Military Review

German anti-tank aviation at the final stage of World War II

69
German anti-tank aviation at the final stage of World War II

After a radical turning point in the war and Germany's transition to strategic defense, which took place in the summer of 1943, the task of fighting the Soviet tanks became a priority for the Luftwaffe. For this, existing combat aircraft were actively used and new ones were created. Main aviation the means of destruction with which the German air tank destroyers were armed were high-explosive fragmentation, high-explosive and cumulative bombs, cannons and rockets.


The use of armored attack aircraft Hs 129 in the second half of the war


With reliable fighter escort, the Hs 129 was, on the whole, a good anti-tank aircraft capable of severely damaging or destroying 1–2 tanks during a sortie under the control of an experienced pilot. The armored "Henschel" had good survivability against anti-aircraft weapons of 7,62 caliber and partly 12,7 mm.

The aircraft was easily repaired in the field, and in most cases combat damage was quickly repaired at field airfields. With a forced landing "on the belly", due to the presence of an armored capsule, the pilot had a good chance of surviving. At the same time, in the absence of fighter cover, the Hs 129s often suffered heavy losses. This slow and low-maneuverable aircraft was considered easy prey for our fighters.

According to German sources, 878 Hs 129 were built. But combat squadrons never had more than 100 aircraft at a time, and the proportion of aircraft capable of performing a combat mission did not exceed 80%. It is quite obvious that, given the scale of hostilities on the Soviet-German front and the number of Soviet armored vehicles, such a number of anti-tank aircraft could not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities. The release of Hs 129 continued until the autumn of 1944, but by April 1945 there were almost no serviceable machines left in service.

Despite the obvious shortcomings of the "Henschel" and low flight data, until mid-1944, German designers did not abandon attempts to improve its combat effectiveness.

So, in 1943, a 129-kg bomb cassette equipped with 2 SD 250-HL cumulative fragmentation bombs was introduced into the armament of the Hs 44B-4.


Cluster bomb AB-250

Larger aircraft also used 500-kg cassettes containing 118 HEAT submunitions.


AB-500 cluster bomb loaded with SD-4

The SD 4-HL cumulative fragmentation bomb weighing 4 kg was created on the basis of the SD 4 fragmentation cluster bomb, it had a length of 315 and a diameter of 90 mm. As a legacy from the fragmentation bomb, the SD 4-HL received a cast-iron body, which gave a large number of fragments. The bomb was equipped with a 340-gram charge of an alloy of TNT with RDX. The charge was detonated by an instantaneous piezoelectric fuse. The armor penetration of the SD 4-HL at an angle of 60° was 60 mm, which was quite sufficient to penetrate thin upper armor.


Cumulative fragmentation bomb SD 4-HL

Compared to the Soviet PTAB 2,5–1,5 HEAT bomb, the larger SD 4-HL had a much stronger fragmentation effect and could effectively hit the infantry accompanying the tanks. At the same time, the German aviation ammunition SD 4-HL cost more than the Soviet PTAB 2,5–1,5 and had a much more complex device. Unlike the PTAB, loaded into the internal bomb bays of the Il-2 and into small bomb cassettes, the German SD 4-HL was used only from bomb cassettes that opened in the air, the opening height of which was set before the sortie.

Dropping bomb clusters from SD 4-HL was carried out from a dive with aiming at a specific object. At the same time, it was necessary to very accurately monitor the height of the compartment of the bomb cassette, since the accuracy of bombing and the magnitude of bomb dispersion directly depended on this. The experience of the combat use of cassettes has shown that they are quite difficult to use. The opening height was considered optimal, at which an ellipse of gaps 50-55 m long was formed on the ground. With a smaller SD 4-HL dispersion, the target could not be covered, and with a larger one, the tank could be between the gaps. In addition, up to 10% of cumulative bombs did not work due to the unreliable operation of the fuses, or the bomb had time to split, hitting the armor before the fuse worked. In most cases, one bomb cluster on the battlefield managed to cover a maximum of 1-2 tanks.

SD 4-HL HEAT cluster bombs remained in service with the Luftwaffe until the end of the war, but their use was limited. This was due to both the complexity of use and the longer preparation for a sortie compared to other German types of bombs. In addition, the combat effectiveness of the SD 4-HL could not but be affected by their greater weight compared to the PTAB 2,5–1,5, due to which one carrier took a smaller number of anti-tank submunitions. Although cartridges loaded with SD 4-HL bombs were more effective than conventional bombs of the same caliber, Hs 129 pilots preferred to use cannons against armored vehicles, as they were easier to use.

The largest-caliber artillery system installed on the Hs 129 was the 75 mm VK 7.5 cannon, in the artillery unit similar to the 75 mm 7,5 cm Pak 40 anti-tank gun.

Based on the experience of creating the 50 mm VK 5 gun, a pneumoelectric mechanism of a similar design with a radial magazine for 75 rounds was used to load the 7.5 mm VK 12 gun. The mass of the gun with the mechanism for sending shells and ammunition was 705 kg. To reduce recoil, the gun was equipped with a muzzle brake.


75 mm VK 7.5 gun without fairing

The armor penetration of the VK 7.5 gun was high. An armor-piercing tracer with a mass of 6,8 kg left a barrel 3 mm long with an initial speed of 920 m / s, and at a distance of 732 meters normally pierced 500-mm armor. At the same distance, at a meeting angle of 130 °, 60-mm armor made its way. A sub-caliber projectile with a carbide core weighing 104 kg with an initial speed of 3,18 m / s under the same conditions pierced 990 and 154 mm, respectively. During field tests, the shells reliably penetrated the armor of the turrets of captured Soviet medium and heavy tanks. A full cycle of reloading the gun after a shot took 115 seconds.

In August 1944, tests began on the Hs 129B-3/Wa attack aircraft (also known as the Hs 129B-2/R4), armed with a 75 mm VK 7.5 cannon. For sighting, 7,92-mm machine guns with tracer bullets were used.


Tank destroyer Hs 129B-3 / Wa

The 75-mm gun on the attack aircraft was placed in a bulky suspended gondola. Even with the use of a fairing, aerodynamics have deteriorated significantly. Although the 75 mm VK 7.5 gun had excellent ballistics and could destroy any Soviet tanks, the increase in takeoff weight and drag had the most negative effect on flight data. The maximum flight speed decreased to 300 km / h, and immediately after the shot it dropped to 250 km / h.


German sources claim that the anti-tank capabilities of the Hs 129B-3/Wa were very high, in connection with which this aircraft was nicknamed "Can Opener" (Buchsenoffner) by the flight and technical staff. However, according to archival data, before the cessation of production of all variants of the Hs 129 in September 1944, only 25 attack aircraft armed with 75-mm guns were built, and several more machines were converted from Hs 129B-2.

Tank destroyers based on the Ju 88 bomber


In the initial period of the war, Ju 88s often attacked Soviet troops from a strafing flight. However, after the strengthening of the Soviet military air defense, the pilots of fairly large twin-engine bombers ceased to carry out bombing and assault strikes from low altitudes.

At the final stage of the war against the advancing Soviet troops, the enemy tried to use the Ju 88C heavy night fighters, which were built on the basis of the Ju 88А-5 bomber.


Heavy fighter Ju 88С-2

Heavy Ju 88C fighters had frontal armored glass and nose armor that protected against 12,7 mm bullets fired from a distance of more than 400 m. Armament on different modifications could vary greatly. Offensive armament usually consisted of several 20 mm cannons and 7,92 mm machine guns. On external nodes it was possible to hang up to 1 kg of bombs. The maximum speed near the ground was 500 km / h. Practical range - 490 km.

In the middle of 1943, combat tests of an experimental batch of Ju 88P-1 anti-tank attack aircraft took place in the central sector of the front. A total of 18 aircraft of this modification were built.


Ju 88P-1

Heavy attack aircraft Ju 88P-1 carried a 75 mm Pak anti-tank gun. 40L with a barrel length of 46 calibers, equipped with an effective muzzle brake and adapted for installation on an aircraft. A 7,92 mm MG 81 machine gun was used to zero in the guns. The rear hemisphere was protected by two twin MG 81Zs, in the lower and upper defensive installations. The crew of the car consisted of three people.

A semi-automatic gun with a horizontal wedge gate was reloaded manually. The rate of fire of the 75-mm cannon was low; during the attack, the pilot managed to fire no more than 2 shots. For firing from a 75-mm aircraft gun, the entire range of ammunition for the Pak.40 anti-tank gun could be used.


The cannon and large fairing greatly increased the drag of the Ju 88R-1, making the aircraft very difficult to fly and vulnerable to fighters. The maximum speed near the ground decreased to 390 km / h. The gondola with the gun could be dropped using pyrotechnic devices in an extreme situation, for example, in the event of failure of one of the engines.

Apparently, the tests of heavy attack aircraft Ju 88P-1, armed with a 75-mm gun, were not very successful, and an order for the construction of a large batch was not followed. In Germany, work was also underway to create assault versions of the Ju 88, equipped with guns with automated reloading: with two 37 mm VK 3.7 cannons or one 75 mm VK 7.5.

However, at the beginning of 1944, the Ju 88Р-4 aircraft with the "intermediate" 50-mm VK 5 gun went into production.


50 mm VK 5 aircraft gun

The aviation 50-mm automatic gun was created by alteration from the tank semi-automatic gun KwK 39 with a vertical wedge breech and a barrel length of 60 calibers. The gun was powered from a closed metal tape. The ammunition load was 21 rounds. The projectile was sent using an electro-pneumatic mechanism. The rate of fire reached 45 rds / min. The gun had high armor penetration. At a distance of 500 meters, an armor-piercing projectile weighing 2 g, which flew out of the barrel at a speed of 040 m / s, pierced 835-mm armor at an encounter angle of 60 °. A projectile with a hard-alloy core weighing 60 g and an initial velocity of 900 m/s under the same conditions could penetrate 1-mm armor.

Thus, an attack aircraft armed with a 50-mm gun could theoretically fight medium tanks, attacking them from any direction, and heavy tanks were vulnerable to fire from the stern and side. The reliability of the artillery system was high, but it turned out to be very heavy and weighed about 540 kg.

Heavy anti-tank attack aircraft based on the Ju 88 were built a little - no more than 40 units. Apparently, this number included prototypes and aircraft converted from other modifications. The small number of attack aircraft with heavy artillery weapons is largely due to the narrow specialization of these aircraft, on which only pilots with a high level of training could successfully fight.

Due to the small number of Ju 88Ps produced, it is difficult to assess their real combat effectiveness. Battlefield aircraft with 50–75 mm cannons could have effectively operated in the initial period of the war, but then the main tasks of destroying ground targets were successfully solved by dive bombers and fighter-bombers. After the Germans lost air supremacy and the multiple growth of the power of the Soviet tank armies, the Ju 88P attack aircraft, appearing over the battlefield during the day, were doomed to heavy losses.

Fighter-bombers and attack aircraft based on the Fw 190 fighter


The Ju 87 dive bombers and attack aircraft, which were the main striking force of the Luftwaffe in the initial period of the war, were an excellent blitzkrieg aircraft when exposed to the defense line and close rear areas, but they turned out to be too vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire and, with the loss of unconditional air supremacy, could not perform a combat mission without fighter cover. After realizing that the war was dragging on, the German military leadership came to understand that the front needed a tenacious high-speed strike aircraft with powerful built-in weapons and a decent bomb load, capable of holding its own in aerial combat if necessary.

In 1939, the Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH created the Fw 190 fighter, which appeared on the Soviet-German front in September 1942. Due to the lack of high-speed bombers in the Luftwaffe capable of operating in the daytime without fighter escort, Fw 1943G fighter-bombers were produced from the spring of 190, designed to deliver bombing strikes at ranges up to 600 km.


Fw 190G-3 with 300 liter tanks and 500 kg bomb

To reduce take-off weight and be able to take on more fuel, the fighter-bombers had almost no armor, no machine guns, and the ammunition load of two 20-mm cannons was reduced to 150 rounds per gun. Dropped fuel tanks were suspended under the wing. Since the aircraft of the Fw 190G-8 modification could take 1-kg bombs, the landing gear of the aircraft was strengthened.

Although the Fw 190G fighter-bombers did not have special large-caliber cannon armament and were not armored, they were often used to attack Soviet tanks. At the same time, the bombs were dropped from a gentle dive in a volley, after which they left at maximum speed with a decrease. For attacks on armored vehicles, cassettes with SD 4-HL cumulative bombs were often used.

The fighter-bomber versions of the Fw 190 had a significantly larger bomb load than the assault ones. But due to the increased takeoff weight, the Fw 190G could not operate with a full load from unpaved airfields.

At the final stage of the war, assault modifications of the Fw 190 fighter were used to provide close air support and fight tanks. Even without additional armor, the Fw 190 pilot was covered in front by a fairly tenacious air-cooled radial engine, and powerful built-in small arms and cannon weapons made it possible to effectively strike at ground goals.

The first variant specially adapted for assault operations was the Fw 190A-3/U3. On this aircraft, the cockpit canopy was made of armored glass 50 mm thick. A bomb rack was installed under the fuselage for the suspension of one 500-kg or 250-kg, two 100-kg or four 50-kg bombs. The built-in armament consisted of two MG 17 rifle-caliber machine guns in the fuselage and two MG 151/20 cannons in the wing.


Fw 190A-3/U3

Due to the need to act in conditions of strong anti-aircraft resistance, armor protection was strengthened. The aircraft of the next shock modification Fw 190A-4/U3 had an increased power engine, and the total armor weight reached 138 kg. The pilot was covered by an 8 mm armored back and a sliding 13,5 mm armored head. Rear cab protection was provided by an additional armored partition.

To reduce the vulnerability of the oil cooler, two armored rings were installed on the front of the engine hood. However, this was not enough, and on the Fw 190A-5 / U3 modification, the armor weight was increased to 310 kg. On the sides and bottom, the cockpit and the lower part of the engine were covered with sheets of armored steel 5–6 mm thick.

In April 1943, the technical department of the Ministry of Aviation, in order to avoid confusion and in connection with the need to distinguish between fighter, fighter-bomber and assault modifications, introduced a new designation system. The attack aircraft were assigned the index "F", the index "G" was given to fighter-bombers. Accordingly, the Fw 190A-4/U3 was designated Fw 190F-1 and the Fw 190A-5/U3 was renamed Fw 190F-2.

The shock versions of the Fw 190 were mainly equipped with 14-cylinder air-cooled BMW-801C / D engines. During production, the engine was constantly improved, and the developed power increased from 1 to 560 hp. With. In May 1, the Fw 700F-1943 with a 190 hp BMW 3D-801 engine went into production. With. Thanks to a more powerful engine and improved aerodynamics, the maximum speed of the aircraft increased by 2 km/h compared to the previous modification.


Fw 190F-3

In general, this aircraft was quite successful and had good performance. With a maximum takeoff weight of 4 kg, taking into account the bomb load, the flight range was 925 km. With one 530-kg bomb, the Fw 250F-190 accelerated to 3 km/h in level flight. After dropping the bomb load, the aircraft could develop a speed of up to 585 km / h in level flight. Having bombed, he had a good chance to break away from the Soviet fighters.


The first assault modifications of the Fw 190 had good security and good flight data. But by the standards of 1943, the built-in small arms and cannon weapons were no longer powerful enough. The Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft, created on the basis of the Fw 190A-8 fighter, received a 13-mm MG 131 instead of rifle-caliber machine guns.


Fw 190F-8: 59 kg bombs are suspended under the planes, 500 kg under the fuselage

The bomb load could reach 700 kg. On the modification of the Fw 190F-8 / R3, the wing nodes had the possibility of hanging two 30-mm MK 103 cannons.


Fw 190F-8/R3

The introduction of 30-mm guns into the armament increased the anti-tank potential. The armor penetration of 30 mm shells without a carbide core was quite enough for the confident destruction of lightly armored vehicles, but certain tactics were required to combat the T-34.

The best option was to attack the tank from the stern, at an angle of about 30–40 °. That is, not too flat, but not cool, so as to easily get out of the dive after the attack. Taking into account the fact that the aircraft quickly accelerated in a dive and sagged heavily when exiting it, it was necessary to carefully control the height and speed of the flight.

In parallel with the growth of capabilities in terms of combating armored vehicles, the flight data of an attack aircraft with suspended 30-mm guns fell. The increase in drag did not allow the aircraft to be accelerated in level flight to a speed of more than 610 km/h. The weight of each MK 103 cannon with ammunition was close to 200 kg, and their placement on the wing made the aircraft "thoughtful" when performing maneuvers. In addition, for effective shooting at tanks, it was necessary to have a high flight qualification.

There are three variants of outboard installations with 30-mm MK 103 guns, differing in size, shape of the fairing and muzzle brake.


30-mm cannon MK 103 under the wing of an attack aircraft Fw 190F-8/R3

During the development of the Fw 190F-8 / R3 weapons, an attack aircraft with an increased ammunition load of 30-mm cannons was tested (according to some reports, up to 50 rounds). But such a suspended gondola turned out to be too cumbersome, and this option was abandoned.

During the serial production of the Fw 190F attack aircraft, an increase in their security was observed. But the planes, heavily armored, hopelessly lost in air battles to Soviet fighters. It is known that all Fw 190s developed high speed at the peak, and often the only trick that allowed you to get out of the battle was a dive, but this required a reserve of height. Subsequently, the armor of the attack aircraft was reduced to a minimum according to the type of Fw 190A-8 fighters, thereby increasing flight data. A notable innovation that appeared in the second half of 1944 was the extended cockpit canopy. This made it possible to improve forward and downward visibility, which was very important when attacking ground targets.

The latest serial assault modification was the Fw 190F-9 with a boosted BMW 801TS engine with a power of 2 hp. with., capable of developing a speed of 000 km / h in horizontal flight. The armament of the attack aircraft remained at the level of the Fw 685F-190. Externally, the aircraft was distinguished by an enlarged cockpit canopy. Due to the acute shortage of duralumin, on some of the machines the tail, flaps and ailerons were wooden.

"Focke-Wulf" with built-in standard weapons could not become a full-fledged tank destroyer. With the exception of a few Fw 190F-8/R3s, all assault variants were inferior to the Hs 129B-2. In this regard, German designers tried to equip attack aircraft with a special anti-tank weaponsplaced on external hangers.

In addition to the already mentioned AB-250 and AB-500 bomb cassettes equipped with SD 4-HL cumulative bombs, the Fw 190F arsenal included various rockets.

The first type of rocket armament used was the 210 mm rocket, known as the Wfr. Gr. 21 Doedel (Wurframmen Granate 21). This ammunition was developed on the basis of a rocket-propelled mine from a five-barreled 210-mm rocket mortar Nb. W. 42 (21 cm Nebelwerfer 42).

The launch of an aviation rocket was carried out from a tubular type guide 1,3 m long. The guides were fixed in slots for external fuel tanks. Like tanks, they could be dropped in flight. The stabilization of the projectile on the trajectory occurred due to rotation. The rocket projectile weighed 112,6 kg, of which 41 kg fell on a fragmentation warhead containing more than 10 kg of an alloy of TNT with RDX. At a maximum speed of 320 m / s, the effective launch range did not exceed 1 meters.


Wfr equipment. Gr. 21 launchers on Fw 190

Initially, the Wfr. Gr. 21 was used to shoot at a dense formation of heavy bombers. Fw 190 took 1-2 rockets under the wing. Attempts were also made to use 210-mm rockets from attack aircraft. These missiles showed good results against troop concentrations and other area targets, but large-caliber rockets turned out to be of little use for hitting point moving objects. They gave too much dispersion, and the number of missiles on board was limited.

Unsuccessful were attempts to use 280-mm high-explosive rocket mines Wfr against tanks. Gr. 28, the warhead of which contained 45,4 kg of explosives. Launchers in the form of a welded metal frame in the amount of two to four were suspended under the wing of the Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft.


280 mm underwing mine Fw 190F-8

The adaptation of a rocket-propelled mine, intended for firing at areas from a ground-based launcher, as an aviation ammunition was initially doomed to failure. When fired, a heavy reactive mine gave a strong drawdown, which had to be taken into account when aiming. The suspension of the bulky launcher had a negative effect on the flight data of the attack aircraft. When launched from a distance of less than 300 meters, there was a real danger of running into their own fragments.

In 1944, specialists from the Czech company Československá Zbrojovka Brno were able to do what the USSR failed to do. On the basis of the Soviet aviation rocket RS-82, a fairly effective anti-tank aviation missile R-HL Panzerblitz 1 (German - tank lightning) was created. It had characteristics close to the Soviet prototype, but the firing accuracy was significantly higher than that of the RS-82. The electric fuse was placed on one of the leading belts, which made the rocket more reliable.

The rocket projectile weighed 7,24 kg. Speed ​​- up to 374 m / s. The warhead used was an 88 mm HEAT warhead RPzB Gr. 4322 weighing 2,1 kg from the Panzerschreck RPG. Armor penetration at a meeting angle of 60 ° was 160 mm.


For the use of Panzerblitz 1 from October 1944, 115 Fw 190F-8 / Pb1 attack aircraft were equipped with beam launchers. 12-16 missiles were suspended for each aircraft. The best result was achieved with a salvo launch of six missiles. From a distance of 300 meters, on average, one hit the target.

Another specialized anti-tank missile was the R4 / M-HL Panzerblitz 2, created on the basis of the aviation 55-mm NAR R4M Orkan. The new NAR differed from the basic version in the warhead of the cumulative grenade RPzB Gr. 4322. The missiles were suspended on beam-type guides.


Anti-tank missile R4/M-HL Panzerblitz 2

The stabilization of the rocket after launch was carried out by folding feather stabilizers. The curb weight was 5,37 kg, the mass of the warhead was 2,1 kg. Speed ​​- 370 m / s. Firing range - up to 1 m.

The Panzerblitz 2 missiles demonstrated high combat effectiveness. When salvoed from a distance of 300 m, twelve NAR 1–2 fit into a circle with a diameter of 7 m. In 1945, another version of this missile, known as the Panzerblitz 3, appeared, with a smaller caliber warhead and increased flight speed. But, despite some success in the creation of anti-tank unguided missiles, they appeared too late. In the context of the overwhelming superiority of Soviet aviation, a few attack aircraft equipped with anti-tank missiles did not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities.

In general, the creation of shock variants of the Fw 190 justified itself. Although the Fw 190G fighter-bombers could not be compared with the Ju 87 dive bombers in terms of bombing accuracy, and the assault modifications were inferior to the Hs 190B-8 in terms of the power of artillery weapons, with the exception of a few Fw 3F-129 / R2, the Focke-Wulf became a universal flying platform, which, depending on the version of weapons, could solve various problems.

In total, during the war years, about 20 Fw 000s of all modifications were built, about half of them are attack aircraft and fighter-bombers. The priorities are displayed very interestingly, according to which the German command distributed various options in the theater. On the Western Front and in the air defense of Germany, fighters were mainly involved, and on the Eastern Front, about 190/2 of the Fw 3 were attack.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Soviet aviation anti-tank weapons of the period of the Second World War
German anti-tank aircraft used 1941–1943
69 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 2 November 2022 05: 29
    +9
    Hmm ... what what the gloomy Teutonic genius of war did not come up with ... every time you learn something new.
    I thank the author for the informative article. hi
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 2 November 2022 06: 07
      +5
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      what the gloomy Teutonic genius of war did not come up with
      Yeah, what will you say when the author writes about "Shrage Music". laughing

      At the same time, it was necessary to very accurately monitor the height of the compartment of the bomb cassette, since the accuracy of bombing and the magnitude of bomb dispersion directly depended on this. The experience of combat use of cassettes has shown that they are quite difficult to use.

      The reverse side of the famous German thoughtfulness of trifles. Often it came out too confusing.

      This was due to both the complexity of use and the longer preparation for a sortie compared to other German types of bombs.
      But this is much faster than hanging a lot of bombs in the bomb bays of the Il-2, because the cassette can also be equipped during the departure of the aircraft.


      In 1944, specialists from the Czech company Československá Zbrojovka Brno were able to do what the USSR failed to do. On the basis of the Soviet aviation rocket RS-82, a fairly effective anti-tank aircraft missile R-HL Panzerblitz 1 (German - tank lightning) was created
      . In fairness, ours did not really bother with the anti-tank capabilities of air missiles.

      Quote: Lech from Android.
      I thank the author for the informative article.
      Join us!
    2. iouris
      iouris 2 November 2022 11: 24
      -4
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      what the gloomy Teutonic genius just didn’t come up with

      It should be noted that this did not help. Stalin's genius turned out to be more powerful: order beats class.
  2. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 2 November 2022 05: 41
    +8
    Thanks Sergey for an interesting article. At a time when all eyes are on Ukraine, it's hard to draw attention to other topics.
    But you did it! drinks
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 November 2022 06: 56
      +10
      I fully join! good
      And, which is typical, Sergey always succeeds. drinks

      Igor, hello! smile I am surprised how the Germans had not yet adapted the "Faustpatron" and "Pazershrek" to the underwing suspension by the end of the war. laughing
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 2 November 2022 07: 31
        +7
        They adapted. Packs of 3 tubes!
        There is a photo in "tyrnet".
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 2 November 2022 08: 32
          +4
          So drag it here! smile

          Hi Aleksey! drinks
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 2 November 2022 09: 27
            +3
            I have a hard time uploading photos from my phone! crying
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 November 2022 10: 02
              +7
              I found only such a photo, but this, in my opinion, is "Fieseler Storch".

              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 November 2022 10: 08
                +4
                but this, in my opinion, is "Fieseler Storch".
                This is not "Storch".
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 November 2022 10: 44
                  +3
                  This is not "Storch".


                  And hto? belay

                  PS The text of your comment is too short and, in the opinion of the site administration, does not contain useful information. wassat
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 2 November 2022 10: 47
                    +6
                    I can’t say, but the Storch is a high-wing strut.
                  2. Foul skeptic
                    Foul skeptic 2 November 2022 11: 09
                    +5
                    Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann in C-3 variant
                    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%BCcker_B%C3%BC_181_Bestmann
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 2 November 2022 11: 22
                      +5
                      You are right, Timur. hi

                      Thanks for the clarification. It turned out - a Frenchman, and I was looking among the Czechs. request
                      1. Foul skeptic
                        Foul skeptic 2 November 2022 11: 40
                        +5
                        Why French?
                        Development - Germany. Production for the needs of Germany - Germany, Holland, Czech Republic.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 2 November 2022 12: 01
                        +5
                        I jumped, read the description of the aircraft according to the model exhibited at the Museum in Le Bourget. laughing
                        Again the night was without acquaintance with the pillow, do not judge strictly. request
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 2 November 2022 09: 31
            +7
            I miscalculated crying
            Here is the information -
            “Four lightweight Panzerschreck RPzB.54 / 1 grenade launchers were hung on standard ETC-50 or ETC-70 bomb racks of the FW-190 fighter and tested at the beginning of 1944. It turned out that in order to successfully launch shells, the attacking aircraft had to move from strictly with a limited speed of about 490 km / h, otherwise the missile would go astray and there was no question of an aimed salvo. To withstand such a high speed near the ground and at the same time launch missiles some one and a half hundred meters from the target was on the shoulder only real aces, otherwise the ordinary pilot risked not having time to turn away from the target.
            "The fakir was drunk and the trick failed."
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 November 2022 09: 56
              +7
              But still they tried! The "gloomy Teutonic genius" did not doze off. wink
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 2 November 2022 11: 42
                +6

                Soviet hand-held anti-tank cumulative grenades also had parachutes and ribbon tails for a stable flight towards the enemy.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 November 2022 12: 03
                  +6
                  Do you think they got infected from the Teutons? wink laughing
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 2 November 2022 12: 32
                    +6
                    Historical documents are silent about this, but nothing can be ruled out ...
                  2. hohol95
                    hohol95 2 November 2022 12: 32
                    +4
                    Historical documents are silent about this, but nothing can be ruled out ...
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 2 November 2022 12: 37
                      +4
                      Yes, everything is possible, and the famous baron also served in our army, perhaps the "infection" has gone. laughing
                  3. Bongo
                    2 November 2022 13: 31
                    +11
                    Hello Kostya! For the second time in a week, my article came out when I was on duty during the day. Therefore, it is not possible to join the discussion in a timely manner. request
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Do you think they got infected from the Teutons?


                    Cumulative anti-tank grenade Panzerwurfmine
                    An almost complete analogue under the designation RPG-6 has been produced in the USSR since 1943.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 2 November 2022 13: 36
                      +7
                      Hello Sergey! drinks
                      You would have thrown off your work schedule to them, because it is in their own interests that people walk around the site more actively and communicate more. Although ... it’s not for me to give advice here, I’m not strong in these matters. request
                      1. Bongo
                        2 November 2022 13: 59
                        +8
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        You would have thrown off your work schedule to them, because it is in their own interests that people walk around the site more actively and communicate more.

                        Two, two ... if there are no force majeure. But in recent times, solid force majeure. I worked yesterday and today, tomorrow and the day after tomorrow I rest. If the weather does not deteriorate, I will go with my son while he is on vacation and take a walk in the forest with a gun.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 2 November 2022 14: 21
                        +6
                        Good luck to you and your son and good mood! good

                        Hello Olga from me. love
                      3. Bongo
                        2 November 2022 14: 35
                        +6
                        Kostya, thank you very much! Luck never hurts!
                        Olya, hi to you too!
                    2. hohol95
                      hohol95 2 November 2022 21: 06
                      +2
                      To put it mildly, the German infantry did not like this grenade.
                      It was shortened, lightened and the canvas stabilizer was replaced with a canvas tape (in my opinion, a bit like the tape of the Soviet RPG-43).
                      And they called this version of the grenade simply and clearly in German - "Kurz".
                    3. Alien From
                      Alien From 8 November 2022 02: 26
                      0
                      I thank the author, I always read and study your articles with interest! hi
        2. Toucan
          Toucan 2 November 2022 08: 34
          +5
          Quote: hohol95
          They adapted. Packs of 3 tubes!
          There is a photo in "tyrnet".

          Due to the insufficient firing range, this option did not advance further than the tests.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 2 November 2022 09: 37
            +6
            Everyone wants to get "Stone Flower" at low cost.
            Yes, not everyone "goes out" ...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 November 2022 11: 24
              +6
              I found another photo with the "flying" Faust, I don’t know how it is there, maybe just American humor? request
              1. Foul skeptic
                Foul skeptic 2 November 2022 12: 03
                +7
                I don’t know how it is there, maybe just American humor?

                Rather, a misunderstanding of the principle of using the German Panzerwurfmine anti-tank grenade when the American army first met it.
                The Americans collected information from the troops about what the soldiers had to deal with in the database zone, summarized and published in the form of "Intelligence Bulletins" in order to turn private experience into general knowledge. Your picture is just from such a bulletin. By the way, I recommend reading, very interesting
                https://openlibrary.org/books/OL25899620M/Intelligence_Bulletin

                Although the fact that the stabilizers are spring-loaded and open themselves during the throw, the Americans knew much earlier than November 1944 - here is the description of Bulletin # 59 german hand- & riflegrenades, Mar.7 1944
                Operation: Before throwing, the cap over the end of the handle is pulled off and the fins held against the handle. When the grenade is thrown, the four fins fly out because of their spring ribs. When the clip attached to one fin is pulled away from the housing, this releases the tape which unwinds and pulls the safety pin out of the striker. During flight the safety balls move in freeing the striker which compresses the creep spring on impact setting off the primer, detonator, gaine and main filling.

                Exploitation: Before throwing, the cap at the end of the handle is removed, and the fins are pressed against the handle. When throwing a grenade, four plumage fly out due to spring ribs...
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 November 2022 12: 12
                  +2
                  The infection does not want to translate and I do not understand why.
  3. navycat777
    navycat777 2 November 2022 05: 44
    +3
    Unlike the USSR, Germany did not immediately understand the need for an attack aircraft to support the troops, but with the realization of this fact, they set to work systematically.
  4. Luminman
    Luminman 2 November 2022 06: 25
    +1
    Quote from: navycat777
    Germany did not immediately understand the need for an attack aircraft

    But what about Yu-87 and Yu-88?
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 2 November 2022 06: 40
      +5
      Quote: Luminman
      Quote from: navycat777
      Germany did not immediately understand the need for an attack aircraft

      But what about Yu-87 and Yu-88?

      These are bombers. Obviously it's about armored attack aircraft.
      1. gsev
        gsev Today, 05: 58
        +1
        Quote: Tucan
        Это бомбардировщики. Очевидно речь идёт о бронированных штурмовиках.

        Пикирующий бомбардировщик намного эффективнее штурмовика. В пикировании точнее кладет бомбы, меньше времени находится под обстрелом малокалиберной артиллерии и зенитных пулеметов, меньше несет брони и соответственно больше бросает на противника боезапаса при расходе одинакового количества бензина. Имеет большую скорость, его проще прикрыть истребителями, которые при его прикрытии летят на более экономичной скорости и не вынуждены или снижать скорость подстраиваясь под штурмовики или идти змейкой, чтобы быть готовым встретить истребители противника на удобной для боя скорости.
  5. novel66
    novel66 2 November 2022 07: 32
    +7
    Sergei hi . delight as always good Baryatinsky said everything about tanks .... aviation is waiting for you! yes
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 13: 33
      +5
      Roman, welcome!
      Quote: novel xnumx
      Baryatinsky said everything about tanks .... aviation is waiting for you!

      Compared to Baryatinsky, I am a pitiful amateur! And I don’t have the opportunity to work in archives. Maybe in the next life...
      1. novel66
        novel66 2 November 2022 13: 56
        +4
        Compared to Baryatinsky, I am a pitiful amateur!

        I, as a reader, have the opportunity to compare, and declare a strong protest!
        1. Bongo
          2 November 2022 14: 40
          +5
          Quote: novel xnumx
          I, as a reader, have the opportunity to compare, and declare a strong protest!

          Roman, I immediately remembered a joke:
          -Lieutenant Rzhevsky, do you like children?
          -Not! But the process itself ... yes !!!

          So do I, I like the process. And I try to write in such a way that others would be pleased. But it's just a hobby, nothing more.
  6. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 2 November 2022 08: 20
    +2
    Aircraft for various purposes were modernized, modernized, but never modernized ..
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 2 November 2022 08: 41
    +4
    Good article. kudos to the author.
    In 1944, specialists from the Czech company Československá Zbrojovka Brno were able to do what the USSR failed to do.
    That. that the Czechs sincerely worked for the Reich does not surprise anyone. But did we set the task of finalizing the RS-82 to an anti-tank version?
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 13: 36
      +6
      Hello!
      Quote: Aviator_
      That. that the Czechs sincerely worked for the Reich does not surprise anyone. But did we set the task of finalizing the RS-82 to an anti-tank version?

      Sorry for the tautology, but let me quote myself from the publication Soviet aviation anti-tank weapons of the period of the Second World War:
      In the second half of 1942, RBSK-82 cumulative rockets were tested, which showed armor penetration up to 50 mm along the normal. In most cases, armor penetration was accompanied by metal spalling around the exit hole. The test commission came to the conclusion that low armor penetration is a consequence of the unsatisfactory operation of the fuse, and the formation of a cumulative jet occurred after the deformation of the cone. It was recommended to finalize the fuses and submit shells for re-testing. Due to the fact that mass production of small-sized cumulative bombs began in 1943, RBSK-82 shells were not put into service.

      The task was set, but after the appearance of PTAB, it became irrelevant. hi
  8. Foul skeptic
    Foul skeptic 2 November 2022 09: 10
    +6
    The armor penetration of the SD 4-HL at an angle of 60° was 60 mm, which was quite sufficient to penetrate thin upper armor.

    A phrase that is reprinted from article to article in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet. I wonder who was first? German sources give other figures
    http://michaelhiske.de/Wehrmacht/Luft/Luft/LDV_4200/SERIE_D/Blatt_04.HTM
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 13: 52
      +7
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      A phrase that is reprinted from article to article in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet.

      I confess that I did not dig deeply regarding SD 4-HL.
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      I wonder who was first?

      The first time I touched on German aviation weapons was more than 5 years ago.
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      German sources give other figures

      In any case, I deeply appreciate your scrupulousness. One of my main motives for "writing" is to encourage readers to think for themselves. hi
  9. iouris
    iouris 2 November 2022 11: 31
    -7
    The author should have more often recalled what topic he undertook to sculpt the article on: anti-tank aviation. Firstly, it is often "carried" and the main idea is drowned. Secondly, strictly speaking, no one had "anti-tank aviation". Thirdly, not all developments reach wide application, especially during the war, especially at the final stage of a lost war.
    "The subject of my lecture is the fruitful opening idea. What, comrades, is a debut, and what, comrades, is an idea? A debut, comrades, is "Quasi una fantasia". And what, comrades, does an idea mean? An idea, comrades, is "human thought, dressed in a logical chess form. Even with insignificant forces, you can master the entire board. It all depends on each individual individually. For example, that blond guy in the third row. Suppose he plays well..." ("Twelve Chairs")
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 13: 43
      +9
      Quote: iouris
      The author should...

      If I suddenly need advice on what I should do, then I will definitely turn to you! In general, you have a unique chance, you can demonstrate to VO readers how to write. Good luck!
      1. novel66
        novel66 2 November 2022 14: 00
        +7
        here, from the above, another quote is requested!
        “Tell us,” a certain strict citizen from among those who recognized Soviet power a little later than England and a little earlier than Greece asked us, “tell me, why do you write funny? What kind of laughter in the reconstruction period? Are you crazy?
  10. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 2 November 2022 12: 11
    +1
    In translation: Xe129 and Yu88, inconvenient, complex and expensive, FV190 ran well, but did not hit. The attack aircraft needs low speed and armor, while low cost and mass character, the Germans could not do any of this throughout the war: at first it was not necessary, but at the end it was too late.
  11. mihaylov
    mihaylov 2 November 2022 12: 31
    +5
    Good day, Sergey,
    But is there any data from Soviet statistics on the defeat of tanks by enemy aircraft?
    after all, commissions "for study" worked periodically. hi
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 13: 48
      +6
      Sergey, welcome!
      In fact, the loss of tanks from aviation, which we have, that the Germans, as a rule, did not exceed 5-10%. But sometimes there were more than 20%. A lot depended on the specific circumstances, on the type of aircraft, the weapons used, the skill of the pilots, the terrain, weather conditions, etc.
      1. mihaylov
        mihaylov 2 November 2022 14: 28
        +5
        Quote: Bongo
        In fact, the loss of tanks from aviation, which we have, that the Germans, as a rule, did not exceed 5-10%.

        It would be interesting to see such data, I understand that 50mm and 75mm cannons are quite effective (although how did they fly with this at all), but how effective are 37mm cannons against the same "thirty-fours"?
        1. Luminman
          Luminman 2 November 2022 14: 38
          +4
          how effective are 37mm guns against the same "thirty-fours"?

          Top armor, even today, is the weakest spot in a tank...
          1. mihaylov
            mihaylov 2 November 2022 14: 41
            +5
            Quote: Luminman
            Top armor, even today, is the weakest spot in a tank...

            I understand this, but getting into the engine compartment from an airplane is another task!
            Therefore, I am interested in whether there is such statistics, and it is likely to be.
            1. Luminman
              Luminman 2 November 2022 14: 45
              +4
              getting into the engine compartment from an airplane is another task!

              When Germany was at the zenith of its glory and it had enough resources, Goering's falcons learned how to shoot from the air at balloons tied to high sticks on the ground ...

              I don't know about statistics. She definitely has...
        2. Bongo
          2 November 2022 14: 43
          +7
          Quote: Mihaylov
          It would be interesting to see such data, I understand that 50mm and 75mm cannons are quite effective (although how did they fly with this at all), but how effective are 37mm cannons against the same "thirty-fours"?

          Quite effective, they used a powerful shot from a 37-mm anti-aircraft gun. In any case, in terms of armor penetration, they were higher than our NS-37. The main difficulty was getting in.
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 2 November 2022 14: 40
      +4
      In the responses of the commissions, sometimes there is a strange breakdown: artillery, aviation, mines, and for some reason separately "burned out"
      1. mihaylov
        mihaylov 2 November 2022 14: 42
        +6
        Quote: Engineer
        for some reason separately "burned out"

        Probably it was not possible to establish the cause.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 2 November 2022 14: 46
          +5
          In my opinion, at least in one place the column "not installed" also appeared.
          1. mihaylov
            mihaylov 2 November 2022 14: 50
            +5
            Quote: Engineer
            In my opinion, at least in one place the column "not installed" also appeared.

            Probably art dominated by a wide margin?
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 2 November 2022 14: 51
              +5
              Yes. dominated.
              Although it is possible that some of the aircraft destroyed by cannons were credited to artillery.
  12. certero
    certero 2 November 2022 13: 31
    +4
    Most anti-tank aircraft were used only on the eastern front. because on the western superiority of the allies in the sky it was overwhelming and there were no chances for such aircraft to do something.
    But the huge number of Wehrmacht anti-tank aircraft clearly shows how important the role played by the tank unit of the Red Army in the victory
  13. Wildcat
    Wildcat 2 November 2022 23: 52
    +5
    hi
    As always, a quality article!

    The Ju 87 dive bombers and attack aircraft, which were the main striking force of the Luftwaffe in the initial period of the war, were an excellent blitzkrieg aircraft when exposed to the defense line and close rear areas, but they turned out to be too vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire and, with the loss of unconditional air supremacy, could not perform a combat mission without fighter cover.

    Rudel wrote about the second half of the war even "brighter", so to speak: "The spectacle of this mass of tanks reminds me of my aircraft from the experimental squadron, armed with cannons, which I took with me from the Crimea. When there are so many enemy tanks below, you can try to check it again. True, the anti-aircraft defense covering the Soviet tanks is very strong, ... After the first day, the mechanics have a lot to do, because almost all the planes are damaged by anti-aircraft fire. The life of such an aircraft is short.
    ...
    After a while, the Soviets manage to cope with our air anti-tank attacks quite successfully. If possible, they move their anti-aircraft assets along with the forward tanks. ... Many of us have the same thought: “Now that the old people are leaving one by one, I can tell exactly when it will be my turn just by looking at the calendar.”. Everyone is waiting for the end, sooner or later, we are all waiting, and failures do not leave us. Living in constant danger promotes fatalism and a certain insensitivity.....
    ...
    My gunner non-commissioned officer Rothman carries me in his arms to the plane. Six sorties to exhaustion in the morning, then three in the afternoon. It's terrible weather. Strong anti-aircraft fire. Almost after every sortie, I have to change aircraft because of the damage caused by anti-aircraft guns. I really feel bad.
    "
  14. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 3 November 2022 21: 57
    +3
    Shalom Sergey and hello Olechka. As always, I liked it very much, thank you.
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 4 November 2022 11: 20
      +3
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      Shalom Sergey and hello Olechka. As always, I liked it very much, thank you.

      Andrey, hello! Thanks for the kind words!
      Seryozha will be here tomorrow, he has gone hunting.
      1. merkava-2bet
        merkava-2bet 4 November 2022 14: 36
        +2
        Happy hunting and may Akela not miss.