Military Review

On the concept of "dirty bomb": ways to protect against radiological weapons

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On the concept of "dirty bomb": ways to protect against radiological weapons

In recent weeks, the information space has been filled with reports of the so-called "dirty bomb". The media write about the preparation of a nuclear provocation by Ukraine and its likely consequences. The first persons of the state speak about it.


At the same time, nowhere is it clearly explained what a “dirty bomb” is and what measures should be taken if it is detonated.

Let's start with the fact that the above concept is officially used for thermonuclear munitions with a uranium shell, which enhances not only the power of the explosion itself, but also the radiation impact. "Clean" refers to a thermonuclear bomb in a lead sheath, which allegedly absorbs most of the charged particles. At the same time, its "purity" is rather conditional.

However, it makes no sense to understand the types of thermonuclear bombs in this case, since a provocation is being prepared in Ukraine using a different principle.

In fact, the “dirty bomb” that was announced in our Ministry of Defense and written in the media is an ordinary ammunition with a high-explosive warhead, for example, which is in service with the Armed Forces of the Tochka-U OTRK, but modernized by adding a container with radioactive waste.

This type of ammunition is not capable of causing such destruction as nuclear or thermonuclear weapon, but at the same time, the so-called "dirty bomb" leads to serious contamination of the area. That is why it is classified as a separate type of weapon - radiological.

It is worth noting that the possibility of using a "dirty bomb" on Berlin was considered in the United States as early as 1944. However, it turned out that this undertaking is too expensive, and the effect of such an attack can manifest itself only after a rather long time, when the war is already over.

To date, a whole range of measures has been developed aimed at minimizing the consequences of the use of a “dirty bomb”.

Among them: removal of the top layer of soil in the most contaminated area with its subsequent burial, treatment of buildings and road surfaces with powerful jets of water with a special solution, washing of vehicles.

The civilian population and the military must use respirators for respiratory protection. In addition, after leaving the affected area, it is urgent to take a shower and change all clothes.

Author:
Photos used:
pixabay.com
12 comments
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  1. Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 31 October 2022 14: 49
    +4
    Let's start with the fact that the above concept is officially used for thermonuclear munitions with a uranium shell, which enhances not only the power of the explosion itself, but also the radiation impact. "Clean" refers to a thermonuclear bomb in a lead sheath, which allegedly absorbs most of the charged particles.
    the first time I hear such nonsense, a dirty bomb has nothing to do with vigorous or thermonuclear charges at all
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 31 October 2022 14: 57
      +2
      It was, it WAS... when the minke whales were playing with the neutron bomb.
      Another thing is that in everyday life, among the townsfolk, those who are at least somehow interested, the concept of a "dirty bomb" is associated with a way to scatter / disperse radioactive materials through the explosion of conventional explosives.
      In general, you can get confused and it is worth separating professional interest from the narrow-minded ... that is, you don’t need to be too smart.
  2. credo
    credo 31 October 2022 14: 49
    +1
    To date, a whole range of measures has been developed aimed at minimizing the consequences of the use of a “dirty bomb”.

    Among them: removal of the top layer of soil in the most contaminated area with its subsequent burial, treatment of buildings and road surfaces with powerful jets of water with a special solution, washing of vehicles.

    The civilian population and the military must use respirators for respiratory protection. In addition, after leaving the affected area, it is urgent to take a shower and change all clothes.


    Well, it's just a balm for the soul, as if we are not talking about radioactive contamination, but an ordinary dust storm or burning from burning forests.
    "Thanks" to the author, reassured. negative
    1. Bingo
      Bingo 31 October 2022 15: 01
      +5
      Quote: credo
      Well, it's just a balm for the soul, as if we are not talking about radioactive contamination, but an ordinary dust storm or burning from burning forests.

      Fundamentally - indistinguishable from chemical contamination of the area, in fact. And even for the better in some things, a respirator from the release of, for example, hydrocyanic acid, which at any woodworking or furniture factory is enough to arrange a local soda with hemorrhoids, will not save, if infected from a dirty bomb, it will greatly reduce the effect.
      Here the main problem is that it is for a long time. Even soil reclamation - while the top layer is removed, how much will go into groundwater, and where will it migrate? And not only into the water, why are fires dangerous in the Chernobyl exclusion zone? Ashes will fly, stuffed with radioactive elements
  3. Buyan
    Buyan 31 October 2022 15: 00
    0
    A bunch of words for the preface for the video, what is all this for???
  4. fiv
    fiv 31 October 2022 15: 05
    +2
    The striking effect of such ammunition will be incomparable with its propaganda effect. Decontamination measures are known and worked out. People will have a hard time. But this may be Zeli's last atrocity, which many of those who now turn a blind eye to his abomination will be inclined to forgive him. Unless, of course, you can convince the crowd of frightened biological objects that it was not the Russian Federation that prepared and blew it up.
  5. Chem1st
    Chem1st 31 October 2022 15: 10
    +1
    I will give my comment from three days ago regarding what kind of provocation xoxly can start:
    I don’t understand something ... what is it about? Either the manufacture of a "dirty bomb" takes place, or the preparation of a nuclear provocation. These are different things. I understand it this way: "dirty bomb" - stupidly highly active LRW, the container with which is wrapped in dynamite. The entire structure is mounted on a suitable rocket and fired towards the nearest enemy settlement. An explosion at a height of a couple of kilometers leads to the formation of an aerosol cloud, from which radioactive rain immediately begins to pour out, infecting the area below with all its contents - people, animals, soil and buildings. A light breeze blows away this cloud, increasing the area of ​​radiation contamination tenfold. The infection rate decreases as the cloud moves. The total area of ​​an infected spot can reach hundreds and thousands of square kilometers. Depending on the imagination and capabilities of the device manufacturer, the isotopic composition can vary greatly, making it impossible to live in the contaminated area and conduct any activity on it for years to thousands of years. Considering that there are five nuclear power plants in Ukraine, and there is no need for high-level waste of any composition and activity, there are no difficulties in riveting such a device on the knee. Especially if the manufacturers are not very sorry.
    Another thing is a nuclear provocation. According to our intelligence, xoxlopithecines made a dummy of Iskander. It's getting more and more difficult. Judge for yourself: there are a lot of Iskanders, each has an individual number under which this product is stored and used. Therefore, the number must be real, moreover, it must be registered in some real-life Russian military warehouse! But okay, let's say - they found out, forged. But the second difficulty is the radioactive filling of the warhead. For the manufacture of tactical charges, plutonium-239 is used. It is produced in a conventional power reactor, albeit in very small quantities, so it must also be extracted from spent fuel, collected and turned into metal. At the same time, the isotopic composition of the metal is so unique that each batch of produced plutonium has its own isotopic composition, which is practically impossible to fake. And what is needed for provocation? 300-500 grams of plutonium that fell out of a type of "downed" rocket. Moreover, it is impossible to shoot at a really flying dummy rocket, because you can miss it, and then no one will say at all who God will send this dumb product to. So the scenario is as follows: the finished product-dummy is dragged to the Chernobyl exclusion zone, carefully placed and hit on it from something high-explosive, simulating the rupture of an intercepting missile. The charge detonates, the remaining fuel (on which specialists can also say a lot of things!), Powder of metallic plutonium spreads around the neighborhood, the remains of the dummy are lying under the Christmas tree and emitting light. But guys, even a couch rocket expert will be able to determine what the dummy warhead carried (because, according to legend, it collapsed, not exploded), plus the individual number of the rocket, plus the isotope composition of plutonium, plus the type and composition of rocket fuel, plus sea ​​of ​​details the very next day will clearly show the true picture of what happened.
    You can kick, but that's how I see it. Either a "dirty" bomb, or a nuclear provocation with a relatively safe dummy
    1. Galleon
      Galleon 31 October 2022 16: 32
      0
      They need a newsbreak, and for him, reasonable arguments will not matter. When a scream is made, the speakers are not heard, and decisions are made at the level of emotions. If you want to draw European NATO countries into open war, this is a good casus belly. The states will get the maximum benefit from all this, and the main thing is that China will be left alone and crushed.
      By the way, with a ground explosion, the area of ​​​​contamination will not be that big, and you can clean it up.
  6. Maks1995
    Maks1995 31 October 2022 16: 03
    +1
    Yes. Mostly a propaganda effect.

    They have been scaring for a long time, but so far zilch. In principle, it is probably not difficult to assemble dirty bombs for the state. The world is full of places with high radiation, and a former natural reactor has been opened in Africa, they wrote. Yes, and in the garbage heaps from the medical centers it would be possible to dial, if they really wanted to ..... IMHO, ipshut, they regularly find something there ...

    But, IMHO, a new strong wave came after the statements of Simonyan, Kadyrov and others - they say, let's burn tactical nuclear weapons. very similar to diverting attention from their words.
    1. Alexey Lantukh
      Alexey Lantukh 31 October 2022 18: 42
      0
      And there are also options for the development of events after the explosion of a dirty bomb. Suppose Western-American-Ukrainian propaganda successfully inflated the incident. Many important countries for Russia have turned away from it, the most severe sanctions, including secondary ones. Under these conditions, Russia says to the Westerners: well, the "partners" wanted a nuclear strike on Ukraine - get it! It warns the population of Lvov, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kyiv about the upcoming nuclear strike, and after a couple of Sudok delivers a powerful frightening warning ground strike, first on Lvov with several megatons, which do not even leave walls in place of the city. Radioactive clouds in the predicted meteorological situation go to the west, first to Poland. Ultimatum - surrender, otherwise new TY blows. This is one of the options that can be voiced to the Western public even now.
      1. Maks1995
        Maks1995 1 November 2022 10: 01
        0
        Yes. This is one of the options.
        And it is frankly not beneficial to Ukraine and the West. And indirectly points to the zilch of the PR of the dirty bomb.

        You can think of something more neutral.
        Throw tactical nuclear weapons in the air where it is safe - compare, they say. because a real TNW and an invented bomb are very different in composition and action.

        Let me remind you that at the current level, they wrote, they even determined the composition of the fuel in the event of an accident "presumably a model of a petrel" somewhere in the center of the country.
  7. Andrey A
    Andrey A 1 November 2022 20: 31
    +1
    In fact, Chernobyl was a giant "dirty" bomb ... During the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (and the explosion was of tremendous power), tens or hundreds of tons of radioactive material were raised into the air, we can say with certainty: nothing like the alleged ammunition of the Ukrainian "dirty" bomb does not provide for: there will be kilograms or tens of kilograms .... Of course, the use of such weapons is an utter meanness and a war crime, but we survived Chernobyl, in which case, we will survive the "dirty" bomb, especially since the scale of the use of radioactive substances there will be thousands or tens of thousands of times less than in Chernobyl .... And so, for the use of this kind of weapon, it is necessary to punish and punish severely .... !!!