Castle" (1990). The shoulder pads-elletes that they attached to this knight are a bit too big, and fixed them so that they move forward with him, but in general everything is very good, especially considering the time of filming. However, M. Gorelik advised him, so why be especially surprised



“He raised the shield without choosing…”
A. Pushkin "Ruslan and Lyudmila"

stories about weapons. Middle Ages. Why didn’t Pushkin’s Ruslan choose a shield for himself, because there, on the battlefield, he certainly had a wide choice? But because in that era, which the poem is talking about, the shields of warriors were a completely utilitarian subject and looked about the same. Barbarian Europe inherited them from the warriors of the late Roman Empire. That is, they were mostly round and had an umbon - a metal hemisphere in the center, which was needed to protect the warrior's hand, which lay under him on the handle of the shield.


Miniature from the Beatus de Las Huelgas manuscript, circa 1220. Pierpoint Morgan Library and Museum, New York. Interestingly, their helmets already have a pommel bent forward, which is typical for the indicated time. Hemispherical helmets-servilliers are also visible, repeating the shape of the head. But round shields are most likely a tribute to the local Spanish military tradition.

They were also dressed in approximately the same way, as evidenced by their finds in different places. Lime boards were taken (it was not for nothing that the Vikings called the shield “Linden Protection”), superimposed one on top of the other and glued together with “fish glue”, after which an umbon was installed on the fasteners in the center, and behind it was a wooden crossbar handle.

In some cases, the shields were additionally covered with leather and painted with natural mineral paints. The diameter could be approximately 90 cm, and the thickness 15–30 mm. That is, the slats were laid either in one layer or in two - one across the other. Moreover, both riders and foot soldiers used such shields.


Miniature from the Stuttgart Psalter, 801-850. Place of origin: Paris, France. State Library of Württemberg, Stuttgart. In this drawing, the shield and umbon are clearly visible, and even the rivets on the surface of the shield for the belts for which it was worn. It is interesting that the illustrator depicted even such a trifle as awl-shaped, typically Roman spurs, but for some reason “forgot” to draw stirrups. Or maybe they were just appearing in Europe at that time, having made a long journey from the north of Korea * through all of Asia and to the European plains?

And now you have to digress a little, but only for the good of the cause.

Working with miniatures, I noticed that the images on some do not quite correspond to chronological realities. For example, the convex “Frankish shields” from the “Stuttgart Psalter” correspond to their time, that is, the time of its writing, but the shields from the “St. Edwin Psalter”, compiled in 1155–1160, named after the scribe Edwin, a monk from Christ Church in Canterbury (now Canterbury Cathedral), now owned by Trinity College, Cambridge, and kept in Wren's library - no!

I had to conduct a whole investigation, as a result of which it was possible to find out that this miniature was copied, like some others, from the earlier "Utrecht Psalter" of 820-835, stored in the university library of the city of Utrecht. Well, the artist just took and mechanically redrawn the old illustration.


Miniature from St. Edwin's Psalter, 1155-1160.


And this is the same miniature from the Utrecht Psalter of 820-835, which was used as a model for copying two centuries later! So it turns out that the artists of the Middle Ages, although they did not own historical thinking, but they were very good at copying the work of previous illustrators! So they, too, sometimes should be checked before drawing conclusions based on the illustrations they have made.


But on the miniatures of the "Psalter of St. Edwin", which were not copied, but were made later, the shields of the soldiers were already drawn in the form of an "inverted drop"! "Edwin's Psalter": torn leaf with miniatures from the preface, circa 1150. Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum, New York

Obviously, by 1066, the round shield had ceased to cope with its purpose and was pulled down so that it covered the rider at least one leg, and even if such a warrior had to fight on foot, he was no longer threatened with an insidious blow with a sword on his legs because under the lower edge of the shield!

In England, such shields in the form of an “inverted drop” are still called “serpentine” (from the word “kite” - a kite). And they were also called “Norman” and “Norman” shields, depending on what was meant - Normandy, from where William (Guillaume) the Conqueror set off to conquer Britain in 1066, or its inhabitants - “Normans” or even “Normans” ".


Painted shield. "Bible", 1000-1200 National Library of France, Paris

And then painted emblems appeared on their shields. So, on the "embroidery from Bayeux" you can see multi-colored winding crosses and dragons. And on the shields from the Chronicle of Chronicles manuscript you can see multi-colored stripes. The dimensions of the shield allowed them to cover themselves from head to toe, but at the same time it was both very heavy and clumsy.


Striped shields from the Chronicle of Chronicles by John of Worcester. Miniature: The Vision of Henry I, c. 1140 Corpus Christi College Library, Oxford. Companions of Henry in chain mail and with shields came to kill him in a dream


Characters already familiar to us: David and Goliath from Stephen Harding's Bible, 1109-1111. Burgundy, France. Municipal Library of Dijon. The shield depicted here must obviously be very heavy!


Well, the front surface of such a shield at that time could look like a miniature from the Navarre Picture Bible, 1197 Pamplona, ​​Spain. State Library, Madrid. That is, the shields of these warriors had not yet become emblems of arms, but they had already begun to draw “chessboards”, stars with lily-shaped ends and “birds” on them

I must say that the end of the XIII - the beginning of the XIV century was marked by many innovations in the field of protective weapons, which significantly changed the appearance of warriors and knights in the first place. The appearance of metal knee pads and leggings immediately affected the size of the shield, which immediately drastically decreased in size and took the form of ... "iron". Now they have already begun to depict knightly coats of arms, it has become almost impossible for a Western European knight to simply “raise a shield without choosing”. After all, they recognized him now precisely by the shield and patch clothes, as well as by the horse blanket!


Poet and knight Waxmuth von Künzingen. Codex Manes, ca. 1305 - 1315 Heidelberg University Library, Baden-Württemberg


Here we have clearly Goliath-original. He is already dressed in greaves and knee pads, traditional for the French chivalry of those years, but for some reason the elletes are of different shapes. They probably wore it that way too, but what was the point in that? "Historical Bible". OK. 1300–1325 Saint-Omer, France. National Library of France, Paris

However, all this seemed to the knights not enough, and they came up with the idea of ​​wearing “shields” (elletes, espaulers) on their shoulders, on which the image of his coat of arms was also applied.

They had the most diverse form: squares, rectangles and even disks and rhombuses. At the same time, they did not play any protective role, since they were made from “boiled leather”, or even simply from plywood covered with fabric. Moreover, despite their apparent simplicity, they were by no means a cheap decoration. For example, Pierre Gaveston, favorite of King Edward II, wore "shields" trimmed with brocade and pearls!

And then there was a really real "detective story" ...


Look at this illustration from Walter de Milemet's treatise: On the Nobility, Wisdom and Prudence of Kings, 1326-1327. St. George presents King Edward III with a shield and a spear. It would seem that there is something special? And here's what: the reversal of heraldic animals on the right shoulder pad of the depicted knight or on the right side of the horse blanket was sometimes used to show their position with their faces forward, because the beast turned back to the enemy was considered “cowardly” according to the rules of heraldry. However, it was not customary to do this on a surcoat, and here we are dealing with an obvious mistake of the artist. That is, they, alas, were wrong at all times, and in the past too! Christ Church, London


But the most interesting thing is that there is a manuscript dating back to about the same time - “Book of Hours. Use of Sarum, 1300–1320 from the Bodleian Library of Oxford University, where the same figures are drawn very similarly, but the leopards on the king's surcoat are drawn correctly!

And here's the question: who copied whom?

If the Book of Hours from the Bodleian Library is primary, and the monk from Christ Church redrawn the plot, then he was mistaken. And if the first manuscript is primary, then just in Christ Church it was corrected in accordance with the rules of heraldry. Now it remains only a little: to find out more precisely when this or that manuscript was written in order to determine who made this glaring mistake for that time.

Most likely, it is this manuscript that is primary. Indeed, on the shield we see a “lambel” (“tournament collar”), denoting the eldest son. That is, here Edward still has a living father, and if so, then ... it was from her that the drawing was made in the first manuscript and ... the correct one in it was corrected for the wrong one!

In addition, it turns out that with all the narrow limits of their work, the miniaturists of the Middle Ages were ... big dreamers and sometimes allowed themselves such things that ... "does not fit into any Bible"!


Here, for example, is a miniature from the Historical Bible, 1300-1350. National Library of France, Paris. The fact is that in the clothes of a knight with ellet shields on her shoulders, she depicts a very famous person: the Old Testament Samson, who became famous for his exploits in the fight against the Philistines and once killed a lot of enemies ... with a donkey's jaw! But how could he have heraldic "epaulettes"? Well, the jaw that he holds in his hands, rather, belongs to a crocodile, and not a donkey!

Interestingly, at the same time, the topfhelm helmet began to be attached to knightly armor with a chain. Moreover, it became fashionable to attach both a sword and a dagger to the chest by the handles with chains, so that a different fashionista knight at that time was almost completely entangled in chains! It was unlikely that it was so convenient, but fashion is omnipotent, and this innovation had to be put up with. These chains are clearly visible on the effigies. But for some reason, they were practically not depicted in miniatures.

As for the foot soldiers, already at the end of the XNUMXth century, fighting with swords, they began to use small round flat shields with umbon, called buckler. And they turned out to be so good and convenient that they were used in the middle of the XNUMXth century.


Buckler or "fist shield". "Maastricht Book of Hours", 1300-1325 Netherlands. British Library, London.
But already at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, knights received such strong solid forged armor that they almost completely abandoned shields, and if they did, it was mainly in tournaments!


Look at this miniature of 1420. These armored men really do not really need shields! Miniature from the chivalric novel "Guiron le Courtois". National Library of France, Paris

The spurs of knight riders have changed a lot since the 1066th century. But the saddle, more like a chair with a back, has remained so since XNUMX. And all because it was precisely such saddles and strong stirrups that a heavily armed rider could rely on without the risk of falling, and turned such riders into knights. Short awl-shaped spurs, in those cases when blankets appeared on horses, led to the fact that they became very long, and even got a rotating star, with which a knight could spur his horse even through chain mail!
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 05: 35
    +4
    Thank you!
    However, I do not agree with the conclusion that Europe got a round wooden shield from Rome.
    Late Roman infantry shields had a moldboard section. The shields of the riders, although they were round, had a rope (more advanced (fastening system) and, if I'm not mistaken, were smaller in diameter.
    Utilitarian was the "Scandinavian shield" described by Vyacheslav. Although the iron edging was also mandatory. A self-respecting Viking took at least two shields on a campaign.
    However, he was not the only one. In Rus' (Slavs in general), in addition to round shields, they tried on full-length ones.
    With light concave shields, the Hungarians invaded Europe.
    Well, the last. My personal opinion is that the Normandy (drop-shaped) shield originally arose as a Rostov infantry. And only later it was appreciated by riders.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 November 2022 08: 28
      +3
      However, I do not agree with the conclusion that Europe got a round wooden shield from Rome.
      Hello, Vlad!
      I will join and add on my own, we know little about the protective weapons of the Sicambri, Burgundians, Lombards, Saxons, Alemans ... In a word, those tribes from which European chivalry subsequently grew.
      1. Nephilim
        Nephilim 6 November 2022 10: 38
        +1
        I’ll add on my own, we know little about the protective weapons of the Sicambri, Burgundians, Lombards, Saxons, Alemans ... In a word, those tribes from which European chivalry subsequently grew.

        If we take the Saxons, especially starting from the XNUMXth century, then just not at all. And for the rest, if you "carry out a whole investigation", you can find quite a lot. Enough for an article for this site. Even for a cycle.
      2. Engineer
        Engineer 6 November 2022 13: 54
        +3
        On the Alemanni you can see the burial ground from Niederstotzingen
        Chain mail and umbons were found in Denmark. For example, chain mail from Vimosa
    2. lisikat2
      lisikat2 6 November 2022 14: 06
      +3
      "used" growth "on almost all illustrations, for Russian warriors, shields" growth ".
      . They are mostly triangular in shape, but there were also quadrangular ones.
      It seems somewhere on the monument '" Motherland - mother ". such a shield.
      My stepfather has a whole album with monuments: "Alyosha", "warrior-liberator", "Eaglet", I don't remember everything
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 16: 28
        +3
        Quote from lisikat2
        "used" growth "on almost all illustrations, for Russian warriors, shields" growth ".
        . They are mostly triangular in shape, but there were also quadrangular ones.
        It seems somewhere on the monument '" Motherland - mother ". such a shield.
        My stepfather has a whole album with monuments: "Alyosha", "warrior-liberator", "Eaglet", I don't remember everything

        My regards!
        Illustrations of Russian shields of the 10-11th century have not reached us. The only artifact is the remains of a classic round Scandinavian wooden shield. Scandinavian shield is a type, not a place of their invention.
        In the artistic tradition, it is customary to depict our heroes with tear-shaped Norman shields (and again this is just a typological designation).
        So with what shields our ancestors fought, the question is more than open!
  2. Fangaro
    Fangaro 6 November 2022 05: 50
    +4
    How messy it is. And there are errors. Moreover, the errors caused by the speed of preparing the article.

    Short awl-shaped spurs, in those cases when blankets appeared on horses, led to the fact that they became very long, and even got a rotating star, with which a knight could spur his horse even through chain mail!

    Through the blanket, perhaps?
    1. kalibr
      6 November 2022 07: 50
      +3
      Quote from Fangaro
      Through the blanket, perhaps?

      There were also chainmail blankets. This was in the material "What the saints can tell."
  3. Maxim G
    Maxim G 6 November 2022 06: 08
    +2
    Short awl-shaped spurs, in those cases when blankets appeared on horses, led to the fact that they became very long, and even got a rotating star, with which a knight could spur his horse even through chain mail!

    / and horse armor, as Artsikhovsky wrote....
    But most likely there were either cutouts in the chain mail, or it consisted of two parts, where the sides of the horse were partially not covered.
    1. Maxim G
      Maxim G 6 November 2022 08: 29
      +3
      By the way, here is an image of similar fabric and chain mail blankets.


  4. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 6 November 2022 06: 34
    +1
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    Late Roman infantry shields had a moldboard section. The shields of the riders, although they were round, had a rope (more advanced (fastening system) and, if I'm not mistaken, were smaller in diameter.

    Then let's dig about shields from the time of Alexander the Great with his famous phalanx of spearmen with shields. smile
    I hope dear Vyacheslav will reveal this segment of the history of shields and armor. hi
    1. kalibr
      6 November 2022 07: 51
      +3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      and this segment of the history of shields and armor.

      Not yet. The Middle Ages is our everything!
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 07: 57
      +10
      Hi Aleksey!
      Vyacheslav Olegovich has already written about the protective weapons of the hoplites.
      By the way, the Roman scutum and the Greek apis (hoplon) are an order of magnitude more complicated than the European shields of the early Middle Ages. The Macedonian phalangists of the "heirs" of Alexander had shields covered with copper.

      Apms hoplite of Hellas!

      One of the variants of the Roman legionary scutum. Later came flat oval shields.
      1. Fat
        Fat 6 November 2022 09: 34
        +4
        hi Hello Vladislav. IMHO the image of the legionnaire is mirrored. I doubt that the Roman legionnaires are left-handed without exception. request
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 16: 31
          +2
          Andrew you are absolutely right.
          I will say more for a left-hander in a manipulative system, there were practically no chances to survive.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 November 2022 17: 01
            +5
            Comrades, don't you think that antiquity was ambidexterous? In any case, the gladius was worn on the right.
            PS I have been exaggerating this topic for a long time.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 17: 39
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Comrades, don't you think that antiquity was ambidexterous? In any case, the gladius was worn on the right.
              PS I have been exaggerating this topic for a long time.

              Since the scaramax, the gladius was essentially a large dagger and in a tight formation it is more convenient to get it from the right side.
              By the way, the horsemen of the aul wore spatu on the left side.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 November 2022 17: 52
                +3
                Vlad, my friend, try to get an umbrella in the crowd...
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 18: 04
                  +3
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  Vlad, my friend, try to get an umbrella in the crowd...

                  You forget that I am trained to work with a shield and a rubber stick in close formation. By the way, the service weapon is placed on the right side, the rubber stick is on the left side, but it is taken from the back. In front of you through the shield is uncomfortable. Gladius was worn in a sling, that is, the top of the handle was at the level of the belt. Apparently got the movement of the hand back. So Sergey has a chance to catch a neighbor and there is no need to open up.
                  Maybe everything was and not the current I do not know.
            2. Fat
              Fat 6 November 2022 19: 54
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              do not assume that antiquity was ambidexterous?

              A very interesting assumption. However, the ability to use two hands can be developed by training, but it is better to start them (training) from childhood ... There were warriors who successfully fenced with two blades - this is a fact.
              Da Vinci was a pronounced ambidexter - he wrote easily and a lot in mirror

              I liked the picture. smile
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 7 November 2022 10: 22
        +3
        warspot.ru
        Faces of the gods and emblems of the legions
        uniforms and equipment antiquity Ancient Rome
        Alexey Kozlenko 01 March '21
        1. Fat
          Fat 7 November 2022 11: 01
          +3
          hi Greetings, Alexey. Thanks for the link. Good very interesting article.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 7 November 2022 11: 23
            +2
            Good afternoon! Trifle. I just remembered that I saw an article about Roman shields on warspot.
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 November 2022 07: 56
    +4
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    One point needs clarification. About Ellets. "Plywood covered with fabric." Where could plywood come from at that time?

    Or was it handmade?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 08: 20
      +5
      Found this.
      The first plywood sheets were created in ancient Egypt, in the 15th century BC.
      feel
      I think how it was possible to remove a veneer close to a year old from a log. Without mechanical devices, I'm afraid it's difficult. Perhaps "plywood" in our understanding and foreign has a different meaning. And in this case, a play on words, or translation difficulties.
      For example, the Shingir wooden idol is given 12,5 thousand years. How the author of the lines I cited found out about Egyptian plywood 17 thousand years ago, I find it difficult to answer. Until the Iron Age, still walk and walk. Bow and arrows appear in the 8th-10th century BC, and then plywood.
      I suppose that a mistake was made and you need to add a comma after the one. By the way, perhaps they meant wooden planks riveted with fish glue 0,25-0,5 mm thick. If you make a cross on a cross, you get a parquet sheet. A similar technology was used by the Greeks in the manufacture of their shields of hoplons (apis) and the Romans - scutums.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 November 2022 08: 34
        +3
        As far as I understand with Ancient Egypt, plywood could be conditional there.

        One casket was found cedar. Topped with ebony veneer.

        What is the point in plywood under Ellet I can not understand. The array was much easier to find.
        1. kalibr
          6 November 2022 08: 59
          +2
          Quote: Korsar4
          What is the point in plywood under Ellet I can’t understand

          Sergey! Nobody knows what was inside. They see that they are flat, that they are painted, but how from what? There is a description - they are covered with brocade ... Sheathed with fringe, pearls ... So a solid foundation. Of what? And God knows!
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 6 November 2022 15: 13
            -1
            Sergey! Nobody knows what was inside. They see that they are flat, that they are painted, but how from what? There is a description - they are covered with brocade ... Sheathed with fringe, pearls ... So a solid foundation. Of what? And God knows!

            Shpakovsky - well, you are a master of "historical research"! Even Lillian and Fred Funken knew that ailette was mostly made from boiled leather, sometimes from metal or parchment. I'm not talking about Otfried Neubreker.
        2. Fat
          Fat 6 November 2022 09: 02
          +5
          hi Greetings, Sergey. Veneer in translation from German - Chips. "leaves" with a thickness of tenths of a millimeter to a centimeter, it is clear that in the Middle Ages, veneer was not obtained by peeling. The veneer was planed and sawn. When the shavings were glued together with fish glue, “plywood” appeared to the world, or rather, what we now call chipboard ... With sawn veneer, everything is clear from the name - this is the “array”, only thin ... Saw off the plate, sand it smile
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 November 2022 13: 11
            +4
            or rather, what we now call chipboard ..
            I would say OSB. Chipboard is a different material.
            Hello Borisych!
            1. Fat
              Fat 6 November 2022 13: 28
              +3
              Yes, OSB (oriented strand board), or rather, they probably saw everything, how they call names correctly and didn’t remember. smile
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 November 2022 13: 39
                +3
                This is my professional deformity.)))
          2. lisikat2
            lisikat2 6 November 2022 14: 49
            +3
            Sergey Borisovich, are you probably a builder or a carpenter?
            Something professional peeps through
            It happens that a person does not talk about his profession, but it declares itself
            1. Fat
              Fat 6 November 2022 19: 30
              +2
              hi Greetings. By education, yes, a civil engineer. Was a trader in the 90s, recently worked as a graphic designer. In a word, "if you want to live, you won't get so upset" (c)
              1. lisikat2
                lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 35
                +1
                So are you an artist? Not expected. The builder is a long time prelprlagalv
      2. kalibr
        6 November 2022 08: 58
        +2
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        By the way, perhaps they meant wooden planks riveted with fish glue 0,25-0,5 mm thick

        Exactly!
    2. katarsafebox.com
      katarsafebox.com 6 November 2022 08: 42
      +1
      They say that plywood was already known in ancient Egypt. So it's quite possible...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 08: 52
        +1
        But not 15 thousand years ago!
        The text of your comment is too short and in the opinion of the site administration does not carry useful information.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 November 2022 08: 59
          +4
          My friend, in the quote you quoted, the 15th century BC appears. You increase the number by an order of magnitude in your constructions.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 16: 37
            +2
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            My friend, in the quote you quoted, the 15th century BC appears. You increase the number by an order of magnitude in your constructions.

            Yes, Anoton, he messed up.
            Fought with windmills.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 6 November 2022 16: 52
              +2
              It's all right, Vlad! The main thing is not to be afraid to admit your mistakes.
    3. kalibr
      6 November 2022 08: 56
      +2
      The boards were glued, but isn't this plywood?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 November 2022 09: 05
        +6
        Glued boards
        In modern terminology, this is called "re-glued solid wood".
        Hello, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
        1. kalibr
          6 November 2022 12: 37
          +2
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave (Anton)

          Good afternoon, Anton. Thanks for the clarification. I'll know.
      2. Eule
        Eule 7 November 2022 11: 58
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Glued boards

        This is now a "carpenter's shield", its meaning is that the tree leads (bends) with a change in humidity, and the slats for the carpenter's shield are turned twice - upside down and inside out, so that when viewed from the end, annual rings were waves in different directions. But the joiner's shield, especially if the pine is not dry enough, can be broken along the fibers. On Friday, there was an embarrassment at work - they sawed off the edges from a square blank onto a round tabletop, and the sawn one broke under its own weight and fell, after which the assistant cosplayed a snail for quite a long time after being hit by a fallen piece of wood in the crotch.
        Returning to the shields as military equipment, I suppose that there could be a plywood of two "carpenter's shields" of fibers superimposed at right angles one on top of the other, otherwise a blow along the fibers will result in two halves of the shield. Plus umbon rivets, and you could get good equipment.
        Plywood, according to GOST, is perpendicularly directed layers of veneer, at least three, glued together under pressure. There was in the past "aviation plywood", in which the layers were rotated at 45 degrees in each layer, it is more equal in strength, but in the manufacture there is a multiple more waste, but the strength is higher. There were all sorts of "directional plywood" with cleverly arranged layers, for example, the letter Zh, and different for different parts of the aircraft. But now you can read about this only in the yellowed books of the interwar period.
        If in ancient times they knew how to make plywood, then aviation with layers at 45 degrees would be ideal for a shield. At the same time, from square blanks of veneer, there would just be a round shield and saw off the edges for firewood.
        PS I met my future wife at the 4th carpentry rally of the "workshop" forum.
    4. bk0010
      bk0010 6 November 2022 10: 22
      +1
      Quote: Korsar4
      Where could plywood come from at that time?
      In ancient Rome, the shields were made of plywood and were durable. But in medieval Europe (this is about Viking shields) - from "shit and sticks", they were easily chopped, so they were prepared somewhat for a raid.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 17: 29
        +5
        What is more important legs or wings? Not brothers most need a tail!!!

        Quote: bk0010
        Quote: Korsar4
        Where could plywood come from at that time?
        In ancient Rome, the shields were made of plywood and were durable. But in medieval Europe (this is about Viking shields) - from "shit and sticks", they were easily chopped, so they were prepared somewhat for a raid.

        Roman scutum in section.

        The only rectangular Roman scutum that has survived to this day is made of poplar planks 2 mm thick. Cross to cross parquet pattern in three layers. The scutum is sheathed with boiled leather, its perimeter is edged with it. Top covered with brocade.
        Now about ".. rams and sticks." The Scandinavian-type shields that have come down to us are made of fir, pine and spruce. Mostly selenium from boards 15-20 mm thick in one layer and pulled with leather. Although there are also two-layer copies of boards 8-10 mm overlapping cross to cross. In principle, apparently elite shields were made of linden. But alas, due to the fragility of the material, they did not survive to our time.
        Well, somewhere like that.
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 6 November 2022 18: 41
          +1
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Roman scutum in section.

          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Mostly selenium from boards 15-20 mm thick in one layer and pulled with leather
          All is correct
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 7 November 2022 10: 28
          +2
          warspot.ru
          "Faces of the gods and emblems of the legions"
          uniforms and equipment antiquity Ancient Rome
          Alexey Kozlenko 01 March '21
  6. Nephilim
    Nephilim 6 November 2022 09: 53
    -1
    I had to conduct a whole investigation, as a result of which it was possible to find out that this miniature was copied, like some others, from the earlier "Utrecht Psalter" of 820-835, stored in the university library of the city of Utrecht. Well, the artist just took and mechanically redrawn the old illustration.

    It turns out today entering a query into Google and reading the first paragraph of a Wikipedia article is called "a whole investigation, as a result of which we managed to find out."
    Or was there a joke about the "whole investigation"?
    1. lisikat2
      lisikat2 6 November 2022 14: 39
      +2
      "there was a joke" perhaps Vyacheslav Olegovich wrote this for the "red word", or maybe in truth, he "digged" a lot?
      Sometimes I feel sorry for Vyacheslav Olegovich: he usually does 2-3 works at once, and looks through math materials five times more
      1. Nephilim
        Nephilim 6 November 2022 14: 49
        -4
        I feel sorry for Vyacheslav Olegovich

        And I feel sorry for you. It is unlikely that you have heard of M.M. Bakhtin, but you are clearly his client. What is your natural hair color?
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 6 November 2022 15: 19
          0
          Some kind of miserable fiercely minus. Illustration for the manifestation of the phenomenon of envy.
        2. lisikat2
          lisikat2 6 November 2022 15: 20
          +4
          I don’t know about Bakhtin, I will look, but about the “blonde”. I will disappoint you: I am not a blonde, but light blond and do not repaint my hair.
          Psychologists say: the mind does not depend on hair color.
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 6 November 2022 15: 25
            0
            I will disappoint you

            It's hard to disappoint me. It’s just that with their super natural naivete on the subject of Shpakovsky’s titanic efforts when writing articles, they attracted attention. It's amazing that hack-work can make such a strong impression.
            1. lisikat2
              lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 56
              +2
              Did I say somewhere that I am delighted with the armor?
              I said I like the illustrations here. Is this "supernatural naivete"?
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 6 November 2022 15: 36
            +4
            I agree about hair color. With me from 6 to 9., the blonde studied, but she was smarter than everyone in the class
          3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 17: 32
            +3
            Quote from lisikat2
            I don’t know about Bakhtin, I will look, but about the “blonde”. I will disappoint you: I am not a blonde, but light blond and do not repaint my hair.
            Psychologists say: the mind does not depend on hair color.

            For God's sake, don't take the words of boors to heart!
            If you want to read more about shields. In 2017, Vyacheslav deserved a good article on this topic. hi
            1. lisikat2
              lisikat2 6 November 2022 18: 22
              +3
              Vlad, shields don't matter to me.
              I just remembered: how we portrayed: Russian soldiers
    2. Nephilim
      Nephilim 6 November 2022 14: 40
      0
      Judging by the number of minuses, there are a whole cohort of such "researchers" for whom Wikipedia is ΑΩ.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 16: 47
        +5
        Quote from Nephilim
        I will disappoint you

        It's hard to disappoint me. It’s just that with their super natural naivete on the subject of Shpakovsky’s titanic efforts when writing articles, they attracted attention. It's amazing that hack-work can make such a strong impression.

        Everything is in your hands, you can write “not hack”, we will appreciate it.
        And by the way, do not be rude to girls. hi
        Perhaps this is the reason for your disappointment.
        All the best.
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 6 November 2022 17: 55
          -1
          What do you appreciate - no doubt. I didn’t understand where you saw my disappointment and, moreover, rudeness? I openly expressed my opinion, the format of the site provides for this. I did not find any requirements to express exclusively delight in the rules of the site.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 6 November 2022 18: 47
            +3
            "I didn't find it in the rules of the site" naturally there is no such thing and cannot be
            . You may have seen: "Astra Wild2" is an emotional young lady. She promised five times to bite V. O. but still his admirer ..
            I am not an emotional young lady, and sometimes I wanted to star V.O.
            We point out to him that he is wrong.
            About efficiency, says the number of his publications, on a variety of topics (you can see in the profile)
          2. lisikat2
            lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 05
            +5
            "rudeness" carefully read what they wrote to me.
            If about hair color is a compliment, then. "I'm John Silver's parrot" (c(
            1. Nephilim
              Nephilim 6 November 2022 19: 10
              -2
              Have you ever heard the word "sarcasm"?
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 20: 02
                +2
                Quote from Nephilim
                Have you ever heard the word "sarcasm"?

                When I want to die, I will say to the girl - “Have you ever heard the word“ sarcasm ”? Nine and ten ladies I know will immediately scratch out their little eyes. The latter is not only little eyes .... laughing
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 6 November 2022 18: 28
          +4
          Namesake, good evening. He took it off my tongue, he himself wanted to offer, to the opponent: write better
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 6 November 2022 19: 07
            0
            I myself wanted to offer, to the opponent: write better

            Do you seriously think that in order to criticize something, it is necessary to "write better" before that? That is, you come to the doctor, he tore out a healthy tooth instead of a sick tooth, and answers your indignation - if you don’t like it, do it better? What will you tell him? Or a tailor will build a fly on the back of his trousers, and answer - if you don’t like it - sew better. Therefore, do not replicate someone's stupidity.
            As for performance, you can't take that away. But performance and performance are two different things.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 19: 55
              +4
              Quote from Nephilim
              I myself wanted to offer, to the opponent: write better

              Do you seriously think that in order to criticize something, it is necessary to "write better" before that? That is, you come to the doctor, he tore out a healthy tooth instead of a sick tooth, and answers your indignation - if you don’t like it, do it better? What will you tell him? Or a tailor will build a fly on the back of his trousers, and answer - if you don’t like it - sew better. Therefore, do not replicate someone's stupidity.
              As for performance, you can't take that away. But performance and performance are two different things.

              Yes, it is clear that life has taken a toll on you. If anything, it's sarcasm.
              Now to the point. Today I gave out 4 sheets of typewritten text and ran out of steam. Spat went home. To be able to write is work - and not easy enough. Being able to write to be read is an order of magnitude more difficult.
              I personally have been coming to Vyacheslav Olegovich for a long time not to get intimate knowledge about anything. Believe me, the regulars on the history branch have a fairly wide and deep knowledge on many topics. Most have published themselves and they have something to say and talk about. I'm here, like many others, for good company. The topic of communication is set by respected authors, who also do not disdain our society. In principle, we all enjoy both articles and communication with each other.
              And finally, to criticize and check the easiest thing, the hardest thing is work-work.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 6 November 2022 20: 01
                +6
                4 sheets of typewritten text - a delightful result.

                If there is half a sheet, then the day was not in vain.

                Maugham set the norm for himself 500 lines a day. And he did.
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 20: 15
                  +4
                  Sergey, I write not for the soul, but for work.
                  This is sad.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 6 November 2022 20: 44
                    +2
                    Then it's a habit. One way is to learn to write with your hand without thinking too much. Just be sure to read it. But not everyone succeeds.
              2. Nephilim
                Nephilim 6 November 2022 22: 21
                +1
                To be able to write is work - and not easy enough. Being able to write to be read is an order of magnitude more difficult.

                For about 40 years of my "writing practice" I also came to the same conclusion. Especially when you have to write "for work", moreover, the task is to state deliberate nonsense so that "read and like it." For the soul, of course, is a completely different matter, but here you need desire. You can't write anything decent without it.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 November 2022 00: 56
                  +3
                  Goodnight. hi

                  Vyacheslav, as an author, for most of those present is not so much a source of information as a "bridge for communication", so you "hit" Katerina in vain.

                  And further. It is somehow very noticeable that you are constantly looking for flaws, mistakes and something like that in everyone. I have never seen a favorable comment from you, are you all right? As a rule, a clearly defined category of people suffers from such an approach to others: "Such people are either seriously ill or secretly hate others." (c)
                  1. Nephilim
                    Nephilim 7 November 2022 01: 24
                    -1
                    "Such people are either seriously ill or secretly hate those around them."

                    Neither one nor the other.
                    I never saw a positive comment from you.

                    I loved, it's not worth rummaging through the old
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 7 November 2022 01: 46
                      +4
                      Neither one nor the other.


                      Then everything is easier:


                      I loved, it's not worth rummaging through the old

                      But what if:
                      love still, maybe
                      1. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 7 November 2022 03: 51
                        +1
                        Alas. Don't step into the same river twice.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 November 2022 04: 26
                        +1
                        And yet ... It seems to me that we can quite agree.
                        One should live, for no matter how much the blizzard does not circle,
                        her bondage and disgrace are short-lived.

                        Although, of course, it is pointless to argue, because:
                        There were worse times, but there was no mean

                        drinks
                      3. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 7 November 2022 10: 02
                        +1
                        It seems to me that we can quite agree.

                        There is nothing more tragic in life than the absolute impossibility of changing what you have already done.

                        "The Forsyte Saga".
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 November 2022 10: 16
                        +2
                        "The Forsyte Saga".


                        Alas
                        .. I haven't read the novel either.
                        request
                      5. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 7 November 2022 10: 23
                        +1
                        This work is that difficult case when valuable semantic content is clothed in a literary form that is extremely difficult to perceive.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 November 2022 10: 27
                        +2
                        To be honest, I did not try to read this book, maybe in vain. Although now it doesn't matter.
                      7. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 7 November 2022 10: 33
                        +1
                        As the wise King Solomon said: "There is a time for everything, and a time for every thing under heaven." So now, most likely, it is no longer necessary. To not get upset.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 November 2022 10: 42
                        +2
                        There are enough reasons for frustration and other reasons, and, apparently, this is a very long time. And I'll probably last the rest of my life.
                        But, out of old habit, I still try to imagine that "the glass is half full." smile
                      9. Nephilim
                        Nephilim 7 November 2022 10: 46
                        +1
                        out of old habit, still trying to imagine that "the glass is half full"

                        As we age, changing habits is difficult and harmful. Therefore, if they do not come into conflict with objective reality and do not fatally affect life, why change them, strain the body once again.
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 November 2022 11: 08
                        +2
                        Oh, this "objective" reality to me ... Neither the bottom of it, nor the tire.
              3. vladcub
                vladcub 8 November 2022 07: 57
                +1
                "work to work" - the most difficult. I agree here.
      2. lisikat2
        lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 58
        +1
        I like Wikipedia, so what!?
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 November 2022 20: 16
          +2
          Quote from lisikat2
          I like Wikipedia, so what!?

          As an accessible reference, why not. However, you cannot write an interesting work only on its basis.
      3. Fat
        Fat 6 November 2022 20: 16
        +4
        The wiki has undeniable merit. In decent articles - sources of information are indicated. For those who are very much guided by Wikipedia, there is a warning from the RKN.
        In any case, this is better than expecting evil "revelations" from a half-breed angel, that is, yours, the Nephilim.
  7. lisikat2
    lisikat2 6 November 2022 14: 30
    +2
    I wish you all a good day. I was only able to login today.
    At home there was a situation that I went to work in slippers!
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I, like a little one, look at the pictures, and the content is secondary to me.
    For me, the film: "Knight's Castle" is one of my favorite films ..
    The plot is very good and the costumes are bright.
    P.. S.
    And who is Gorelik!? Perhaps a historian?
    1. kalibr
      6 November 2022 16: 41
      +4
      Quote from lisikat2
      I'm like a little girl, I look at the pictures,

      There is nothing wrong with that, Katya-Katyusha. It's normal when a person likes beautiful things. And Gorelik is a well-known historian, author of many interesting books and consultant of many historical films. Unfortunately, he died.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 November 2022 16: 54
        +3
        Unfortunately, he died.
        Yes, unfortunately ... And it wasn’t old yet ...
        1. kalibr
          6 November 2022 17: 11
          +4
          He visited several times. It's very interesting in his house. Like in a museum...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 November 2022 17: 31
            +3
            It happens. I did not become a historian. The whole apartment is littered with tools and equipment.
            Alas and ah ...
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 6 November 2022 18: 54
              +3
              Anton, greetings. "and ah," you had an interesting money job.
              By the way, like was going to lay out more?
              If there were, but I did not see, I call. If, noticed, I'm already less frequent on the site. Domestic problems, and age
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 November 2022 19: 39
                +3
                My work never became a hobby. My passion never became a job. Perhaps in this dualism lies the happiness of knowledge?
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 6 November 2022 19: 45
                  +4
                  It can only be possible to monetize a hobby within the framework of some kind of system. And where can I get it?

                  Although I have an example of a close friend who went to the Institute of Oriental Studies. And then he stayed there. With a completely different education.
                2. kalibr
                  6 November 2022 20: 32
                  +3
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  Perhaps in this dualism lies the happiness of knowledge?

                  Almost so!
                3. vladcub
                  vladcub 8 November 2022 07: 53
                  +1
                  Fig knows him. This is a matter of psychology and philosophy, and I have not taken on such literature for a long time.
      2. lisikat2
        lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 09
        +3
        Did he by any chance, contemplate: "Quentin Dorvaid"?
        1. kalibr
          6 November 2022 19: 19
          +4
          Here are the ones he advised: "Emelyan Pugachev" (1978), "Nizami" (1981), "Boris Godunov" (1986), "Sultan Beibars" (1989), "The Death of Otrar" (1991), "Richard the Lionheart" ( 1992), "Ermak" (1996), "Queen Margo" (1996-1997). For the manufacture of weapons, armor and costumes for the film "Ermak" Mikhail Viktorovich was awarded in 1996 the highest Russian film award "Nika". Well, the "Knight's Castle", of course. I don't know about Quentin.
          1. lisikat2
            lisikat2 6 November 2022 19: 49
            +3
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, what films would you advise me? I like to watch something romantic, and most importantly not heavy.
            Watched: One in a Thousand, Venetu, some episodes, Chingachgook, Quentin, Crusaders
            1. kalibr
              6 November 2022 20: 30
              +2
              Watch the 1955 film Quentin Dorward. You'll like it. And in general: type in the search engine US films of 1950, westerns, historical 50-56. - no regrets. "Gone with the Wind" with Vivien Leigh? "Waterloo Bridge", "Roman Holiday" with Audrey Hepburn, "How to Steal a Million". And from the modern look "All-in-3". About today's (almost) Poland. Very funny.
              1. Ulan.1812
                Ulan.1812 6 November 2022 23: 15
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                Watch the 1955 film Quentin Dorward. You'll like it. And in general: type in the search engine US films of 1950, westerns, historical 50-56. - no regrets. "Gone with the Wind" with Vivien Leigh? "Waterloo Bridge", "Roman Holiday" with Audrey Hepburn, "How to Steal a Million". And from the modern look "All-in-3". About today's (almost) Poland. Very funny.

                I have several books by Gorelik. His book on the Mongols helped me make the figurine.
                By the way, I always thought that the shields on the shoulders are additional protection. Thanks for the interesting information.
                But there were round ones that protected the armpits. But it seems to be already in solid armor, later.
                1. Nephilim
                  Nephilim 7 November 2022 00: 10
                  +4
                  Historians still do not have a common opinion about the function of the aylette. Some Fox-Davies, Martin, Boccia, Coelho thought they were additional shoulder protection. Ashdown and Stone were inclined to the version that, together with the protection of the ailettas, they served to place heraldic "identification marks". And authorities such as Oakeshott and Blair believed that they served for "heraldry" and decoration. The latter theory is considered the main one today.
                  1. Ulan.1812
                    Ulan.1812 7 November 2022 00: 46
                    +1
                    Quote from Nephilim
                    Historians still do not have a common opinion about the function of the aylette. Some Fox-Davies, Martin, Boccia, Coelho thought they were additional shoulder protection. Ashdown and Stone were inclined to the version that, together with the protection of the ailettas, they served to place heraldic "identification marks". And authorities such as Oakeshott and Blair believed that they served for "heraldry" and decoration. The latter theory is considered the main one today.

                    It's clear. But perhaps in some cases they could combine functions.
                    The same shield he carried and heraldic image and was protection.
                    1. Mikhail3
                      Mikhail3 7 November 2022 14: 38
                      +1
                      Quote: Ulan.1812
                      It's clear. But perhaps in some cases they could combine functions.
                      The same shield he carried and heraldic image and was protection.

                      I agree with the combination of functions. I suspect that they were ... a kind of modern passport for us! Well, that is, as we remember, all this vile vile, that is, noble chivalry, spent time in very specific amusements. In addition to the usual robbery and murder of the unarmored mob, fights were constantly fought with each other. But one noble knight must not kill another noble knight! Unprofitable!
                      So beat one another, and then what? You can, of course, diligently bastard with beaten armor, drag him to a bandit's lair, in the sense of a beautiful castle, wait for a ransom, then the armor will again have to be dragged to the previous owner ... well, hemorrhoids!
                      And so he beat, pushed, squeezed his sides, and tore off these plates from his shoulders. They are easy to peel, see? With a confluence of people, it can work. That is, the ransom will have to be brought without deceit, because they will regularly tease - well, did you get your passport back, in the sense of ailetta, for that loss? Yes? Will your opponent confirm? Or show your ailetta? Comfortable...
                  2. faterdom
                    faterdom 9 November 2022 01: 30
                    +1
                    A distinctive fetish is an important thing, it can take the whole brain for a lifetime.
                    As it is now for the strangely oriented, it is important to have an iPhone with you, preferably the last one, or at least the penultimate one, then it was impossible for a knight to leave the castle without aylettes, even the mob would laugh, not like noble dons.
                    1. Mikhail3
                      Mikhail3 9 November 2022 08: 30
                      0
                      They also have important practical value. If you remove the armor from the knight who lost the disassembly, he may never collect a ransom for them. Because it is very difficult to rob the villagers without armor, and for the majority of this trash it is generally impossible, because they do not have "spears" of servants and low-level warriors. Failed to loot enough. Take away the "means of production" and what remains? Hefty dolbak with fists? You can find better in any village
                2. kalibr
                  7 November 2022 06: 49
                  +1
                  Quote: Ulan.1812
                  But there were round ones that protected the armpits.

                  Round armpits are BESAGU. And they, too, were not always round, of various shapes! And yes, the "white armor",
                  1. Ulan.1812
                    Ulan.1812 7 November 2022 12: 33
                    0
                    Quote: kalibr
                    Quote: Ulan.1812
                    But there were round ones that protected the armpits.

                    Round armpits are BESAGU. And they, too, were not always round, of various shapes! And yes, the "white armor",

                    Got it, thanks for clarifying.
              2. lisikat2
                lisikat2 7 November 2022 15: 20
                0
                "Gone with the Wind", "Vacation" and "Va Bank", I watched, but I don't know the rest. Didn't find them
              3. ArchiPhil
                ArchiPhil 7 November 2022 20: 36
                0
                Quote: kalibr
                "All-in-3".

                In the original - * Vinci *. It has nothing to do with the dilogy. hi
  8. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 7 November 2022 14: 29
    0
    In England, such shields in the form of an “inverted drop” are still called “serpentine” (from the word “kite” - a kite).
    Really? How interesting! The fact is that the kite has such a detail as a thread. Or a very thin rope. And how were they made in those ancient centuries, and even so massively that the naming was fixed in the language as a comparison? After all, a couple of dozens of exclusive thin and extra strong ropes are not enough for this, for which the master had to spend months, given the declared level of technology. The product had to be mass-produced!
    In addition, it turns out that with all the narrow limits of their work, the miniaturists of the Middle Ages were ... big dreamers and sometimes allowed themselves such things that ... "does not fit into any Bible"!

    Yeah. All artists of all ages are like that), a feature of the profession. And again, note that the black and white original drawing was drawn by a real artist. Master. It has tension, different plots between fairly recognizable groups of figures and individual figures. And the color redrawing is completely mediocre. The technique is lost, these lines were clumsily drawn not by an artist at all, but by some kind of crooked worker. This is all very interesting and thought provoking...
    1. kalibr
      7 November 2022 16: 42
      +1
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Really? How interesting!

      Open any book by English authors, even in a language, even translated, it's there. But when this term appeared there, I do not know. And the threads were spun. The tapestry from Bayeux took millions of miles of thread.
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 7 November 2022 17: 06
        -1
        I have no doubt that this is the case. The question is ... well, what is the question) If you were given the opportunity to break one of the threads of this tapestry, you would quickly be convinced that it breaks perfectly. What I wrote about.
        Smart people believe that China's progress failed (and most of their "great history" is a crude fake) because they used hieroglyphs instead of sound writing. Too large, motionless and complete image. It is not suitable for thinking, that is, for comprehending, changing, supplementing, analyzing, in a word - analysis.
        For you, a thread is a hieroglyph. Were there threads? Were! The question is closed! No, the questions are just beginning) To make thin twine suitable for kite flying, you need two things. Firstly, thin, but very strong threads. Secondly, a complex, extremely well-thought-out architecture for laying threads.
        To obtain such a thread, carding machines are needed. Devices that flatten the fibers and remove debris, clumps too tangled to work, etc. It is very difficult to make a carding machine of the required quality. Remember, quite recently, "whalebone" was very popular? Well, about which brilliant historians wrote that it was mainly required for corsets)) That same whalebone was primarily used in carding machines. And they really needed a good, just excellent metal, that is, high-quality steel, and perfect systems for its processing. There was no trace of all this. It seems to be. Well, according to your colleagues. Yes, to make twine from threads that were then impossible, a special machine is required. Google "cable car". And good mathematics is needed, to calculate the rope, otherwise nothing will come of it!
        So I’m surprised that the trace in the language is so obvious, and I can’t tie the twine in place)
        1. kalibr
          7 November 2022 20: 43
          0
          Quote: Mikhail3
          breaks great.

          Any thread breaks perfectly, including modern ones. I tried. And my hands are not iron. And the fact that the tapestry has withstood all these centuries suggests that its threads are not so easy to break. The Vikings also had wool sails.