I will repeat the preliminary description so that the reader who is unfamiliar with the first part knows that this work can be considered as freethinking or fantasy and not taken to heart. The opinions expressed can be biased, erroneous, far-fetched and even harmful. Ideas are unrealizable in practice. But it is not exactly. There are a number of important assumptions in the text.
- women do not give birth to new ones. In urban conditions, a child is a rather expensive pleasure. It is problematic to meet barefoot children living in dugouts in the villages. If a child is gifted and with a good education, the state must make efforts so that he does not fall down. In general, such an attitude towards our women is unpleasant. In addition, a large number of IVF and reproduction medical centers hint at certain problems with the reproduction of the population. And the state maternity capital program confirms these concerns;
There are no bad soldiers, there are bad commanders. Proven by Napoleon, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane and some football coaches. They say that Makhno had the talent of a military leader. But all this is inaccurate;
- in my fantastic opus, by "generals" I will mean not specific titles and their holders, but a collective image that has developed in the public mind. Even a humanitarian with the habits of a pacifist, who has never served in the army, can fit under this definition. weapons only kept historical replicas or in computer games. In the world they are sometimes called effective managers;
- those very conditional "generals" are not ready for the war before last. Many in their dreams see the battles of the Napoleonic Wars with cavalry, mercilessly smoking cannons and marching soldiers in haute couture uniforms with obligatory golden epaulettes, or sea battles on sailing frigates the size of a five-masted brig and obligatory boarding;
- again those same conditional "generals". They love reconnaissance in combat. We prefer to walk. This is their blood and flesh, the whole whole essence and nature. Other tactics are unacceptable and do not deserve any attention;
- An ordinary soldier is, first of all, a man of flesh and blood. It has natural biological needs that are vital. Due to the characteristics of the organism, it can exist in certain environmental conditions. He also has relatives, friends, social connections and affections. This is not a terminator from a favorite movie and not a superhero;
- there will probably be many letters, compound and complex sentences;
- perhaps "captainship";
- I ask you to calmly treat the expressed advice and rationalization proposals as harmful and with a certain degree of irony;
- it may seem that much is divorced from reality, fantastic and unrealizable.
The sofa is in the same place, the cat is somewhere, the Internet is on.
Everything has been clear here for a long time, there is no point in writing something new. I don't want to rub salt in the wound. Let's talk about the laity while our military masters in practice what appeared in the troops of a potential enemy more than 15 years ago.
The civilian sector, no less than the military, needs an unmanned aviation. In agriculture, this is simply an indispensable thing for processing fields and gardens from the air. Yes, I know about the "Corn" perfectly. Has anyone flown them and sprayed chemicals over the fields? Not only is the car not a gift, but the spraying itself can be carried out no lower than a certain height so that the plane does not drop, but not always and not everywhere. In addition, it is very expensive. In the case of the same quadcopter, it is possible to process literally every tree pointwise, and not poison all living creatures in the area with dust, as is the case with the Cornflower. Who doubts the last sentence, talk to the beekeepers.
Manned aviation is an expensive pleasure in itself, in the conditions of villages it is too expensive and dangerous. Not every million-plus collective farm can afford to simultaneously have a mini-airfield with a dispatcher, pilots and aircraft. Harvesting equipment in the harvest is sometimes not enough, and people.
In addition to the vast agricultural sector, there is a huge need for the delivery of goods to hard-to-reach places, of which we have an incredible abundance. Our country is rather big, there are plenty of hard-to-reach places. At some times of the year, they become generally inaccessible, or due to weather disasters. It's good if people have enough stocks. And when even plain water runs out?
With our territories, weather and adverse road conditions, a drone as a means of delivery, observation, control or processing of the terrain is sometimes simply irreplaceable. Not everywhere and not always it is possible to connect a helicopter to this. The demand is great and the market is hungry. There are all conditions for growth. Only from what is in the civilian sector, the epic self-cutting of the Russian Post quadrocopter and strict laws with requirements. It's easier to get a license and buy weapons. Everything is in public services. Than a copter with a camera. It makes no sense to talk about the vital necessity in the army.
All the charms of drones were already tested in practice more than 15 years ago. Just not with us. Again, I will appeal with a petition, maybe one of our manufacturers of military aircraft will guess on the material and technical base that he has to stamp huge series of UAVs. The Sukhoi Design Bureau makes civil aircraft and fills a vacant niche in civil aviation. They are already busy with important work. This is not irony, but confirmation of an important fact. Dear MiG engineers, stop sitting idle. Before you is a huge market, military and civilian. And you have a huge scientific and technical potential.
Manned military aviation has long been limited by the capabilities of the pilot's body. A considerable part of the mass of a modern combat aircraft falls on the cockpit and means of maintaining its viability. Not only does the optimal airframe profile need to be adjusted to the cockpit with the pilot, but this pilot must be trained for each aircraft, and they are not eternal. Take the limitations of the pilot's human body out of the aircraft equation, and you can make vehicles with unprecedented capabilities and with any swept wings.
I immediately foresee the attacks of the “generals” that this demon is soulless, because it is unmanned, therefore it is useless, therefore only levers and traction with a direct impact on the aircraft controls. All by hand. And no electronics! Why such a reaction is understandable, outlined in the preface. But something needs to be said. I answer.
Sometime in the mid-nineties, around 1995-1996, a technical paper caught my eye on the percentage cost of parts of an American military aircraft. The modern American fighter of those years was taken as an example. At that time, up to 75% of the cost of a finished military aircraft fell on electronics.
Neither turbojet engines, nor a fuselage made of composite materials, or a hydraulic system duplicated many times, ended up in the most expensive components. And of that 75% cost, 90% was software. This was a big revelation for me, and I seem to have puzzled my teacher in microprocessor technology with questions why and why.
At the moment, the main place of dominance of electronics in the aircraft is the cockpit. All indicators, displays, sensors, control devices are concentrated there. A bunch of data is collected, reduced, converted to a human-readable form and displayed. An equally large amount of data from the cockpit goes to the aircraft's actuators.
Some aircraft controls do not directly affect the tail actuators, but are first pre-processed to prevent the pilot from accidentally switching the aircraft to a critical flight mode. The airframe design feature of a modern fighter, due to the requirements of maneuverability, makes its glide capabilities similar to those of a brick. Therefore, the electronics may not allow you to perform a maneuver that leads to the scaling of the aircraft. Everyone knows about autopilot. There are prototypes that allow automatic takeoff and landing without human intervention.
And now a little feint with your hands. If you remove the cockpit from the aircraft, stop taking air from the engine turbine compressor to keep the pilot breathing, remove a lot of electronics necessary to convert information suitable for the perception of the pilot, and the same amount of electronics that converts the actions of the pilot into commands to control the elements of the aircraft. How much usable space will be freed up?
Move on. The cockpit was removed, and a bunch of electronics were thrown out along with the catapult, the task of controlling the aircraft did not disappear anywhere. How to be? This is where it is convenient from the point of view of weight distribution and layout of the aircraft. There are no restrictions on where to place the on-board computer for controlling the aircraft, which, in terms of its weight and dimensions, is comparable to a large volume of Pushkin. It can be a tail section, even wings, if the layout requires it.
But the world of drones doesn't just revolve around gliders, there's a huge family of quadcopters. There remains only one problem, or rather, two or even three huge problems. Although autonomous control of the aircraft does not require a supercomputer or a mining farm. We did not have any similarity of such computers and software for them. Now it won't be. A similar situation with engines. Although we have trouble with these three components in absolutely any military and civilian equipment. How to get out of this situation, I propose to ask those who, foaming at the mouth and turning blue in the face, proved the futility of UAVs for decades. I will write about this below.
At the beginning I will introduce definitions to bring clarity and understanding.
Automatic system does not require operator intervention. Example: elevators in cool business centers. The pass is read, you go through the turnstile, and an elevator is already waiting for you, which will take you to the desired floor. No external control action is required. You just went into the business center and an elevator is waiting for you, which will take you where you need to go.
Automated system requires operator intervention. An example is an ordinary elevator. I called, pressed the floor, waited for the doors to close and drove off. That's why I call it a robot automatic system, which performs a task without operator intervention, otherwise it is a telecontrol manipulator. The demining robot for sappers cannot be called an automatic robot. Remove the control operator and everything stops. Home robot vacuum cleaner is more autonomous.
Advantages of the robot:
- absolute obedience to orders. Where indicated, there he went. What they say, they do. He doesn’t ask questions, he doesn’t play smart, he doesn’t reread;
- fearlessness, indefatigability, lack of free-thinking;
- not subject to indoctrination by enemy elements;
- does not need wages, benefits, pensions, monetary allowances;
- I didn’t care about awards, bonuses, incentives, benefits. Deprived of vanity and career zeal;
- will not write a letter to his mother with a picturesque description of the hardships and hardships of military service, will not receive a farewell letter from his beloved;
- will not sharpen his skis in SOCHI, will not arrange a crossbow or execution on guard;
- in case of identifying shortcomings and shortcomings, to eliminate them, you can contact the manufacturing plant or upgrade at the base. Marriage can be sent back for remelting. With a military registration and enlistment office or a military school, such a number will not work;
- to work, you need a source of energy, ammunition, periodic maintenance (hereinafter referred to as maintenance) and an order. The organization of food delivery, sanitary and hygienic measures, places of rest, treatment and leisure is not required. Moreover, military personnel sometimes need specific treatment. I read an article by a Ukrainian scientist during their special operation against the republics. He drew attention to the large number of fighters bitten by snakes and spiders during the warm period. Serum "spiders" and "vipers" it turned out that it was not everywhere. If we take the more southern regions of the planet, there these delights are present in much greater abundance.
- they do not threaten the robot with both hypothermia and frostbite with subsequent amputation;
- in peacetime does not need housing, mortgages, loans, vacations and adventures;
– not subject to chemical and biological contamination factors. Rosatom has developments and samples that can work in areas of radioactive contamination;
- will not be poisoned by incomprehensible rubbish, will not infect colleagues. It is known that dysentery and jaundice mow down fighters worse than a machine gun;
- devoid of kleptomania;
- does not swell.
- They are not here. Like the robots themselves. Those outrages on the basis of the "Invalidka" with a machine gun cannot be called a combat robot, a robot too. Especially combat;
- does not know how to march and give a military salute.
In fact, this is an ideal fighter for any "generals" and not only. The robot can be on combat duty for a long time without sleep, rest, leave and women. On the first command, he is ready to fight without delay to get ready and say goodbye to his relatives. Just a dream. The dream is not as impossible as it may seem.
For example, I will take ground equipment. What is required of such a robot? Compliance with traffic rules, reading markings and road signs, observing the speed limit or maintaining a safe distance? This is not required even from a conditional BMP driver. Move automatically over a certain area, avoid obstacles, interact with other devices, return to base. This is not fiction, this is a home robot vacuum cleaner or a robot courier for delivering groceries.
Hang an acoustic sensor, such as an echo sounder, on such a conditional robot in order to know what is hidden in the ground and lies behind the walls. Laser / maser / lidar - at least all together to know the environment and avoid obstacles. Navigation and orientation system. A finished product that can move independently, interact with other robots, UAVs and transmit data to the base. All this simultaneously and in real time. This is not fantasy. Many less sophisticated home robot vacuum cleaners can work automatically in a smart home system without human intervention. Unless they know how to throw out the garbage.
A combat robot is not necessarily a drum kit. Very often, advancing units need to conduct reconnaissance of the area not on the map, but on the spot, and mine clearance in the same place. Such moments do not remain without the close attention of the enemy and the salutary barrage from his side. According to established traditions, such a reconnaissance and demining operation is carried out by people under dense fire from the enemy with everything that he has. Give free rein to the "generals", they would have returned the good old demining on foot. Only lovely women have ceased to cope with the supply of cannon fodder.
Be that as it may, the task must be solved, and the task is not so unsolvable from the point of view of the current scientific and technical progress. All kinds of cameras, acoustic sensors, portable radars and communication systems are not only littered with Aliexpress, but there is a fairly wide range. This suggests that many components that used to be the lot of military or expensive commercial projects are now freely available and in a wide range at an affordable price.
The text will constantly slip the idea of the need for changes and the introduction of technology in civilian life. The same goes for robots. Pretty Dasha at the St. Petersburg Forum - funny. No more. Because if there is no progress in the civilian sector, there will be no progress in military affairs. Until the conditional "general" is imbued with the sight of an automatic garbage collector in the yard instead of the janitors who returned back to their countries, there will be no progress. Until dachas and apartments are built and maintained by robots, and not by those who come to work, no changes are expected. Why build a flour mill if there is an "environmentally friendly" windmill? A similar situation with robots in military affairs.
Robots can serve well in military production, reducing the negative impact of the human factor. They won't spill secrets on kebabs, won't make a crooked weld, because they were exhausted and didn't eat, they can work around the clock without breaks and smoke breaks. They don't need an advance or a paycheck.
The oil industry has long used automatic installations for pipe welding. Steel two or three centimeters thick is welded with a special installation, the resulting weld is immediately checked and, if everything is fine, the welded pipe is soon immersed in the sea. In our country, far from all military equipment, armoring starts from two centimeters in thickness, and a high-quality ceiling seam is not required there. Only the equipment itself is often required as quickly as possible and in large quantities, because it has long been a consumable material in hostilities. And a good welder usually does not lie on the road, and he is not seven-stranded to plow, or rather, cook, all day and night.
In addition to welding, assembly and painting work in the civilian automotive industry has been automated for a very long time. It is the automation and robotization of production that makes it possible to achieve millions of copies of equipment at an affordable price for a simple layman. Moreover, with the quality and level of technologies not used in military equipment. At one time, it was the transition to automation and robotization of production that allowed Japan to achieve a significant breakthrough in industrialization without attracting cheap labor from other countries or transferring production to countries with cheaper workers.
In nature, there are many different feedbacks (hereinafter OS). In engineering, positive feedback (hereinafter referred to as POS) and negative feedback (hereinafter referred to as FOS) are often used. The latter is often used to stabilize the system so that it does not go haywire or reach saturation. Negative feedback makes the system more resistant to random parameter changes. A bunch of angry responses under this article is an example of such an OOS.
More OS examples. A negative HIV test is an example of PIC after a casual relationship. Friends all as one agreed to go with you to the museum. This is a case of PIC. When the wife found out that instead of a museum they somehow ended up in a sauna, wait for the OOS. Exceeded the speed in front of the radar, wait for a letter from the EPA with a photo and a fine. There are a huge number of options for the manifestation of the OS, and those who are familiar with cybernetics, radio engineering and electronics perfectly understand the essence of the OS.
There is a story about a personal car for I. V. Stalin. It is not so important how it was designed, how the quality of the booking was checked. According to the evidence, the entire engineering and design staff was placed in the cabin and fired at the car. The check showed a quality booking. All remained intact. In the event of miscalculations in design or manufacture, the engineering and design staff would receive an instant OS in the form of a negative growth in the adult population.
How else can you use the OS? I will continue the automotive theme. There are several manufacturers of automotive equipment, and they do not really do anything. They have been sculpting and planing according to ancient patterns a semblance of equipment for supposedly use in combat conditions for decades. That's what they live. They are not capable of developing something relevant, especially a breakthrough. They completely lack the culture of production and development. What to do with them? The time-tested laws of Parkinson say that they must be isolated from others. Because they are extremely contagious in terms of dampening and wrecking. Or turn to competitors. This is an example of OOS when the system went haywire.
Earlier I wrote about the mandatory requirements for the maintainability of equipment. For example, in a certain design bureau they decided to surpass the modern iPod in terms of non-repairability in their product? Welcome to the open field, here's a tool for you from what you have, repair it. This is not a joke or slander. From computer scientists I know stories when programmers were necessarily involved in solving incidents, and then the quality of their programming sharply increased. It turns out that not everyone likes to spend several hours in the night looking for their jambs.
In another design bureau, they decided that a platoon of soldiers would always ride in the tented body of a truck, who, with the help of a crowbar and some kind of mother, would rescue the car from any puddle? But it turned out that a car loaded with shells, which are urgently needed at the forefront, got stuck. It happens. Dear engineers, designers and their assistants, drop your drawing boards, T-squares, patterns, slide rules and rush to rescue the equipment from the quagmire. An example of environmental protection that increases the stability of the system.
UAVs are not needed even in the form of loitering ammunition! It comes from all the cracks from adepts of drill training and knowledge of the charter by heart. so what is the problem? Welcome gentlemen! Here is a flyer, sit down, take off and show by personal example how to correctly carry out reconnaissance and corrective work on the front line in real time. And it is desirable that they do it longer in time, so that the UAV will last longer. In the event of an operator's command, switch to kamikaze mode. For the tasks of adjusting artillery fire and reconnaissance of nests of nested snipers, machine gunners or grenade launchers, fighter bombers of either the fourth or fifth generation are not needed, any obsolete even AN-2 will do. Therefore, gentlemen, there will always be equipment for you. Get started. An example of environmental protection that reduces parasitic oscillations in the system from parasitic resonances.
Based on your own experience, come up with your own version of the OOS for ingenious developers who considered protection against airsoft weapons more than sufficient for wheeled and even tracked vehicles.
The fact that manufacturers of shoes for the military of the Donobuv company, starting with the general director, all his deputies and accounting departments up to the last assistant designer, must wear only their shoes at any time of the year, this is not discussed.
Bonuses, allowances, raises are all examples of PIC. The peculiarity of the manifestation of this OS is that you always want more. Phenomena such as alcoholism and drug addiction are examples of POS. The body requires each time an increasing dose until it reaches saturation. Accordingly, withdrawal syndrome or overdose. The tale of the goldfish by A. S. Pushkin is a wonderful literary example of the manifestation of POS. In view of the danger of this OS, to ensure stability and stability, the system is wrapped in loops of the OS. both local and general.
8. Subversive work
At the beginning of the definition, to bring clarity and understanding.
By sabotage work, I will understand activities behind the front line or deep in the rear, aimed at reducing the capabilities of the enemy. He may have many possibilities. These are economic, industrial, human, ideological, transport, scientific, medical. The line of reasoning is simple. If we weaken the possibilities in the rear, sooner or later it will affect the front.
I am ready for reproaches that this is low, disgusting, only weaklings, cowards and losers do this. Real warriors meet in an honest open battle and fight by the rules. That's right, dear "generals". Only in war all means are good. Now it is she who goes only by the forces of the fraternal people with the active pumping of entities that are not brotherly to us.
Sun Tzu's treatise on the art of war was not written from scratch, and if there is an opportunity to prick the little toe of the foot, which will slow down the enemy's brave step, why not take advantage of this opportunity? In addition to the well-known treatise, there is a wonderful series of books by Ilya Grigorievich Starinov. Very interesting books and the operations described in them, which are included in many manuals on sabotage. It is very sad that the conditional "generals" are read out by D'Artagnan, Tolkien and 50 Shades of Grey, and not by these books.
"Calibers", "Daggers" and other common names - it's very good, and the public likes it, only terribly expensive. And the kurbel handle, which can be used to move the arrow under a train with military equipment, is very cheap. In general, it is dangerous for the translator to translate the arrows under the running train. Therefore, it is possible to properly power the relay that controls the turnout drive so that everything is as it should and is safe.
The meeting of two phases in the contact network on the haul can disable traction substations for a long time without any calibration. At the same time, you can burn the entire contact network. Also, a head-on meeting of two trains on a stage greatly reduces the throughput of a section of the railway track and even combat readiness. Pulling locomotives apart, lifting fallen cars, restoring the track at the meeting point can be a very dreary and labor-intensive event.
For those who are interested, on average, an electric locomotive burns out in 15–20 minutes, a diesel locomotive can go faster. With the fire extinguishing systems of the locomotive, the situation is the same as we have with drones. There are no systems for diagnosing the state of the locomotive as a class, so no one will guess the true reason. Since the beginning of the 2014s, there have been problems with the locomotive economy in the “independent” one. It was such that even the equipment was not returned. They just left the locomotives at home without any explanation. And that was before the events of 1. With a serviceable rail track and an abundance of rolling stock, diesel locomotives and electric locomotives are indispensable. The train will not pull 000 tons. There are heavier compounds.
Is there a heavily guarded railroad tunnel that supplies military hardware and exports grain in exchange? I. G. Starinov solved this problem more than seven decades ago with the help of a wheel with explosives. At the current level of development of scientific and technological progress, the same civilian copter can stick anything along the train route. The same can be done with railway bridges.
Why did you focus on the railway sector? Because it is the main transport for the delivery of military equipment and cargo, even for the export of resources. You can't take much on asphalt. Now I have described only part of the possible. In fact, the field for sabotage activities is huge, and this activity is more destructive than the use of high-precision sea or land-based weapons. And it's often much cheaper.
If a few special fungi and insect larvae are quietly added to the grain exported in huge quantities, then the Caliber can not compete with them in terms of the possible destructive effect.
How many days will the truck or wagon stay in the sun until it is unloaded? Grain after such processing cannot even be thrown away, it requires disposal, and no one will be lucky to return it.
9. Communications and electronic components
I remember an anecdote from Soviet times. After a major successful exercise, the satisfied father commanders decide who to reward. Well done landing, they just showed themselves perfectly, reward everyone. Well done tankers, shot back accurately, reward too. The sappers are also great, they did a good job, reward them. Signalers... Signalers should not be punished.
Now communication is largely determined by the possibility of technology and depends little on the human factor. The radio operator no longer sits on the key and threshes messages. For encryption, you do not need to use gear technology. Many budget not-so-new smartphones have hardware encryption support, so you can safely watch cat videos and not worry that you will be the victim of a traffic spoofing attack. For 20 years now, there have been no problems with the hardware implementation of block or stream encryption in the form of a very small section of the processor.
The radio part of 30 years has been traveled far and wide. Digital frequency synthesizers, digital filters, low noise receivers and powerful transmitters in one chip. All this was implemented 30 years ago. True, not with us.
Communication is the nervous system. How necessary is the nervous system, look at
paralyzed people. The paralyzed part of the body seems to be alive, only it does not completely obey. What's the use of legs if they don't walk? Your CO.
Sometimes one gets the impression that among the developers of communications equipment there are only audiophiles and fans of warm tube sound. Therefore, even portable radio stations are so heavy and massive. But they give out high-quality as close as possible to the tube sound.
Against the backdrop of everything that is happening in our semiconductor industry, there has been a tendency to plug holes with rags in the form of a failure of developments based on gallium arsenide and an urgent transfer of forces to silicon. Gallium arsenide material is more promising than good old silicon in semiconductor manufacturing. Less noisy, more resistant to ionizing radiation, operates in a wider temperature range, charge carriers are much faster than in silicon, so devices based on it are faster, less heated and more stable in operation. It has a lot of advantages compared to silicon, but it turns out that photonic elements can also be implemented on it. In other words, without leaving the room, you can use the advantages of electronics and photonics on the same technological basis.
For those who don't know, photonics allows you to perform calculations in parallel and transfer data without fear that they will interfere with each other. Photons do not interfere, unlike electrons, and do not heat cables. Video cards based on photonics technologies would consume many times less energy and would also heat up little.
During the ongoing collapse in the semiconductor industry, many of our manufacturers have decided to roll back to silicon. It's like going from a promising diesel engine back to a steam engine. But only the current state of affairs in the world is a huge chance to master promising technology. Now the whole world is stubbornly and thoroughly sitting on a silicon needle and is not going to switch to something new in the coming decades. Too much money is pumped into the construction of modern FABs (factories for the production of semiconductor components).
It is much easier to produce processors according to finer technological standards than to switch to another more promising material. Processors with each generation consume more and more energy and heat up even more. Due to physical limitations, silicon at high frequencies turns into a good heating element with unstable target operating parameters. No wonder he gave the example of a steam engine. Compared to the energy efficiency of computing, silicon is comparable to a steam engine. Its efficiency will be approximately the same as that of a steam
But here there is a high danger that the old burnt stoker, with the help of experience in drowning and shovels, will prove the promise of a steam engine over a diesel engine. As has already become a good tradition, we will trail behind those who are catching up, instead of creating new breakthrough technologies.
There are other advantages to using higher frequency gallium arsenide. Now the main technological process in microelectronics goes by reducing technological standards. The same nanometers that manufacturers write about and marketers add up odes to. More and more electronic components are packed in one chip, placing them as close as possible to each other. With all the ensuing problems of heat dissipation and mutual influence. For this production, extremely expensive equipment is used, which no one will sell to us. What we managed to get before that were miserable leftovers that would not play much weather.
Look at the characteristics of current processors. Increasing the frequency of chips stopped many years ago, the global industry ran into fundamental limitations of silicon. Now we see a race in nanometers and the number of transistors on a chip, and a constant increase in power consumption. To overclock the processor to 10 GHz, you need liquid cooling. Preferably with liquid nitrogen. In addition, such overclocking quickly shortens the life of the processor, because it is in an extreme state. For gallium arsenide, 10 GHz is just the beginning of the conversation.
Also, due to its physical characteristics, it can operate in a larger temperature range, is less affected by ionizing radiation than silicon. If we make a chip at 90–120 nm available to us now, we can get a gain due to the speed of the main elements, and not cunning algorithms for parallelizing calculations and speculation with data sampling.
There is another important point. Many calculations are performed strictly sequentially, and it is very difficult or impossible in principle to parallelize them. The only way to speed up calculations can only be to increase the speed of their execution. To do this, you can only raise the frequency of the processor, those same gigahertz. Some pieces of military equipment require very fast calculations at hypersonic speeds. In space, high resistance to ionizing radiation is needed. Therefore, if there is a desire to develop microelectronics from scratch, and these are the opinions at the top because of the current state of affairs, then it is better to do it on a more modern basis.
The flint horse died a long time ago, the fact that they are now trying to kick it all over the world with nanometers costs large dimensions of cooling systems and high power consumption. It's time to move on to another horse. Then tighten those same nanometers. Moreover, with us, with nanometers, the process can drag on for a decade and an incredible amount of money.
It is not necessary to immediately make a processor like Intel. It is enough to start producing a range of FPGAs (programmable logic elements). This is such a microcircuit-designer that allows you to assemble everything that the developer wants. They are very often in demand because of their versatility.
In his writings, he mentioned several times about scientific and technological progress. Without it, in any way: neither in war, nor in peacetime. We all remember the tale about how good and desperate warriors of ancient Sparta were and about the harsh precepts of Lycurgus. We rarely remember or do not know that their neighbors with a developed economy and technology pressed the Spartans on all fronts. As a result, Sparta went into legend, and the capital of Laconia fell under the dependence of Rome. A strong, skillful, unpretentious warrior is good, but the farther the better the means of detecting such a warrior at a distance, and the accurate systems for delivering trinitrotoluene or hexogen to him are much better.
Usually such systems in the world of mass production are produced and improved quite quickly. With brave warriors, this process is not as fast and reliable as one would like. One of the reasons for the death of Sparta was that there was no one to protect her. The warriors simply ended, easily and naturally going to certain death. Robots weren't made back then.
More recently, I looked at the vacancies of one pretty good research institute. The salary of an engineer with higher education and experience is 40-45 thousand. Seems like a lot, even today. But at the same research institute, the salary of a driver is 50-55 thousand. A chemist with a higher education and experience is promised to be paid 30-35 thousand, but a plumber 45-50 thousand. I do not want to say that the work of a driver or a plumber is sugar. Here and there you need experience and knowledge. But where is the young specialist more likely to sharpen his skis after graduation? There, where they pay more, there is less responsibility and the likelihood of overtime, or in a specialty? Not all diplomas are fools.
A young scientist does not always reach for a large ruble. There are many ideological and interested people among them, who are ready to advance science for a small salary. Only when they are faced with antediluvian laboratory and measuring equipment, archaic approaches, and even with our bureaucracy mixed with small-town aristocracy, many are not enough for a long time.
Some send science away and do not want to get involved with it anymore. Who is more agile - go abroad. And they do not always receive money abroad, but they have access to relevant developments and modern laboratory equipment. As a result, only a few units remain in science, which will not make much weather. Now I will explain why.
There is an unspoken observation that does not pretend to be true, maybe somewhere it does not work at all. So, if the share of young employees under 30–33 years old does not exceed 25% in a research team, do not expect anything new and promising. With a high probability, many things will be done the old fashioned way "as grandfathers bequeathed."
And if in such an old department there is an ever-rejuvenating person near retirement age, there is a possibility of not expecting anything new from the department at all. Usually these ladies fall into the outer protectorate of someone from above, and it is completely pointless even for the head of the department to fight them. There will be small talk and recipe discussions throughout the day, News, tricks of children, serials. On any more or less holidays, festive gatherings will be organized. With conditions as close as possible to home.
When there are two or more such eternal young people in the department, and they converge on the same wavelength, except for eternal conversations and breaks for tea and coffee, nothing else is foreseen. There will be a good sociable team, in which from time to time they try home-made preparations and spins with home-made wine. A good small-town version of "Red and White" as part of a department that may eventually absorb the entire design bureau.
The working schedule of such departments usually looks like this: from 9:00 to 12:30 work type, at 12:30 preparation for lunch, from 13:00 to 14:00 lunch. At 17:30 you have to go warm up the car and prepare for the road home. Therefore, just take it for granted, enter into a position and do not demand the impossible.
I don’t know how much one can believe such rumors, they say that in all federal state unitary enterprises the situation is almost the same. But it can be just speculation or machinations. But it is not exactly.
Scientific companies as an analogue of sharashkas should not be discussed. There is no more sense from them than from ordinary conscripts. The fighter rewound the service from conscription to demobilization, what happens next is not his concern.
In addition to the development of the military industry, we should not forget about us sinful civilians. It is also worth thinking about the real sector of the economy and implementing something of your own knowledge-intensive. Now we are surrounded by technologies that were originally developed as military ones. This is the Internet, GPS, cellular communications use the principles developed by the military for voice over digital transmission, drones were originally developed by the military, the Internet of things - from there. A lot of where DARPA tried. And now we sit tightly on their developments, finalize and pay for them.
I don’t know what developments we have, what are implemented. So far, they can’t be seen anywhere else, except on TV, in civilian life I haven’t seen anything new and breakthrough in our country. Probably, there are many things that are not very secret and suitable for the civilian industry. As I wrote earlier, until some conditional "generals" are imbued with new technologies in everyday life, in military affairs they will not go further than single exhibition samples. Such as autonomous robots, drones, the Internet of things, satellite communications and the Internet, artificial intelligence systems and much more. Add in the comments what you missed.