Military Review

German anti-tank aircraft used 1941–1943

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German anti-tank aircraft used 1941–1943

Within the framework of the German concept of lightning war, shock aviation was considered one of the main tools designed to ensure the rapid defeat of the enemy. The tasks of destroying enemy troops (including armored vehicles) in the front line, on the battlefield and destroying enemy communications at the initial stage of hostilities were assigned to Bf 109E single-engine fighters, Bf 110 heavy fighters, Hs 123 attack aircraft and Ju 87 dive bombers. along the front line of the Soviet defense and objects in the rear, the German command often also used Ju 88 twin-engine dive bombers.


Attack aircraft Hs 123


In Soviet memoirs dedicated to the Great Patriotic War, there are rare references to the German attack aircraft and dive bomber Hs 123. Although these aircraft were built a little - only about 250 units, they actively fought until the second half of 1943 and even participated in the battles near Kursk. Archaic by the standards of the early 1940s, the biplane turned out to be in great demand, and the machines that survived the battles flew to the point of complete wear and tear.


Hs 123A-1

The biplane Hs 123 did not look very presentable against the background of fast-moving monoplanes, but it had very good data in its class. With a normal takeoff weight of 2 kg, the Henschel carried 215 kg of bombs. The combat radius of action at the same time was 200 km - quite enough for a close air support aircraft and for operations in the near rear of the enemy.

In the case when it was necessary to work along the front line of the enemy’s defense, the bomb load could reach 450 kg (one 250-kg aerial bomb on the central hardpoint and four 50-kg bombs under the wing). Built-in weapons - two rifle-caliber machine guns. Air-cooled engine with a capacity of 880 liters. With. allowed to reach speeds of up to 340 km / h in level flight, which was close to the maximum speed of the Soviet I-15bis fighter.

The Hs 123 fuselage was made of duralumin, which made it more resistant to combat damage compared to the Soviet I-15bis and I-153 fighters, which were in service with ground attack aviation regiments in the initial period of the war. Although the Henschel pilot was initially protected by armor only from behind, the aircraft's combat survivability turned out to be so high that it earned a reputation as "indestructible". Compared to other close air support strike aircraft, the Hs 123 biplanes suffered significantly less losses from anti-aircraft fire.

The invulnerability of the assault biplane was explained not only by the all-metal construction of the airframe, but the air-cooled engine contributed to better survivability, which kept combat damage well and protected the pilot from bullets and shrapnel in front. In addition, in the initial period of the war, when German aviation dominated the battlefield, the anti-aircraft cover of the Soviet troops was frankly weak, and the main means of air defense in the front line were quadruple anti-aircraft installations based on the Maxim machine gun. The Hs 123 ground attack aircraft were valued for their ability to make sorties from muddy unpaved airfields, which other German aircraft could not do.


Under the control of experienced pilots, the attack "Henschel" proved to be a very effective strike aircraft. Due to its low flight speed and excellent maneuverability at low altitudes, the Hs 123 could drop bombs very accurately. He demonstrated the ability to equally successfully act as an attack aircraft and dive bomber. Cases have been repeatedly noted when the pilots of the Henschels managed to get 50-kg bombs into single Tanks. Although there were relatively few Hs 123s in relation to other types of combat aircraft operating on the Soviet-German front, infantry commanders of all levels noted the very high accuracy and effectiveness of their air strikes.

At the end of the summer of 1941, an attempt was made to improve the anti-tank capabilities of the Hs 123 by arming them with containers with 20 mm MG FF guns.


20-mm gun MG FF

With a relatively low weight - 28 kg, the rate of fire of the MG FF was only 530 rds / min. The initial speed of an armor-piercing incendiary projectile weighing 115 g did not exceed 600 m / s, which limited armor penetration and firing range.

Thanks to the use of high-explosive incendiary projectiles of the Minengeschoß type with a high explosive filling ratio, the upgraded 20-mm MG FF / M guns showed good effectiveness against air and ground targets that were not covered by armor, but were ineffective even against lightly armored vehicles. In all respects, except for mass, the German 20-mm cannon lost out to not the most powerful Soviet 20-mm ShVAK, and therefore, in the second half of the war, it was replaced by more powerful 20-30-mm aircraft guns.


Arming the Hs 123 with MG FF guns did not greatly increase the anti-tank potential of the vehicle, but it did increase its effectiveness against trucks and steam locomotives, which made it possible to operate more successfully on transport communications.


At the beginning of 1942, the assault biplanes that remained in service were overhauled and modernized. At the same time, the cockpit was closed with a lantern and equipped with a heater, and covered with armor from below and along the sides. To compensate for the increased takeoff weight, air-cooled engines with a capacity of 960 liters were installed on the upgraded aircraft. With. 15-mm MG 151/15 machine guns were installed in the wing of some of the vehicles, after which the anti-tank capabilities of the attack aircraft increased significantly.


15 mm machine gun MG 151/15

The body weight of the MG 151/15 machine gun reached 43 kg. Rate of fire - 700-750 rds / min.
An armor-piercing tracer 15-mm bullet weighing 72 g was accelerated in the barrel up to 850 m / s. At a range of 300 m, it normally confidently pierced 20 mm armor of medium hardness. An armor-piercing 52-g bullet with a carbide core had even greater armor penetration. After leaving the barrel, it had an initial speed of 1 m/s and under the same conditions could penetrate 030 mm armor. However, due to the acute shortage of tungsten, cartridges with sub-caliber bullets were not often used.

In 1942, Hs 123s were used in combat even on a larger scale than a year ago. To increase their numbers at the front, the aircraft were withdrawn from flight schools and rear units. Moreover, biplanes suitable for further use were collected and restored from aircraft dumps. On the Soviet-German front, the Hs 123 actively fought until the second half of 1943. Good handling and high maneuverability allowed him, acting close to the ground, to evade attacks by Soviet fighters. By the middle of the war, due to the increased power of Soviet anti-aircraft artillery, Henschel pilots tried not to go deep behind the front line, their main targets were at the forefront.

Fighter-bomber Bf 109E


By June 1941, the best German fighters were the Bf.109F ("Friedrich"), and it was these machines that were primarily thrown to gain air superiority. Aircraft of earlier modifications Bf 109E-4, E-7 and E-8 ("Emil") were inferior in terms of flight data to new models, and therefore they were mainly focused on performing strike missions. However, such a division was largely arbitrary, although specialization still took place.


Bf.109E-4 with 250 kg bomb

However, by the standards of mid-1941, the Bf.109E-4 fighter, adopted by the Luftwaffe in the spring of 1940, was a completely modern and combat-ready machine. In horizontal flight, the Bf.109E-4 accelerated to 5 km/h at an altitude of 000 m. The bomb load could reach 580 kg. The built-in armament consisted of two 250 mm MG-7,92 machine guns and two 17 mm MG FF (MG FF / M) cannons.


Aviation 20-mm gun MG FF in the wing of a fighter

The Bf.109E fighter-bombers operating on the Soviet-German front had a 6-mm steel armor plate installed behind the tank and covering the entire section of the fuselage, armored glass and the armored back of the seat. Additional 109 mm armor plates were installed on part of the Bf 4E-8, which protected the pilot from below and behind. But the use of a liquid-cooled engine and the lack of armor protection on the sides of the cabin made the Bf.109E very vulnerable even to rifle-caliber bullets.

German pilots, realizing the vulnerability of their machines, tried to attack ground targets at high speed and, in the presence of anti-aircraft cover, did not make repeated visits. But the high flight speed sharply reduced the accuracy of bombing and made it difficult to aim when firing machine guns and cannons at ground targets.

With sudden attacks of transport columns, accumulations of unhidden manpower and railway echelons, the Emil in the strike version was not bad. But, despite the solid bomb load, the anti-tank capabilities of the Bf 109E were weak. After the failure of the "blitzkrieg" and the stabilization of the front line, the effectiveness of the Bf 109E in the role of a fighter-bomber dropped sharply, while losses, on the contrary, increased. As the Soviet military air defense intensified, the high flight speed no longer guaranteed invulnerability, and the Soviet infantry stopped panicking during an air raid and more and more often fired concentrated small arms fire. weapons against low-flying enemy aircraft.

By the beginning of 1943, there were practically no Bf.109E left on the Eastern Front, and the Bf 109F and G fighters were not massively used to destroy ground targets.

Bf.110 twin-engine fighter-bombers


At the initial stage of hostilities in the east, twin-engine Bf.110 fighters were actively used to strike ground targets. The Luftwaffe command reclassified them as attack aircraft, after the inability of heavy fighters to compete with the Hurricanes and Spitfires became apparent in the Battle of Britain.


Bf 110D

Aircraft prepared for strikes against ground targets received enhanced protection. The front cockpit had 12 mm armor and 57 mm bulletproof glass, the gunner was protected by 8 mm armor. 35 mm bulletproof glass was used on the side panels of the cockpit. The thickness of the armor from below was 8–10 mm.

"Distant hunter" had good flight data. At an altitude of 4 m, the Bf 000F modification developed a speed of 110 km/h. The practical range was 560 km. An attack aircraft with such characteristics could operate quite successfully in the initial period of the war without fighter cover. Having got rid of the bombs, he had every chance to get away from the Soviet fighters. At the same time, attempts by Bf.1 pilots to conduct active air combat with single-engine fighters often ended badly for them. The heavy twin-engine Messerschmitt with a take-off weight of 200 kg was hopelessly inferior to single-engine vehicles in rate of climb and maneuverability.

Impact capabilities were high. A twin-engine fighter-bomber could carry: 2 bombs of 500 kg each and 4 bombs of 50 kg each. When finalizing the suspension units, the aircraft was able to take even 1-kg bombs, while the weight of the combat load in the reloading version could reach 000 kg. When operating on areal weakly protected targets, 2-kg bomb containers turned out to be very effective, which were equipped with 000-kg fragmentation bombs and opened after being dropped at a given height.


By the standards of 1941, the Bf 110 had powerful small arms and cannon armament. For forward firing, two 20 mm MG FF cannons and four 7,92 mm MG 17 machine guns were intended. The tail was covered by a shooter with a 7,92 mm MG 15 machine gun.

With proper use, Bf 110s operated successfully and did not suffer heavy losses. The strong and durable airframe design, armor protection and two engines made the aircraft resistant to combat damage. In any case, it was difficult to shoot down a Bf 110 with a rifle-caliber weapon. The long flight range made it possible to operate at a distance of several hundred kilometers from the front line, and a significant bomb load made it possible to hit the entire range of targets, including armored vehicles.

However, for the confident destruction of medium and heavy tanks by the fire of the built-in offensive weapons, more powerful guns were required than the 20-mm MG FF. In the winter of 1941–1942, the first fighter-bombers armed with 30 mm and 37 mm aircraft guns began to appear.


30 mm MK 101 aircraft gun

Initial tests demonstrated that the 30 mm MK 101 aircraft gun could confidently penetrate the defenses of light tanks. This gun weighed 139 kg and had a rate of fire of 230–260 rounds per minute. An armor-piercing high-explosive 30-mm projectile weighing 500 g contained 15 g of explosives and had an initial velocity of 690 m/s. At a distance of 300 m along the normal, such a projectile pierced 25 mm armor of medium hardness.

In the first half of 1942, the production of a lightweight armor-piercing projectile weighing 455 g began, which left the barrel at a speed of 760 m / s, its armor penetration under the same conditions was 32 mm. The projectile, known as Hartkernmunition (German - solid-core ammunition), weighing 355 g with a tungsten carbide core, had a muzzle velocity of more than 900 m / s. According to German data, at a distance of 300 m, when hit at a right angle, it pierced 75-80 mm armor, and at an angle of 60 ° - 45-50 mm, which already made it possible to penetrate not only light armor, but also medium, as well as heavy tanks.

However, the armored damaging effect of carbide cores, even in the event of penetration of tank armor, was very modest. As a rule, everything ended with a hole of a small diameter formed in the armor, and the tungsten carbide core itself crumbled into powder after breaking through. In addition, due to the chronic shortage of tungsten, few carbide-core projectiles were produced.

Due to the imperfection of the 30 mm MK 101 gun and the lack of armor-piercing shells with hard alloy cores, the stake was placed on the 37 mm VK 3.7 gun.


37 mm VK 3.7 aircraft gun

This gun was created on the basis of a 37 mm 3,7 cm FlaK 18 anti-aircraft gun and was loaded with a 6-round clip. Since the 37 mm projectile weighed twice as much as the 30 mm, this made it possible to obtain high armor penetration even without the use of a scarce tungsten carbide core.


Tank destroyer Bf.110G-2/R1 with 37 mm VK 3.7 gun

The layout of the Bf.110 aircraft made it possible to reload the 37 mm gun in the air. In this case, the responsibility for reloading the gun was assigned to the onboard gunner. Theoretically, the Bf.110, armed with 30- and 37-mm guns, could make good anti-tank attack aircraft. But in the middle of 1942, the Germans began to feel an acute shortage of night fighters in the aviation units that defended Germany from British bombers, and therefore it was decided to repurpose the remaining Bf.110s to solve air defense tasks.

Ju 87 dive bombers and tank destroyers


In the spring of 1937, the first Ju 87A-1s entered combat squadrons. It was a two-seat, single-engine, inverted-gull-wing monoplane with fixed landing gear. The Ju 87 is also known as the Stuka (short German Sturzkampfflugzeug), a dive bomber. Because of the non-retractable landing gear with large fairings, Soviet soldiers subsequently nicknamed him "Lapteznik".

The design of this dive bomber had a number of significant innovations, and compared to the Hs 123 biplane, it looked much more advantageous. The plane was a two-seater, the pilot and gunner, who protected the rear hemisphere, were sitting in a closed cockpit. To limit the speed of the dive, the wing had “air brakes” in the form of a grid that rotated 90 ° while diving, and the pilot’s combat work was greatly facilitated by the “dive automatic”, which, after dropping the bombs, ensured the automatic exit of the aircraft from the dive.

Subsequently, an altimeter was included in the automatic withdrawal scheme from the dive, which determined the moment of withdrawal, even if the bomb was not released. The search for the target was facilitated by the presence of an observation window in the cabin floor. In order to make it easier for the pilot to control the dive angle relative to the horizon, a special graduated grid was applied to the cockpit glazing.

The aircraft of the first production version of the Ju 87A were crude, and their flight data left much to be desired. In the fall of 1938, mass production of the Ju 87B-1 ("Berta") began with a 1 hp liquid-cooled engine. With. With this engine, the maximum horizontal flight speed was 000 km / h, and the bomb load was 380 kg (in overload 500 kg). Significant changes were made to the equipment and armament. More advanced instruments and sights were installed in the cockpit. The tail was protected by a 750 mm MG 7,92 machine gun in a ball mount with increased firing angles.

Offensive armament was reinforced with a second 7,92 mm MG 17 machine gun. The pilot now has an Abfanggerat device at his disposal, which ensures safe dive bombing. After entering the dive, a frequent signal was heard in the headphones of the pilot's headset. After passing the pre-set bomb drop height, the signal disappeared. Simultaneously with pressing the bomb release button, the trimmers on the elevators were rearranged, and the angle of installation of the propeller blades changed.


Ju 87B-2

In December 1939, the construction of the Ju 87В-2 bombers with an 1 hp engine began. with., with a new screw and other changes. The maximum speed of this modification has increased to 200 km/h. And a 390-kg bomb could be suspended in overload.

By the middle of 1941, the Luftwaffe had worked out very well the system of aviation control over the battlefield and interaction with ground forces. All German attack aircraft had high-quality, reliable radio stations, and the flight crew had good skills in using radio in the air for control and guidance on the battlefield. Aircraft controllers who were in combat formations of the ground forces had practical experience in organizing aviation control and guidance on ground targets.

Directly to accommodate the air controllers, special radio-equipped armored vehicles or command tanks were used. In the event that enemy tanks were discovered, they were often subjected to an assault bombing attack, even before the German troops had time to attack. In the absence of strong anti-aircraft opposition, bombing accuracy was very high, and an experienced Stuka pilot often achieved a direct hit with an aerial bomb on a tank.

"Laptezhnik" was an ideal battlefield attack aircraft in the initial period of the war, when German aviation dominated the air, and the ground-based Soviet military air defense was very weak and disorganized. At the same time, German dive bombers often suffered heavy losses even when meeting with old Soviet I-16 and I-153 fighters. In order to get away from them, the speed data of the Ju 87 was not enough, and weak armament and low maneuverability for air combat did not allow effective defense in air combat. In this regard, Bf 109s had to be assigned to escort the dive bombers.

Already in the fall of 1941, the German command noted a serious increase in Ju 87 losses from anti-aircraft fire. With a shortage of specialized air defense equipment, the Soviet command organized training for the personnel of line infantry units in firing small arms at enemy aircraft. In the defense, for light and heavy machine guns and anti-tank rifles, special positions were equipped with home-made or semi-handicraft anti-aircraft devices, on which dedicated crews were constantly on duty.

This forced “amateur activity” gave a certain effect. Taking into account the fact that the Ju 87 dive bomber did not have special armor protection, often one rifle bullet that hit the engine radiator was enough for the plane not to return to its airfield. With intense ground fire, dive bomber pilots tried to increase the height of their bombs and reduce the number of approaches to the target, which, of course, could not but affect the effectiveness of air strikes.

As the Air Force of the Red Army became saturated with new types of fighters and the anti-aircraft cover was strengthened, the effectiveness of the actions of the “laptezhniks” fell sharply, and the losses became unacceptable. The German aviation industry, up to a certain point, could make up for the loss of equipment, but already in 1942, a shortage of experienced flight personnel began to be felt.

Taking into account the experience of combat use, an attempt was made to improve the security and flight data of the Stuka. The Ju 87D ("Dora"), which entered the front in early 1942, was equipped with an 1 hp engine. With. The maximum speed after that increased to 500 km / h, and the bomb load in the reloading version reached 400 kg. To reduce vulnerability to anti-aircraft fire, local armor was strengthened.


Ju 87D-5

The Ju 87D-5 modification aircraft had an assault specialization. On this model, the total weight of the armor exceeded 200 kg. In addition to the cab, reservations were made for gas tanks, oil and water coolers. The maximum bomb load was limited to 500 kg, instead of machine guns, 20 mm MG 151/20 guns appeared in the elongated wing, and the air brakes were dismantled. On external units under the wing, containers with six 7,92 mm MG 81 machine guns or two 20 mm MG FF cannons could be additionally suspended. The rear hemisphere was protected by the "spark" MG 81Z caliber 7,92 mm.

The aircraft of the Ju 87G-1 and G-2 ("Gustav") modifications had a pronounced anti-tank orientation. These attack aircraft were usually created in field workshops by conversion from Ju 87D-3 and D-5, but a number of new vehicles were built at the factory.


Ju 87G-1

The main purpose of "Gustav" was the fight against Soviet tanks. To do this, the attack aircraft was armed with two long-barreled 37-mm VK 3.7 guns, which had previously been used on Bf.110G-2 / R1 “hunters”. To increase the capacity of ammunition on the Gustavs, the guns were loaded with clips for 8 and 12 shots. However, 87 mm MG 2/20 wing cannons were preserved on part of the Ju 151G-20.

Despite the increased firepower, aircraft armed with 37 mm guns were not popular with the flight crew. Although long-barreled large-caliber guns, combined with a low flight speed, good stability and the ability to attack armored targets from the least protected side, made it possible to deal with armored vehicles, the increased frontal resistance and the separation of a heavy load across the planes made the aircraft more inert, and the maximum speed fell by about 40 km / h.


Equipment ammunition 37-mm guns VK 3.7

The plane no longer carried bombs and could not dive with high angles. The 37 mm VK 3.7 cannon itself, weighing more than 300 kg with a carriage and shells, was not very reliable, and the ammunition load was small. Due to the strong recoil during firing and the location of the guns, the aiming was knocked down by the emerging dive moment and the strong buildup of the aircraft in the longitudinal plane. At the same time, keeping the line of sight on the target during firing and introducing corrections into aiming were very difficult tasks, accessible only to highly qualified pilots. In case of failure of one gun, aimed shooting was possible only with single shots due to the strong turning moment.

Armored attack aircraft Hs 129


Along with dive bombers and fighter-bombers in Nazi Germany, work was underway to create specialized armored attack aircraft. The aircraft, designated Hs 129, first flew in May 1939.

At the time of its creation, the Hs 129 was better protected than other machines of a similar purpose. The front of the pilot was covered by 12 mm armor, the floor was the same thickness, the cockpit walls were 6 mm thick. The pilot was placed in a chair with an armored back and an armored head. The armored glass of the front of the lantern had a thickness of 75 mm. The cockpit in front was guaranteed to withstand shelling with armor-piercing rifle-caliber bullets and with a high degree of probability protected heavy machine guns and 20-mm cannons from fire.

The reverse side of the high security of the cockpit was the tightness of the pilot's workplace. The width of the cockpit at the level of the pilot's shoulders was only 60 cm. Due to the low position of the seat, the control stick had to be greatly shortened, which the pilots did not like. Due to the lack of free space, it was necessary to abandon the installation of a normal set of control devices in the cockpit. The visibility on the sides left much to be desired, and it was impossible to visually control the rear hemisphere.

The aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 5 kg was equipped with two French-made Gnome-Rһone 000M 14/04 air-cooled engines with a capacity of 05 hp. With. The maximum flight speed at low altitude without external suspension did not exceed 700 km / h. Practical range - 350 km. Built-in armament initially consisted of two 550 mm MG 20/151 cannons and two 20 mm MG-7,92 machine guns. A combat load with a total mass of up to 17 kg could be placed on the external suspension - including one 250-kg aerial bomb, or up to four 250-kg bombs, or bomb containers. Instead of a large-caliber bomb or fuel tank, as a rule, a container with a 50-mm MK 30 cannon with 101 rounds of ammunition, or a container with four MG 30 machine guns of 17 mm caliber was placed on the central node. Various options for interchangeable weapons made it possible to prepare an attack aircraft for a sortie, depending on the specific task.

Attack aircraft Hs 129 had a lot of shortcomings. The main complaints were tightness and poor visibility from the cockpit, insufficient thrust-to-weight ratio due to weak and unreliable engines, and low combat load. In the event of failure of one engine, the aircraft could not fly without reducing the remaining one. It turned out that the Hs 129 was not able to dive with an angle of more than 30 °, in this case, the load on the control stick during the withdrawal from the peak exceeded the physical capabilities of the pilot.

The pilots, as a rule, tried not to exceed the dive angle of 15 °. With large values, there was a possibility that a plane with bombs on an external sling might simply not go up and crash into the ground. Good stability at low altitude made it possible to accurately fire at the chosen target, but it was impossible to quickly change the flight path.

The refinement of the aircraft and the elimination of shortcomings dragged on, and aircraft of the serial modification Hs 129B-1 began to enter the specially created Sch.G 1 assault unit in January 1942.


Hs 129B-1

The training of pilots was difficult, during the training process three attack aircraft were broken. In May 1942, Hs 129s were first used against Soviet troops in the Crimea. In general, the combat debut of German armored attack aircraft was successful. The cockpit armor withstood shelling from light small arms well, and the absence of Soviet fighters in the sky made it possible to act with impunity. Although combat sorties were carried out quite intensively, only one Hs 129 was lost from anti-aircraft fire in two weeks of fighting.

However, in conditions of high dustiness of the air, the unreliable operation of the Gnome-Ronn engines, which did not have air filters, was revealed. Dust also clogged the propeller hubs, making it difficult to start the engines. Very often, French engines did not give out full power, suddenly stopped or caught fire in the air. The vulnerability of protected, but not covered by armor, fuel and oil tanks was revealed.

In May 1942, the production of aircraft of the Hs 129V-2 modification began. Based on the results of combat use and taking into account the wishes of the pilots, in order to improve forward-downward visibility, the shape of the bow was changed. To improve reliability, changes were made to the fuel system and engines. Beginning in December 1942, the aircraft were equipped with petrol cabin heaters.

After their combat debut in the Crimea, Hs 129s were deployed near Kharkov, where they took part in repulsing the counteroffensive of the Soviet troops in May 1942. Here, anti-aircraft cover and fighter opposition were much stronger, and the losses amounted to 7 attack aircraft. At the same time, according to German data, with the help of 30-mm cannons, Henschel pilots operating in the Voronezh and Kharkov region managed to knock out 23 Soviet tanks.

In the second half of 1942, relatively few Hs-129 squadrons, armed with 30-mm cannons, became a kind of “firefighters”, which the German command, in case of a breakthrough by Soviet tanks, was transferred from one sector of the front to another. So, on November 19, 1942, after about 250 Soviet tanks broke through the defenses of Italian troops in the area between the Don and Volga rivers, six Hs 129B-1s were used against them. According to the data of the photo-machine guns, in two days of fighting, the Henschel pilots were credited with the destruction of 10 tanks. However, the German armored tank destroyers in this sector of the front could not influence the course of hostilities.

In the spring of 1943, Hs 129s were armed with suspended 30 mm MK 103 cannons to increase their strike capabilities.


Equipment ammunition 30-mm gun MK 103 on Hs 129

The rate of fire of the MK 103 gun was twice as high as that of the MK 101, and reached 400 rounds per minute. According to the complex of combat characteristics, the MK 103 can be considered the best German aircraft gun. This tool had a relatively simple design, low cost and was technologically advanced in production. The mass of the MK 103 was 142 kg, and the weight of the cartridge box for 100 shells was 95 kg.

Although carbide-core 30mm projectiles were used to a limited extent, Hs 129 pilots were able to achieve some success against Soviet tanks. During the fighting, an optimal tactic was developed: the attack was carried out from the stern of the tank, while the pilot slowed down and dived gently at the target, firing from the cannon until the ammunition load was completely used up. Due to this, the probability of defeat increased, but during the sortie it was possible to hit no more than one armored target.

Some experienced pilots allegedly achieved shooting accuracy, in which 60% of the shells hit the target. The timely start of the attack was of great importance, this required the presence of great experience, skill and intuition of the pilot, since during a gentle dive it was very difficult to correct the flight of a heavy machine. It is also worth saying that German attack aircraft could operate successfully when there were no Soviet fighters in the air or they were connected by an air escort.

To increase the anti-tank potential, the next step was the installation of a 129-mm VK 2 gun with 3 rounds of ammunition on the Hs 37B-3.7 / R12. However, the already low flight data of the attack aircraft after the suspension of the 37-mm guns fell. The pilots noted the more complicated piloting technique, more vibration and a strong dive moment when firing. Due to the low practical rate of fire, 2-4 aimed shots could be fired during one attack.

As a result, the large-scale construction of the Hs 129B-2/R3 with the 37 mm VK 3.7 gun was abandoned. Approximately the same practical rate of fire with a comparable weight had a 50 mm VK 5 gun, but it was not mounted on the Hs 129.

The largest-caliber gun installed on the Henschel was the 75 mm VK 7.5 cannon, but this will be discussed in the next article on German anti-tank aircraft that appeared in the second half of the war.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
Soviet aviation anti-tank weapons of the period of the Second World War
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 05: 36
    +9
    Thank you Sergey, I'm glad!
    I read about His-123 only in very truncated reference books, but here with illustrations and extremely detailed. I liked it very much!
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 1 November 2022 05: 41
      +6
      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Thank you Sergey, I'm glad!
      I read about His-123 only in very truncated reference books, but here with illustrations and extremely detailed. I liked it very much!

      The article is indeed interesting, and what is nice is not about Ukraine. But in my opinion the title is not very successful.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 1 November 2022 06: 25
      +5
      There was also Hs126.
      "Annoying crutch", but the Teutons themselves demanded Hs123.
      1. Toucan
        Toucan 1 November 2022 06: 30
        +7
        Quote: hohol95
        There was also Hs126.
        "Annoying crutch", but the Teutons themselves demanded Hs123.

        "Crutch" is a reconnaissance spotter. It is unlikely that he had such anti-tank capabilities as the Hs 123. As I understand it, the author devoted this cycle to anti-tank aviation. Apparently, there will be at least one more article about German tank destroyers.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 1 November 2022 07: 38
          +5
          Naturally, these are different machines for their intended purpose.
          And their survivability was different.
          But if the 123s were collected from "scrap from landfills" to maintain the number at the level of 50 cars, then no one has done this since the 126s.
          They were gradually changed to Fw-189 and sent to night bomber squadrons, converted into glider tugs (tested when supplying the Kholm group), sent to the rear to fight partisans.
          Apparently, initially they did not "see" the potential of the Hs123, and then it turned out that the equipment was destroyed and there was no way to manufacture new machines.
          Maybe it cost less than those machines that were made in more mass series.
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 06: 44
        +6
        Quote: hohol95
        There was also Hs126.
        "Annoying crutch", but the Teutons themselves demanded Hs123.

        I think that 126 is still an aircraft of a different class: a spotter and for communication.
        123 - more versatile, but designed as a close support aircraft on the battlefield.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 1 November 2022 07: 25
          +5
          Of course, the 126th was considered a reconnaissance vehicle.
          But he suffered more sensitive losses, and after 1942 he was transferred to "night lights" or squadrons fighting partisans.
    3. Bongo
      1 November 2022 14: 08
      +6
      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Thank you Sergey, I'm glad!
      I read about His-123 only in very truncated reference books, but here with illustrations and extremely detailed. I liked it very much!

      Vladislav, greetings! Glad you liked it! I decided to remember a little the history of military aviation, and digress from what is happening.
      But You again began to "Vykat" ... request I understand that we do not intersect so often, but still I would like to think that adequate people who have been communicating for many years can allow us to call you.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 17: 25
        +4
        Sergey, do not pay attention to my quirks. I have a sin, roll out on paper and poke in a conversation in person! Although today, I cheated because of something else.
        To be honest, I wanted to be sarcastic about your half (Oli), to whom to say thanks more - who feeds or who writes. But then he hesitated recourse what is left is left.
        I confess - buddy!
        And the article is really great! It's rare these days that you learn something new. Today is a different occasion thanks to you!
      2. Mister X
        Mister X 1 November 2022 20: 05
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        .

        The layout of the Bf.110 aircraft made it possible to reload the 37 mm gun in the air

        Hi!
        How so?
        1. Bongo
          1 November 2022 23: 45
          +5
          Quote: Mister X
          How so?

          The gun was mounted so that the shell receiver had access from the cockpit.
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 2 November 2022 08: 33
            +2
            Quote: Bongo
            access from the cab.

            How easy!
            I thought I was leaning overboard laughing
  2. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 1 November 2022 05: 44
    +10
    what kind of monster did our grandfathers break the back of ... it's scary to imagine.
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 1 November 2022 05: 52
    +6
    Good article as usual, thanks!
    I am glad that Sergey soberly assesses German achievements:
    Some experienced pilots allegedly achieved shooting accuracy, in which 60% of the shells hit the target.
    1. novel66
      novel66 1 November 2022 07: 24
      +7
      Well, we all know about the exploits of Rudel lol how many of our tanks he burned ...
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 1 November 2022 07: 46
        +9
        Well, they had different pilots, like everywhere else. hi

        1. novel66
          novel66 1 November 2022 07: 52
          +9
          capping is practically a regular event at poorly prepared or bombed airfields, everyone was there ... hi
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 1 November 2022 16: 06
            +4
            Rudel himself "said" in his memoirs about how, when taking off on the Storch, he could not fly over a tree and the fire brigade removed him and his passenger from the tree.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 November 2022 18: 25
              +5
              as when taking off on the "Storch" I could not fly over a tree
              It takes a lot of effort.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 1 November 2022 18: 42
                +3
                He was generally a very "hard-working" guy...
                Especially in the sinking of boats with landing in the Kuban plavni -
                Hans Ulrich Rudel says:

                “They went in primitive boats, we saw that only a few boats were equipped with motors. In small boats there were five to seven people, and in large boats up to twenty. We did not need to use special anti-tank shells. We used ordinary ones, as in shelling.

                We opened fire and sank everything on the water. The Russians suffered heavy losses. In a few days, I alone sank 70 boats.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 November 2022 18: 50
                  +4
                  Actually, I'm not talking about Rudel, but about the plane.
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 1 November 2022 18: 56
                    +3
                    Planes don't fly by themselves. Bye.
                    It all depends on the "creative approach" of the one who sits at the helm of this or that aircraft!
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 06
                      +4
                      And I like the plane itself, purely aesthetically. Perhaps the most beautiful strutted high-wing aircraft.
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 1 November 2022 19: 11
                        +4
                        They wanted to establish production in the USSR, but alas, it did not work out.
                        "The serial production of the aircraft was planned at aircraft plant No. 465 in Kaunas in the connected SS-1 and ambulance SS-2 versions. The assembly of the first production aircraft began in the spring of 1941, but because of the outbreak of war, they managed to finish, apparently, only one."
                        N. Yakubovich "Unknown Antonov"
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 17
                        +4
                        Well, if in Kaunas, maybe it’s for the best that it didn’t work out ...
              2. Alf
                Alf 1 November 2022 18: 48
                +4
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                It takes a lot of effort.

                But Rudel did it!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 November 2022 18: 58
                  +5
                  Apparently Rudel for the first and only time sat at the helm of the Storch. Here Skorzeny did not know that it was possible and he did not succeed.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 1 November 2022 19: 12
                    +3
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Here Skorzeny did not know that it was possible and he did not succeed.

                    Skorzeny knew that it was possible to crash on a glider, now he has learned that it is possible to crash on Aista.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 19
                      +2
                      Did he get the famous scar when he pulled off a glider?
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 1 November 2022 19: 28
                        +4
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Did he get the famous scar when he pulled off a glider?

                        No, in a duel in his youth, figuring out the degree of toughness.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 35
                        +3
                        To be honest, I’m not strong in his biography, did he study in Heidelberg or was it an ordinary stabbing?
                      3. Alf
                        Alf 1 November 2022 19: 37
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        To be honest, I’m not strong in his biography, did he study in Heidelberg or was it an ordinary stabbing?

                        Also, the biographies of the Nazis are not very interested, but in this case it is the duel.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 47
                        +2
                        Also not very interested in the biographies of the Nazis
                        "The devil is in the details" (C)
                        That is why Speer pleaded guilty and honestly served his twenty years, and Goebbels preferred the suicide of himself and his family?
                      5. Alf
                        Alf 1 November 2022 20: 15
                        +4
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        That's why Speer pleaded guilty and honestly served his twenty,

                        I could be wrong, but..
                        Scheer is the minister of armaments, i.e., a production worker, his job is to provide the army with weapons.
                        Goebbels is the Minister of Propaganda, that is, state ideology, that is, a call for the destruction of "everyone who is not us."
                        Slightly different jobs.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 20: 37
                        +4
                        Speer, first of all, Hitler's personal architect, the author of the project for the Palace of Party Congresses in Nuremberg, that is, in the same line with Goebbels and Leni Riefenstahl. In addition, after the death of Todt, he "inherited" all his positions and had to be connected with the concentration camps in any way.
                      7. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 2 November 2022 11: 30
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Did he get the famous scar when he pulled off a glider?

                        Good afternoon Anton!
                        university duel: at the beginning of the 20th century, this tradition was still in full swing in Germany: something like initiative scarring - you can immediately see where you studied and what you graduated from in the face. And without this, as it were, not camille in a decent society. hi
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 November 2022 12: 00
                        +2
                        something like initiative scarring - you can immediately see where he studied, what he graduated from in the face.
                        Yes, I have heard of such "plastic surgery".
                        Hello, Sergey!
                  2. hohol95
                    hohol95 1 November 2022 21: 15
                    +3
                    For Operation Oak (Unternehmen Eiche) (rescuing Mussolini), a dozen Henschel Hs 126 aircraft were allocated, which was supposed to act as glider tugs with paratroopers, and two Storchs.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 1 November 2022 21: 21
                      +1
                      It seems like there was also an experimental helicopter ...
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 1 November 2022 21: 31
                        +2
                        "Duce, the Fuhrer sent me!"
                        Anton Lyapin 26 Aug '18
                        warspot.ru
                        Not a word about the "screwdriver"!
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 21: 41
                        +3
                        Guilty, he wasn't. Planned. But the crude typewriter once again became capricious.
      2. vovochkarzhevsky
        vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 11: 16
        -1
        Well, we all know about the exploits of Rudel lol how many of our tanks he burned ...


        Not Rudel, but Vrudel.
  4. ivan2022
    ivan2022 1 November 2022 06: 50
    +2
    An interesting mass of technical devices and finds. What is generally characteristic of the West.
    (I once read an article about devices for chopping firewood in the USA .... A whole series of a wide variety of mechanisms! I did not suspect that this was even possible.) A huge field of activity for the author. Especially if you systematize it.

    However, it is obvious that the complexity of technology affects the volume of mass production. It would be interesting to analyze this dependence from the point of view of finding some optimal complexity and equipment of military equipment.

    Curious to know if anyone has done something like this?

    The fact is that in his memoirs, Guderian wrote that after the defeat near Moscow, the German command was mired in throwing and searching for various types and types of the best weapons, instead of arranging the most massive production of simpler equipment. Apparently, in Germany, even their Führer did not make such a general analysis.
    1. Eule
      Eule 1 November 2022 08: 55
      +5
      Somehow I dug into the USPTO website and found out that before 1917 about 4 thousand household appliances were patented in the USA, and less than 10 in the Republic of Ingushetia and those sewing machines and their parts.
      Washing machines with a drum drive from a vertical windmill over the roof of a hut were made in Pennsylvania back in the 18th century. Yes, the rotation of the drum was turned off by a lever that opened the angle gear, but still washing was not done by hand in the river in a cancer pose;)
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 22: 04
        +2
        with a drum drive from a vertical windmill
        Hello, colleague!
        Excuse my technical illiteracy, but what happens to a horizontal windmill? This is not banter, I'm really interested.
  5. novel66
    novel66 1 November 2022 07: 25
    +6
    Sergey, thank you very much, as always, technically accurate and excellent style hi
    1. Bongo
      1 November 2022 14: 11
      +6
      Quote: novel xnumx
      Sergey, thank you very much, as always, technically accurate and excellent style

      Roman, hello! I write only about what I myself would like to read, or at least remember. It's nice when my preferences intersect with readers! drinks
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 1 November 2022 07: 34
    +6
    Good morning everyone!

    Sergey, thanks for "a ray of sunshine in the midst of deep darkness" smile , I read with great interest and now I know much more about the aircraft that the Nazis used against us. Great article, as always. good
    The Germans had another dive bomber, sort of like the very first one, and he (also, it would seem) did not participate in the hostilities.

    One of the first German dive bombers Junkers K-47
    Aircraft controllers who were in combat formations of the ground forces had practical experience in organizing aviation control and guidance on ground targets.

    Did they accidentally use the wrong machines when pointing their planes?

    Sd.Kfz.251
    1. Nephilim
      Nephilim 1 November 2022 11: 11
      +6
      One of the first German dive bombers Junkers K-47

      Actually, he is a two-seat fighter designed for Turkey by the Swedish branch of Junkers. In Germany, it was never in service. He took part in the fighting in China during the Nanjing Incident. Used for dive bombing during the development of the Ju 87.
    2. Bongo
      1 November 2022 14: 14
      +7
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Sergey, thanks for "a ray of sunshine in the midst of deep darkness"

      Kostya, you certainly flatter me! I just write not for the fee, but for the pleasure!
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Did they accidentally use the wrong machines when pointing their planes?

      Sd.Kfz.251

      It may well be if this car had a VHF radio station.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 1 November 2022 14: 50
        +6
        Sergey, hello! smile

        Kostya, you certainly flatter me!


        "I am devoted to the sovereign emperor without flattery." (c)))))))))

        Big hello to Olga! love
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 1 November 2022 16: 24
          +5
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Big hello to Olga!

          Krnstantin, hello! Thanks a lot!
          Seryozha had already gone to bed, he was very tired at his main job!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 1 November 2022 23: 21
            +4
            Be happy Olya! smile love



            And after a sleepless night, I slept all day, now I will again "work as a night duty officer." wink
      2. Wildcat
        Wildcat 1 November 2022 15: 42
        +4
        hi
        It may well be if this car had a VHF radio station.

        In the evening I’ll see if Rudel or Hartmann mentioned the work of the PAN in his memoirs: a pilot, temporarily not involved in flight work, “sat” on the ground commander’s radio and guided aircraft.

        Offtopic: my IMHO that the effectiveness of aviation largely depended and still depends on the work of the PAN. As far as I understand, according to NATO standards, this work is carried out by a specially assigned aircraft controller directly on the LBS.
        The aircraft pilot establishes contact with the PAN and already knows where the target is (rather than flying back and forth, trying to find something on the ground with the help of the iBallMark1 device and distinguish friend from foe).
      3. Wildcat
        Wildcat 1 November 2022 23: 37
        +4
        Rudel has very few descriptions:
        "I hear the voice of a familiar aircraft controller in my headphones and I hope that I was ordered to establish contact with him, and not with some other officer. I must mention here that every aircraft controller wants our support for his own division. We have to insist on being told the callsign of the unit. The need for us is so great that to satisfy all requests we would need twenty times more people and aircraft. Judging by the voice, the football player Epp is talking to me again, but even without his help, I already noticed a concentration of enemy troops three kilometers ahead."

        I like Isaac Mostov (1982, Lebanon) more: "We switch to communication with the communications and guidance officer, and I inform him of our weapons. To my surprise, it turned out to be one of "ours" - a pilot who was assigned to the ground forces and sent to fight from an armored personnel carrier using a walkie-talkie. He quickly and intelligently gave me the coordinates of the target and described it - a cluster of industrial buildings on the eastern outskirts of Naama, a small coastal town north of Damur. There, one and a half to two kilometers from the seashore, sitting on a hill above Naama, the militants sat down with artillery and rocket fire and controlled the town and the highway passing it to Beirut, hindering the advance of our troops. I was lucky - we got a classic target for my missiles.

        We fly to Damur, maintaining an altitude of 15 thousand feet and a distance of 10 kilometers from the coast. I can already see the target area from afar. I ask the targeting officer where he is and where the line of our troops is, as well as a few leading questions about the target, the color of the slope near it and the light spot nearby - it is important for me to make sure that he sees the target and its surroundings with his own eyes, and that there are no misunderstandings between us about what I have to attack. Our gunner sits on a hill one and a half kilometers south of the target, sees the target "in the eyes", and as you can see he has a good view. He even warns me about several anti-aircraft guns that he sees near the target, including their type - twin rapid-fire 23mm cannons on all-terrain trucks.

        I ask N. if he sees Naame and is he ready to enter. The guy honestly answers that not yet. OK.
        ...
        I ask the dispatcher if we can return to the target. I get: "Wait!". I'm waiting. We make (together) a couple of wide circles about 30 kilometers from the coast.

        The dispatcher gets in touch and gives us permission to return to the east. I check if N. is ready, and we return to Naama in a deployed formation. I check with the guidance officer - he is looking forward to us. As you can see, these guys there in industrial buildings are tired of our advanced units.

        We cross the coastline, fly over Naame and go to our target - I am the first, N. behind me. The anti-aircraft gun near the target again begins to "yelp", sending us a burst of shells towards us. Seeing this, the targeting officer warns us. I answer what I see.

        Getting rid of my missiles - this long process gives me time to see where this anti-aircraft gun is hiding, and I have a solution. I get out of the dive, lay the right turn, and not the left, as before - in our business you can not be too predictable. I see the results of my missiles - the building is on fire and explodes. This is not from my missiles, but from the ammunition hidden there, apparently, "Katyusha" - oblong cylindrical firebrands scatter uncontrollably in all directions. I turn into a climb in a gentle turn. I see how N. finishes his dive and goes to the horizon. His bombs are blowing to pieces another building, near mine - well done! I tell him to go out to sea and wait for me at 15 feet.

        And myself, having gained 10 thousand, I am preparing to punish "our" anti-aircraft guns. I shot all my rockets. The only weapons I have left are cannons. I check if their toggle switches are on and everything is ready to fire.

        Practically hanging over the anti-aircraft gun, I go into a very steep dive, bring the sight to where, in the shadow of buildings, at a distance from the houses of Naame, a truck with an installation in the back is hiding, and from the bottom of my heart I press the trigger of the guns. The plane shakes, spitting out dozens of 30mm armor-piercing explosive shells per second from two onboard guns. I continue to dive and keep the scope on the anti-aircraft gun, continuing to shoot ... A couple of seconds pass - I need to level off, I can not continue to dive anymore without dropping too low above the target. And this is dangerous. It's not that I'm worried about the anti-aircraft guns that I'm over now, but I would not like to be substituted for other anti-aircraft guns and heavy machine guns that are in this town.

        I get out of the dive, lower the wing and see how smoke and flames are pouring from the place where the anti-aircraft gun was ... The communications and guidance officer yells: “I hit it! Got it! They run! They run! Well done!". His voice is clearly cheerful - still, such a performance ...
        "https://berkovich-zametki.com/2014/Zametki/Nomer9/Mostov1.php
      4. Wildcat
        Wildcat 1 November 2022 23: 55
        +2
        Unfortunately, I was not able to find modern descriptions of the Air Force Combat Controllers analogues of the actions of the Air Force of the Russian Federation in open sources.


        https://youtu.be/C1_2jxdTAWc



        The most "approximate" to the present memory of the PAN concerned the Chechen wars. The Air Force officer was temporarily assigned to the infantry unit and, in principle, everyone was satisfied with his work. Except for the question "why does he wear an Air Force trigger, standing out from the rest." After the answer "there is no other jacket," the camouflage issue was resolved from the "internal infantry reserves."

        Firebomber has occasional references to collecting money (!) for walkie-talkies, night vision devices, optics and "cans" (!!) for PANs, but all this looks like amateur activity "with the permission of the authorities."
        There is no data on any systematic work on the training of such specialists in the Air Force or ground units. Although IMHO, in a constantly changing ground situation, only a specially trained serviceman, taking into account the capabilities of pilots, aircraft and ASP (at least with the same "cast iron"), can ensure the defeat of the enemy. Otherwise, we have a Su35 with "cast iron" at low altitude and a Su25 with NAR firing from a nose-up "toward the enemy".
  7. Nephilim
    Nephilim 1 November 2022 10: 54
    +4
    At the end of the summer of 1941, an attempt was made to improve the anti-tank capabilities of the Hs 123 by arming them with containers with 20 mm MG FF guns ...
    At the beginning of 1942, the assault biplanes that remained in service were overhauled and modernized. At the same time, the cockpit was closed with a lantern and equipped with a heater, and covered with armor from below and along the sides. To compensate for the increased takeoff weight, air-cooled engines with a capacity of 960 liters were installed on the upgraded aircraft. With. 15-mm MG 151/15 machine guns were installed in the wing of some of the vehicles, after which the anti-tank capabilities of the attack aircraft increased significantly.

    I will allow myself to "cut down the sturgeon" a little, since the author got carried away a little. There was no systemic modernization of the Hs 123 used on the Eastern Front. Additional booking and installation of various weapons was carried out in the field by repair personnel. It was "improvisation on the ground". Even on all the aircraft used on the Eastern Front, the landing gear fairings were removed, as they were clogged with mud.

    As for the variant with a closed cabin and an engine of 960 hp, this is the HS 123 V6 prototype, built in one copy and not produced in the series. The prototype was equipped with BMW 132J (910 hp) or BMW 132K (960 hp) engines, had a three-bladed propeller, a closed cockpit, 4 machine guns, increased internal fuel supply, and a bomb load of up to 500 kg.
    Another interesting point. In January 1943, Wolfram von Richthofen, brother of the famous ace of the First World War, requested the possibility of resuming production of the Hs 123, but due to the lack of free capacity, the idea was not realized.
  8. vovochkarzhevsky
    vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 11: 15
    -2
    The Germans did not have anti-tank aviation from the word at all. There were some attempts to create something anti-tank, but there was no particular effect.
    The 37 mm cannon, of course, hit the tank in the upper projection, but for this you still need to get there. And more or less the Yak-9T coped with this task, in which the NS-37 fired through the propeller shaft, because the distance between the axes of the sight and the gun was minimal, because the value of it could be neglected.
    In the case of wing-mounted guns. that the Germans, that we did nothing but worsen the performance characteristics.
    Therefore, the only one. the truly effective anti-tank weapons of aviation (that is, accessible to pilots of any qualification) were PTAB.
    But the Germans did not establish their production.
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 1 November 2022 11: 33
      +5
      Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
      The Germans did not have anti-tank aviation from the word at all ...

      Well, yes, and aircraft armed with 30-37-50-75 mm cannons and cumulative missiles
      intended against the infantry?
      1. vovochkarzhevsky
        vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 12: 04
        -1
        And what was the effectiveness of this weapon? When a hit is on the verge of luck (I know very well what it means to achieve a direct hit in a tank, otherwise there is no way, even in a training ground).
        At the time, the PTAB ammunition allowed one tank to be put out of action for one sortie.
        1. Bongo
          1 November 2022 14: 23
          +6
          Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
          And what was the effectiveness of this weapon? When a hit is on the verge of luck (I know very well what it means to achieve a direct hit in a tank, otherwise there is no way, even in a training ground).

          Pilots of high and medium qualification confidently hit the tanks from cannons and missiles, and there is a lot of evidence for this. And as for you, maybe you did not have sufficient qualifications?
          1. vovochkarzhevsky
            vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 14: 57
            -4
            Why am I there, this is all army aviation, in your opinion, insufficient qualifications. lol
            But seriously, the dispersion of modern NAR is very large. No matter how you aim here. Here is a very visual video of how they scatter.

            Yes, you can hit it with a cannon. But just getting there is not enough, you need to get to the right place.
            1. zyablik.olga
              zyablik.olga 1 November 2022 16: 27
              +3
              Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
              Why am I there, this is all army aviation, in your opinion, insufficient qualifications.

              YOU are not all aviation, and the conversation was about you. Don't speak for everyone, speak for yourself. I read a sequel about German anti-tank aviation at the end of the war. When launching a salvo of 6 missiles from a distance of 300-400 m, at least one hit the tank.
              1. vovochkarzhevsky
                vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 17: 19
                0
                YOU are not all aviation, and the conversation was about you. Don't speak for everyone, speak for yourself.

                And here what, analysis of my personal file? Well, if you like, is this enough to close questions about my professionalism once and for all?


                I read a sequel about German anti-tank aviation at the end of the war. When launching a salvo of 6 missiles from a distance of 300-400 m, at least one hit the tank.


                And you can also ram the target, then they will definitely all be there. Even from a low-speed helicopter, the minimum launch range of the NAR is 1000 meters, and then if C-5. For S-8 it is already more, 1500. request
                1. Bongo
                  2 November 2022 00: 03
                  +3
                  Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
                  And here what, analysis of my personal file? Well, if you like, is this enough to close questions about my professionalism once and for all?

                  How are your personal merits related to the anti-tank capabilities of German aviation? However, I have known for a long time that you are a fan of sticking out.
                  Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
                  And you can also ram the target, then they will definitely all be there. Even from a low-speed helicopter, the minimum launch range of the NAR is 1000 meters, and then if C-5. For S-8 it is already more, 1500.

                  If you don’t know the question, then it’s better to keep quiet and you won’t look so stupid. The German NAR R4 / M-HL Panzerblitz 2 and R-HL Panzerblitz 1 with a cumulative warhead, however, like the Soviet RS-82, they were launched from about this distance.
                  Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
                  When a person takes on a topic that is far from his specialization, the appearance of spreading cranberries is inevitable.

                  About cranberries, I remember one comical character who wrote a very unique article about which half of VO readers spat. In it, this man of outstanding intelligence offered to shoot down anti-aircraft missiles from a machine gun. wink
                  1. Toucan
                    Toucan 2 November 2022 01: 36
                    +2
                    Quote: Bongo
                    In it, this man of outstanding intelligence offered to shoot down anti-aircraft missiles from a machine gun.

                    Apparently a really outstanding mind. laughing
                    However, the idea is not new. So in the defensive aft installations Tu-95MS and Il-76, 23-mm shells are used that put thermal and radar interference. When shelling such missiles or missiles, there is a possibility that the rocket fuse will prematurely work, but of course we are not talking about a direct downing. The machine gun must have a very high rate of fire, extremely advanced detection and aiming systems, a powerful computer, and fast and accurate guidance drives. But even in this case, the range of the machine gun installation will be very modest and does not guarantee reliable protection of the aircraft. In fact, it will be dead expensive cargo with dubious effectiveness, and the very idea of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbusing a machine gun to intercept missiles is not viable.
                  2. vovochkarzhevsky
                    vovochkarzhevsky 2 November 2022 14: 11
                    -3
                    How are your personal merits related to the anti-tank capabilities of German aviation?


                    Calm down, the answer is not for you, so, one person showed interest very persistently. lol

                    However, I have known for a long time that you are a fan of sticking out.


                    Nope, I'm not a contributor here. And I don’t compose articles not in my specialization. request

                    If you don’t know the question, then it’s better to keep quiet and you won’t look so stupid. The German NAR R4 / M-HL Panzerblitz 2 and R-HL Panzerblitz 1 with a cumulative warhead, however, like the Soviet RS-82, they were launched from about this distance.


                    In general, the Internet says that:
                    The average percentage of RS-82 hits in a target point tank when firing from a distance of 400-500 meters, shown in the report materials, was 1,1%, and in a column of tanks - 3,7%, while only 186 out of 7 shells were fired direct hits. Height of approach to the target -100 and 400 meters, planning angles - 5-10 and 30 respectively, aiming range - 800 meters. Shooting was carried out with single shells and a volley of 2, 4 and 8 shells.


                    And there are no 300 meters there. But even this is not the main thing. You, being far from this question, simply take the data for granted, while any pilot who worked with the NAR will immediately be struck by such short ranges. And the next question will be, what will be the height and pitch?
                    If we take those very 300 meters, then with a reserve of altitude of only 100 meters, we need a negative pitch of 20 degrees. In fact, it’s already a gentle dive during the withdrawal from which there is every chance to comb the planet with your belly.
                    In addition, there is no such thing as an aiming range, there is an attack launching range. That is, the milestone upon reaching which the mark of the sight is applied to the target, after which fire is IMMEDIATELY opened.
                    In the quote I cited, for some reason, you still need to whistle 300 - 400 meters. That is, insanely long, 4 - 5 seconds (at a speed of 300 km / h) to wait for something. Why is the question to disperse the plane and with a guarantee to flop?
                    That's what we're talking about. Even using archival data, one must have an understanding of the essence of the issue. For even they are full of inaccuracies, mistakes, and even outright forgery. People make documents.
                    Otherwise, it will turn out, like one author, who said that the Bur rifle is almost the most effective means against Soviet helicopters in Afghanistan. I've seen this as well, but I don't remember where.

                    About cranberries, I remember one comical character who wrote a very unique article about which half of VO readers spat. In it, this man of outstanding intelligence offered to shoot down anti-aircraft missiles from a machine gun.


                    First, you lied. This was not an article, but just a post on AVIA.RU, where even in very distant years there was a discussion of the appearance of combat helicopters and means of protection against MANPADS, when nothing was heard about the airborne defense system. And the fact that some of the local editors came up with the idea to post it here is not my problem. request
                    Secondly, you again showed yourself to be an amateur. For the idea is quite workable and I'm not its author. Missiles have long been successfully destroyed by the MZA. The principle is the same, only the caliber is smaller. It just seems strange to you due to amateurism.
                2. Toucan
                  Toucan 2 November 2022 01: 24
                  +1
                  Quote: vovochkarzhevsky

                  Well, if you like, is this enough to close questions about my professionalism once and for all?

                  Rudel, to whom you do not breathe evenly, had almost all possible regalia. But he was a mediocre pilot, but as a person, according to his colleagues, he was shitty. You have to be more modest, awards do not yet indicate high professionalism or knowledge of a particular subject.
          2. irontom
            irontom 2 November 2022 06: 34
            0
            There is data on the losses of our tanks from art. air fire they are quite scanty.
            On specialized historical forums, the battles about the fairy tales of Rudel and the super efficiency of German attack aircraft died down about ten years ago. On Varspot, there were good works of historical analysis when German sources were taken and ours compared their postscripts with our actual ones.
            Sometimes it got to the point that we had no losses, but they stuffed them with an iron cross.
            Field firing, even among the Germans, showed the low effectiveness of air art. fire on armored targets. The main goal was transport and manpower.
    2. Bongo
      1 November 2022 14: 20
      +7
      Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
      The Germans did not have anti-tank aviation from the word at all. There were some attempts to create something anti-tank, but there was no particular effect.

      Once again I am convinced that people do not change over time and excessive self-conceit is the cause of excessive categoricalness, leading to absurd statements. wassat
      Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
      Therefore, the only one. the truly effective anti-tank weapons of aviation (that is, accessible to pilots of any qualification) were PTAB.
      But the Germans did not establish their production.

      Oh really? Just because you don't know something doesn't mean it didn't happen.

      German 4-kg HEAT bomb SD 4-HL in section.
      1. vovochkarzhevsky
        vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 15: 21
        0
        Once again I am convinced that people do not change over time and excessive conceit is the cause of excessive categoricalness, leading to absurd statements. wassat


        There is another problem. When a person takes on a topic that is far from his specialization, the appearance of spreading cranberries is inevitable. request

        Oh really? Just because you don't know something doesn't mean it didn't happen.

        German 4-kg HEAT bomb SD 4-HL in section.


        Who told you that I don’t know about this thing, since the eighty-third year, when we started the BPSP course. She was just cited as an unsuccessful attempt to create a PTAB.
        When the Germans tried to blind it in an accelerated manner based on a fragmentation submunition of a cluster bomb. As far as I remember, they reloaded the already existing ammunition.
        You didn't even notice how thick the walls were. While the Soviet PTAB was made from a tin.
        No, there is nothing wrong with the PTAB also having a fragmentation effect, modern ones do just that.
        But the thing is that the aviation of those years could not boast of a large payload. And take on board the appropriate amount of ammunition too. And the charge of the German PTAB itself, with a weight of 4 kg, was only 340 grams. For comparison, the Soviet PTAB - 2,5 - 1,5 with a weight of 1,5 kg was equipped with 620 grams of TGA-16.
        1. Foul skeptic
          Foul skeptic 1 November 2022 15: 38
          +2
          Who told you that I don't know about this thing

          lol you yourself
          Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
          were PTAB.
          But the Germans did not establish their production.


          And the charge of the German PTAB itself, with a weight of 4 kg, was only 340 grams. For comparison, the Soviet PTAB - 2,5 - 1,5 with a weight of 1,5 kg was equipped with 620 grams of TGA-16.

          Armor penetration with such a difference in explosives is there no desire to compare?
          1. vovochkarzhevsky
            vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 16: 30
            -2
            you yourself


            You have clearly forgotten how to understand the Russian language. Production of PTAB and reloading a certain amount of submunitions into ersatz-PTAB are somewhat different things. lol

            Armor penetration with such a difference in explosives is there no desire to compare?


            And what is wrong?
            PTAB-2,5-1,5 armor penetration ranged from 60 mm at a meeting angle of 30 °, and up to 100 mm at 90 °
            SD 4-HL with 60 mm armor penetration at 60° armor penetration angle
            As you can see, the Soviet PTAB has more, but this is not even the main thing, because even the German crafts have enough for the upper projection.
            Speech is different, in the first place is weight, 4 kg versus 1,5. That is, 3 German PTABs weigh like 8 Soviet ones.
            In addition, the German PTAB never "hatched" from the cassettes, which entailed a number of restrictions on combat use. And part of the PTAB simply split on the armored hull before the initiation of the explosive took place.
            1. Foul skeptic
              Foul skeptic 1 November 2022 17: 03
              +1
              Production of PTAB and reloading a certain amount of submunitions into ersatz-PTAB are somewhat different things.

              Did you receive a non-anti-tank bomb in the process? And what? Floor lamp?
              And what is wrong?

              Only that you provided incorrect data on armor penetration, guided by a hasty search in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet.
              In addition, the German PTAB never "hatched" from the cassettes

              What "German PTAB"? Their "production has not been established." tongue
              And why "hatch" from "cassette use"?
              1. vovochkarzhevsky
                vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 17: 30
                -2
                Did you receive a non-anti-tank bomb in the process? And what? Floor lamp?


                They told you, ersatz.
                Only that you provided incorrect data on armor penetration, guided by a hasty search in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet.


                Can you prove it, or will it remain an artistic whistle?
                And in essence, you have nothing to object to, did I understand correctly?

                What "German PTAB"? Their "production has not been established."


                So there was no production. We re-equipped some of the ready-made submunitions and that's it. request

                And why "hatch" from "cassette use"?


                To expand the range of application heights.
                1. Foul skeptic
                  Foul skeptic 1 November 2022 18: 03
                  +1
                  They told you, ersatz.

                  Didn't they say why "ersatz"?
                  Can you prove it, or will it remain an artistic whistle?

                  You, most importantly, do not forget to confirm your words, I remember from previous "conversations" how hard it is for you to do this.
                  http://michaelhiske.de/Wehrmacht/Luft/Luft/LDV_4200/SERIE_D/Blatt_04.HTM
                  So there was no production. We re-equipped some of the ready-made submunitions and that's it.

                  This is also production. It's like saying that there was no production of Molotov cocktails, but there was a re-equipment of glass containers.
                  And in essence, you have nothing to object to, did I understand correctly?

                  And here there is only one "essentially" - 1) the Germans produced their PTAB 2) you didn't know that
                  1. vovochkarzhevsky
                    vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 18: 25
                    -2
                    Didn't they say why "ersatz"?


                    Because it was re-equipped from another, ready-made ammunition.

                    This is also production. It's like saying that there was no production of Molotov cocktails, but there was a re-equipment of glass containers.

                    No, the bottle is just a container. And the German PTABs are just re-equipped ready-made submunitions.
                    And here there is only one "essentially" - 1) the Germans produced their PTAB 2) you didn't know that

                    Let's, as Olga says, everyone will be responsible for himself. What I know is that only I can speak, not other people's familiars. yes
                    By the way, compare the production of PTAB in the USSR and re-equipment in Germany.
        2. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 1 November 2022 16: 31
          +3
          Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
          There is another problem. When a person takes on a topic that is far from his specialization, the appearance of spreading cranberries is inevitable.

          Cranberries grow exclusively in your head, on the basis of megalomania.
          Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
          Who told you that I don't know about this thing

          You said:
          Quote: vovochkarzhevsky
          Therefore, the only one. the truly effective anti-tank weapons of aviation (that is, accessible to pilots of any qualification) were PTAB.
          But the Germans did not establish their production.

          Apparently, you were not engaged in flight training, but worked out changing shoes in the air. You already decide, either there or here ... lol
          1. vovochkarzhevsky
            vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 17: 25
            -2
            In short, me, purely out of megalomania, is sorry to waste time exchanging pleasantries with you. So let's put an end to the prelude, file a complaint with the moderators and let me get banned for a month for ... in short, figure out for yourself why. lol
        3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 17: 49
          +4
          There is another problem. When a person takes on a topic that is far from his specialization, the appearance of spreading cranberries is inevitable. request

          Well, with regard to the Author - not the case!
          1. vovochkarzhevsky
            vovochkarzhevsky 3 November 2022 10: 22
            -3
            Come on. Here, read this article, there is a whole field of this very cranberry.
            https://topwar.ru/127829-aviaciya-protiv-tankov-chast-7.html
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 November 2022 19: 26
        +3
        Once again I am convinced that people do not change over time
        This world is not getting better and we are with it.
        Hello, Sergey!
        1. Bongo
          1 November 2022 23: 51
          +3
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Hello, Sergey!

          Hello Anton!
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          This world is not getting better and we are with it.

          Alas, it is!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 November 2022 00: 00
            +3
            I hope my uncle and I have filled in the gap under the series on Ukrainian air defense? )))
            1. Bongo
              2 November 2022 13: 21
              +3
              Partly yes, but I still count on you! Moreover, you still understand aviation and you can still distinguish Bü 181 from Fi 156 ... wink
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 November 2022 13: 42
                +4
                Moreover, you are still versed in aviation
                Basically, your efforts.)))
  9. Bingo
    Bingo 1 November 2022 11: 54
    +3
    At the same time, German dive bombers often suffered heavy losses even when meeting with old Soviet I-16 and I-153 fighters.

    I came across that in Poland, the laptists had the most losses when they tried to attack fighters on a bomber))) I wouldn’t be surprised that at first they threw themselves at donkeys
  10. certero
    certero 1 November 2022 12: 13
    +5
    Surprisingly, I had not even heard of he123. How many memoirs of Soviet pilots I read, I did not see any mention of such an aircraft.
    German aviation was a terrible threat to ground troops, including tanks. as far as I remember, it was in the forty-third year during Rumyantsev that a case was noted when one aircraft completely stopped the advance of the tank corps of the red army
    1. Nephilim
      Nephilim 1 November 2022 13: 01
      +2
      How many memoirs of Soviet pilots I read, I did not see any mention of such an aircraft.

      On June 22, 1941, II.( Schl )/LG 2, which fought on the Eastern Front, had 22 HS 123 aircraft, and their number did not obviously increase in the future. Therefore, it is quite possible that the pilots who wrote their memoirs simply never met them.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 1 November 2022 16: 17
      +2
      How many Soviet pilots have battles with Hungarian Fiat CR42s or Finnish Fiat G-50s in their memoirs?
      Slovak Avia B534?
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 1 November 2022 13: 01
    +3
    Interesting article. German aviation was generally superior to Soviet counterparts. At the beginning of the war, this was especially noticeable.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 18: 00
      +5
      Quote: Pavel57
      Interesting article. German aviation was generally superior to Soviet counterparts. At the beginning of the war, this was especially noticeable.

      Quite controversial statement!
      Perhaps we and they went different ways. For example, at the beginning of the conflict in Spain, the Germans could not do anything with the I-16 and SB. Then we were in the role of catching up. And if you take individual planes, then the Germans are really great. And not only at the initial stage, at the end of the war they put several models of jet aircraft on the wing. However, if we proceed from your thesis and seem to be "aviation", then we unconditionally won the victory in the sky - We. It is not the equipment that wins, and not even the equipment + pilot. The system always wins
      1. Alf
        Alf 1 November 2022 20: 17
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        The system always wins

        And the economy.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 November 2022 20: 28
          +2
          Quote: Alf
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          The system always wins

          And the economy.

          I agree, although I think that economics is part of a systematic approach.
          1. Alf
            Alf 2 November 2022 20: 32
            +2
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            I agree, although I think that economics is part of a systematic approach.

            As the Turkish citizen Ostap-Suleiman-Berta-Maria-Bender-bey said, "there are no objections to this either."
  12. Wildcat
    Wildcat 1 November 2022 13: 49
    +4
    hi
    As always, an interesting article!
    I will add some reviews about the Ju 87G from the Red Army: "The fact that the bombers mainly attacked in large groups of up to 70 vehicles also speaks in favor of German aviation.
    During these raids, the 200th tank brigade was especially affected, having received 12 tanks from repairs and at about 13:00, it advanced through height 184,5 to the Vysokopole region. However, in the height area, the brigade was attacked by Ju-87G aircraft, which disabled 8 T-34s in a short time. The remaining four tanks connected with the 6th motorized rifle brigade, taking up defensive positions in the gardens near Vysokopole. Speaking about the effectiveness of German Ju-87G raids against our tanks, the headquarters of the 1st Panzer Army emphasized that it was "undeniable».
    ...
    Analyzing the actions of German aviation, the headquarters of the 1st Air Army noted: “Twhere the success of our troops is indicated or the possibility was created for our mobile formations to enter the operational space, the enemy immediately threw a large mass of bomber aircraft into these areas". A significant role in deterring Soviet tank formations was played by squadrons of dive bombers, which, according to Soviet aviation commanders, were most active and in large numbers operating over the battlefield, "posed the most real threat to our advancing troops". The anti-tank Ju-87G, armed with 37-mm cannons, also proved to be a very effective weapon. According to the tankers, "when a projectile hit the tank, the latter failed».
    ...
    The aviation of the 6th Air Fleet, which had concentrated its operations in the zone of the 9th Army since the beginning of August, played one of the decisive roles in disrupting Soviet plans to encircle the Oryol group. It was massive air strikes that helped the troops of General Model break away from the pursuit of Soviet tank formations and organize defense on new frontiers. The further development of the operation "Kutuzov" was associated with the offensive of the Soviet troops on Khotynets and Karachev. -kurskoj-battle
    1. Bongo
      1 November 2022 14: 27
      +8
      Quote: Wildcat
      As always, an interesting article!

      Thank you! drinks
      I decided to move away from the Ukrainian air defense, and change the subject to a neutral one.
    2. vovochkarzhevsky
      vovochkarzhevsky 1 November 2022 18: 13
      -1
      I will add some reviews about the Ju 87G from the Red Army: "The fact that the bombers mainly attacked in large groups of up to 70 vehicles also speaks in favor of German aviation.

      I wonder where Gorbach counted large groups of up to 70 vehicles, if on the eve of the Battle of Kursk anti-tank Ju87G-1s were in service with only two squadrons - 10. (Pz) / StG2 and 10. (Pz) / StG1?
      Yes, they, that is, Ju 87G, were generally converted into 208 pieces. No.
      1. Wildcat
        Wildcat 1 November 2022 21: 30
        +2
        The text is elementary.
        Try to read it slowly, out loud.
        If the answer to your question does not come to your mind, get someone else to read aloud, preferably at the age of 16 years.
        1. Toucan
          Toucan 2 November 2022 01: 42
          +1
          Quote: Wildcat
          The text is elementary.
          Try to read it slowly, out loud.
          If the answer to your question does not come to your mind, get someone else to read aloud, preferably at the age of 16 years.

          Apparently, your opponent, due to age reasons, or due to a special structure of the psyche, is not able to assimilate information that goes against his ideas.
        2. vovochkarzhevsky
          vovochkarzhevsky 2 November 2022 12: 54
          -3
          Yes, calm down already, Gorbach has never been a reliable source. You will also refer to "media tactics". lol
  13. Glagol1
    Glagol1 1 November 2022 15: 18
    +2
    Only KV and IS were accurately protected from 15-37 mm air guns.
    And the 34s were already at risk ...
    Our answer was - 20 - 23 mm guns and cumulative bombs PTAB 2,5 - 1,5.
    With ptabs we overtook the Germans and starting from the Kursk salient it was a nightmare for them. IL-2 and Yak-9 worked successfully.
  14. certero
    certero 1 November 2022 16: 26
    +3
    Quote: Pavel57
    Interesting article. German aviation was generally superior to Soviet counterparts. At the beginning of the war, this was especially noticeable.

    Unfortunately, it remained so until the end of the war. The Germans had better technology.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 18: 02
      +4
      Quote: certero
      Quote: Pavel57
      Interesting article. German aviation was generally superior to Soviet counterparts. At the beginning of the war, this was especially noticeable.

      Unfortunately, it remained so until the end of the war. The Germans had better technology.

      Why then did they lose?
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 1 November 2022 19: 02
        +4
        We covered them with a very "thick layer of plywood." Here the gentlemen from the Third Reich did not master "this burden"!
        There can be no other reason...
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2022 19: 56
          +6
          Quote: hohol95
          We covered them with a very "thick layer of plywood." Here the gentlemen from the Third Reich did not master "this burden"!
          There can be no other reason...

          Yeah, on top with a thick layer of oil paint!
          Good evening. Apparently the "worm" of worship in front of "German technology" comes down to a list of various "wunderwaffles" and their private "TTX". By the way, this is smeared with a thin layer of "human factor", through the numbers of victories with two "0".
          What if in essence? Aviation of the Red Army won the sky due to a number of complex reasons from "correctly set priorities" to the possibility of mass production of equipment and training of personnel. Therefore, all the "admirers" for some reason forget that the losses in aviation on both sides were comparable to 40-45 thousand.
          However, even then, the Germans had an analogue of our Pe-8 only in the middle of the war. There were other distortions, such as for example. At the final stage of the war, we didn’t need a jet aircraft, we would have won anyway. And the need for post-war jet aircraft was successfully solved at the expense of both the Germans and the British.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 1 November 2022 20: 26
            +4
            Therefore, all the "admirers" for some reason forget that the losses in aviation on both sides were comparable to 40-45 thousand.
            Such parity is very extensive and is achieved due to the fact that, in 41, there were no comparable number of “average” pilots in the Red Army, and by the middle of 43, the Luftwaffe was no longer there. Is it worth explaining that it is the "middle peasants" who are dragging the whole burden of military work?
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 November 2022 04: 06
              +3
              Good night Anton!
              Yes, I agree, this is one of the moments, but there are many others. Choice of priorities. The Germans fought primarily for parity in the sky, in order to enable the "pieces" that provided mobility for tank wedges to work. In our country, on the contrary, throughout the war, the main task was to support rifle units with attack aircraft and bombers. Covering their action was always a secondary task. Perhaps because of this, the “free hunting” widely practiced by Germany did not catch on with our Air Force.
              In an industrial aspect, this approach resulted in 36 Il-000 (IL-2) attack aircraft against 10 Me-30 fighters. In organizing military work for 000 man sorties of German fighters, we answered 109 of our own, but for 5 sorties with support on the battlefield we were able to counter our 3, then 4 or more. In fact, the Luftwaffe pilots were more efficient, but from 5 they were used as a fire brigade. For 7 sortie of our pilot, the Germans did 44. But we could allow 1 of ours to be used against them.
              And finally, let's remember that the Luftwaffe received the most massive damage in the first month of the war on the eastern front.
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 1 November 2022 20: 48
            +2
            40-45 thousand lost Soviet aircraft is this, taking into account the bravest aces from Croatia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Belgium, Finland and Spain with Italy ???
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 November 2022 04: 09
              +3
              Quote: hohol95
              40-45 thousand lost Soviet aircraft is this, taking into account the bravest aces from Croatia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Belgium, Finland and Spain with Italy ???

              Alas, this is a general assessment of losses. By the way, "the bravest of the bravest", the same Finns and Romanians managed to fight against the Germans. laughing
  15. hohol95
    hohol95 1 November 2022 17: 17
    +3
    Dear Sergey!
    Did you have articles about lesser-known types of aircraft weapons of the Second World War?
    Polish, Czechoslovak or other manufacturers, produced and installed on combat aircraft?
    1. Bongo
      2 November 2022 00: 08
      +3
      Quote: hohol95
      Dear Sergey!
      Did you have articles about lesser-known types of aircraft weapons of the Second World War?
      Polish, Czechoslovak or other manufacturers, produced and installed on combat aircraft?

      Hello!
      I didn’t dig on purpose. Of course, you can do it, but this topic will not be interesting for most readers, and the work is time-consuming.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 2 November 2022 05: 37
        +2
        "The game is not worth the candle."
        Possible.
        But they still like to learn something new at VO. Especially on the topic of "mechanisms for the destruction of their own kind."
  16. iz odessy
    iz odessy 1 November 2022 17: 19
    0
    it’s not bad to print primary sources, well, maybe they will be in the second part. Yu87 "gustav" = Rudel. By the way, he wrote in detail about the process of learning and "transplantation". The recoil of the 37mm cannon in a dive really bothered him. The plane stopped in the air - wrote
  17. Pavel57
    Pavel57 1 November 2022 19: 03
    +2
    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    The system always wins


    What is a system?

    The components of Victory are resources, organization and morale.
    For technical resources, not necessarily all parameters can be outstanding, but this is compensated by tactics, numbers or skill.
  18. Pavel57
    Pavel57 1 November 2022 19: 06
    +2
    Quote: Glagol1
    ...
    Our answer was - 20 - 23 mm guns and cumulative bombs PTAB 2,5 - 1,5.
    With ptabs we overtook the Germans and starting from the Kursk salient it was a nightmare for them. IL-2 and Yak-9 worked successfully.

    PTABs proved effective on the Kursk Bulge. Then the effect of surprise passed.
  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. The comment was deleted.
  21. certero
    certero 1 November 2022 23: 30
    +2
    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Quote: certero
    Quote: Pavel57
    Interesting article. German aviation was generally superior to Soviet counterparts. At the beginning of the war, this was especially noticeable.

    Unfortunately, it remained so until the end of the war. The Germans had better technology.

    Why then did they lose?

    Allies helped a lot in the air. But the main victory is still achieved on the ground. Here on earth, our ancestors were able to make more tanks, guns, shells, train more soldiers and learn how to fight better than the Germans
  22. certero
    certero 1 November 2022 23: 44
    +2
    Quote: Vladimir Michailovich
    Quote: certero
    Unfortunately, it remained so until the end of the war. The Germans had better technology.

    No, not so much better. :) Me-109 G and FV-190 since 1943 could not cover their strike aircraft, which forced the Fritz to switch to the FV-190 in the bomber version, and the creation of jet bombers AR-238 and Me-262. All this cumulatively reduced the impact capabilities of the backlashes and became one of the important factors in their defeat in the war. The weapon should not be the best, it should kill enemies as much as possible.

    What does all of the above have to do with the fact that the German materiel was superior to the Soviet? And where the Germans managed to concentrate their efforts, the losses of the Soviet Air Force were catastrophic.
    The German Air Force was a very strong enemy and, according to the apt expression of Miroslav Morozov, a military historian, "the Germans did not know that the war would end on May 9, XNUMX"
  23. Captain Pushkin
    Captain Pushkin 4 November 2022 21: 36
    -1
    In May 1942, Hs 129s were first used against Soviet troops in the Crimea.

    For the first time in April 1942 and not in the Crimea.
    6 pcs. Hs 129 pre-production units were sent to the front for military trials in the Kalinin Front at the end of April 1942.
    The impetus for the search for this information was my father's story about how on May 1, 1942 he was walking alone along a field path and some German twin-engine aircraft dropped a bomb on him. He could not name the type, because he had never seen anything like it during the entire war.
    I showed him a photo of all the German twin-engine bombers, reconnaissance aircraft, and fighters. Everything is not right.
    Then the same with the photo of all Lend-Lease, all ours, all German trophies.
    I thought that I saw the plane for a short time, it was a long time ago, I just didn’t recognize it ...
    Then I remembered about Hs 129, showed a photo, my father confidently identified it.
    Again, doubts, massively Hs 129 on the Eastern Front began to be used in 1943 ...
    But then I found information about trial operation at the front, and everything became clear, even why the tester threw a bomb on a single pedestrian.