Military Review

Russian resistance to Polish occupation

6
Russian resistance to Polish occupation
Franz Rubo. "Attack of the Cossacks in the steppe". 1881



The Russians responded to the colonial, anti-Russian policy of the Commonwealth with large-scale uprisings. The core of resistance was the Cossacks, as the most passionate (active) part of the Russian superethnos.

Fighting the Orthodox (Russians)


The use of the Zaporizhian Cossacks as a military force (Why Russian Ukraine rebelled against gentry democracy) was a very reasonable step on the part of the rulers of the Commonwealth. The Cossacks fought on the side of Poland during the Time of Troubles in the Russian kingdom, in the Smolensk war. The Cossacks saved the Commonwealth more than once in the wars with the Crimean Khanate and Turkey. They continued a stubborn struggle with the Crimean Tatars, defended the southern Ukraine, the outskirts of the Polish kingdom. They responded to blows and raids with their raids and campaigns.

The surroundings of Ochakov, Bendery, Akkerman, Azov and other Turkish fortresses blazed with fire, the Cossacks' naval landings smashed Kafa, Kerch, Evpatoria, Trebizond and disturbed even the suburbs of Istanbul-Constantinople. The Cossacks did not give rest to the slave traders in the Crimea and Turkey, they crossed the Black Sea on their boats, seagulls, as the warriors of Oleg the Prophet and Svyatoslav Igorevich once did. Thousands of Christian slaves were freed.

However, the panamas were not smart enough to use the Cossacks, and gradually, step by step, Polonized them, and then the entire Russian Ukraine. As previously it was done with the Western Russian elite - the princely and boyar families of Lithuanian Rus. Polonization and catholicization, together with the parasitic and most cruel methods of colonialism, when the Russians in the Ukraine became a kind of Indians for the Polish gentry (“chosen”, “real Christians”, in contrast to Russian heretics), began to be carried out in an accelerated mode.

After the adoption of the Union of Brest in 1596, which led to the subordination of a number of bishops of the Kyiv Metropolis to the Pope and the creation of the Russian Uniate Church on the territory of the Commonwealth. Catholics, the Polish authorities, and then the Uniates began to oppress the Orthodox (that is, Russians). From the point of view of Catholics and Uniates, upon acceptance of the Union by any Uniate priest or hierarch, it automatically transfers to the new church and its flock. And in this case, the land holdings of the corresponding church or monastery should also become the property of the Uniates. The law was on the side of the Uniates, whose property rights were reinforced by royal decrees. It is clear that this did not suit the main part of the Orthodox.

The broad masses of the Russian nobility (gentry), lower clergy, townspeople, Cossacks and peasants did not renounce the faith. At the same time, the lower ranks of the clergy and the Cossacks took the toughest positions, preventing the higher hierarchs from pursuing a more “flexible” policy, from compromising with the Uniates. A long and bloody confrontation began. The Orthodox defended Kyiv. King Vladislav IV (1632–1648), trying to enlist the loyalty of Russians in Ukraine in the Smolensk War, in 1633 recognized the legitimacy of the Orthodox Church. Peter Mogila, who became the Metropolitan of Kyiv, was given all Kyiv churches and monasteries. King Vladislav allowed the Orthodox to freely practice their faith and build churches. True, royal power was worth little in the lands of the magnates and pans, who established their own rules.


Cossacks on "gulls" under the command of Hetman P. Sahaydachny attack the Turkish fleet and capture Kafa in 1616.

Polonization of Ukraine


Pan's oppression also increased significantly. Previously, the owners of the border, Ukrainian regions, one way or another, reckoned with ordinary people. Together with their subjects, they fought off the raids of the Crimeans. In order to populate the sparsely populated areas, the pans gave great benefits to runaway peasants from the interior regions, hiding them. Specially invited people to themselves. And the governors themselves, the elders and other representatives of power in Ukraine were usually Russian by faith and blood.

But gradually the situation changed. With the help of Cossack sabers, labor and sweat of the peasant settlers, the nobles amassed huge estates. The descendants of the former Cossack hetmans became the largest magnates in the Commonwealth. So, Vyshnevetsky owned 40 thousand peasant farms in the Poltava region, Zaslavsky - 80 towns and towns, 2 villages, Pototsky - Nizhyn starostvo and the city of Kremenchug, Konetspolsky 760 towns and towns, 170 villages in the Bratslav region, the Zholkevsky family belonged to a significant part of the Lviv region. The magnates had huge fortunes, their treasury was larger than that of kings. They had their squads and armies, sometimes stronger than the royal one. The masses of the poor gentry obeyed them.

The magnates felt free, confident, and the benefits for the "cattle" (forced "cattle", as the pans of ordinary people called) ended. The same serfdom was introduced as in the interior regions of Poland with exorbitant and various requisitions, corvée, the complete power of the gentlemen over the property, body and life of serfs-claps. The connection of Russian nobles by origin with the people was severed.

The magnates from South-Western Russia shone in Warsaw, set the tone at the Diets, successfully pushed through their interests and became completely Polish. They switched to Polish, forgetting the "muzhik" Russian language. Their children studied in Polish, Jesuit schools, converted to Catholicism. Newly converted Catholics became even greater and bitter enemies of the Russians (Orthodox) than born Catholics. A kind of Russian Janissaries. Russian by origin, but who went over to the side of the enemy, who became a tool in the fight against the remaining Russian world. At the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries. the “Ukrainian Reich” was created according to the same scheme, pitting it against the rest of Russian civilization.


A chain mail armor with a misyurka was worn in Poland by hussars. Later, similar armor was worn by elite units of registered Cossacks, armored Cossacks

Uprisings of Russian Ukraine


The Russians responded with uprisings. The core of the rebels were the Cossacks, as the most passionate (active) part of the people. Then other classes joined them.

In 1591, a detachment of registered Cossacks led by Krishtof Kosinsky attacked the White Church - the residence of the Bila Tserkva headman, Prince Janusz Ostrozhsky. The attack of the registered Cossacks was the beginning of a major peasant-Cossack uprising, which soon engulfed the Kiev, Volyn, Bratslav and Podolsk provinces. The Cossacks offered their service to Moscow, as Ivan the Terrible once did. Boris Godunov, who was the real ruler of Russia during the reign of Fyodor Ivanovich, agreed.

The Polish government did not interfere at first, considering it Ostrogsky's affair. Like, he broke firewood, let him disentangle. So, the September Sejm of 1592 rejected Ostrozhsky's request for help with the crown army, refused to impose a “banation” on the Cossacks and outlaw the gentry Kosinsky. Only in January 1593 was permission given for the collection of the commonwealth (gentry militia). Meanwhile, Kosinsky was smashing the gentry in Volhynia. The Cossacks were joined by small gentry, urban lower classes and peasants.

In a stubborn battle near the town of Pyatka (now Zhytomyr region), which lasted several days, the Poles defeated the rebels. A key role in the victory of the Poles was played by the squads of the "Ukrainian" magnates Ostrozhsky and Vyshnevetsky. The Cossacks were forced to sign an agreement and submit to royal authority. But, returning home, they rebelled again and asked Moscow to take them into their citizenship.

In May 1596, Kosinsky led the Cossacks to Cherkassy. However, he died: according to one version - in battle, according to another - he was treacherously killed during negotiations. The Cossacks continued the war and in August reached an agreement with Vishnevetsky. The arrest of the embassy of the Zaporizhzhya Army caused a new rebellion and attempts to besiege Kyiv. The Cossacks were forced to retreat because of the attack on their villages by the Crimeans, who were set on by the Poles.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. RVAPatriot
    RVAPatriot 16 October 2022 06: 44
    -1
    Maybe it's about how the Commonwealth was puffed up to do something ??? And where did it lead her?
    1. carpenter
      carpenter 16 October 2022 07: 23
      +3
      Quote: RVAPatriot
      Maybe it's about how the Commonwealth was puffed up to do something ??? And where did it lead her?

      To the Polonization of Ukraine so that we are still slurping.
  2. Mar.Tirah
    Mar.Tirah 16 October 2022 10: 00
    +1
    And just then A. Mamontov's program arrived in time, which shows the essence of the Polish nation, which they still show. For the sake of petty interests, any Pole will fall under any master.
  3. Old electrician
    Old electrician 16 October 2022 12: 40
    +3
    The Russians responded to the colonial, anti-Russian policy of the Commonwealth with large-scale uprisings. The core of resistance was the Cossacks, as the most passionate (active) part of the Russian superethnos.
    - gee-gee-gee! Another fairy tale in the style of popular folk history from Samsonov. Quote from Russian History. A complete course of lectures" by the outstanding Russian historian Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (1841 - 1911):
    MORAL CHARACTER OF THE COSSACKS. We traced in general terms the history of the Little Russian Cossacks in connection with the fate of Lithuanian Rus until the beginning of the XNUMXth century, when an important turning point occurred in their position. We saw how the nature of the Cossacks changed: bands of steppe industrialists singled out fighting squads from their midst, who lived by raids on neighboring countries, and from these squads the government recruited border guards. All these ranks of the Cossacks equally looked to the steppe, looked for food there, and with these searches, to a greater or lesser extent, contributed to the defense of the constantly threatened southeastern outskirts of the state. With the Union of Lublin, the Little Russian Cossacks turned their faces back, on the state that they had hitherto defended. The international position of Little Russia demoralized this rabble and vagrant mass, and prevented the civic feeling from arising in it. The Cossacks used to look at neighboring countries, at the Crimea, Turkey, Moldova, even Moscow, as an object of prey, as “Cossack bread”. They began to transfer this view to their own state since the time when pan and gentry land ownership with its serfdom began to settle on its southeastern outskirts. Then they saw in their state an enemy even worse than the Crimea or Turkey, and from the end of the XNUMXth century. began to turn on him with redoubled fury. So the Little Russian Cossacks were left without a fatherland and, therefore, without faith. At that time, the whole moral world of Eastern European man rested on these two foundations, inextricably linked one with the other, on the fatherland and on the god of the land. The Commonwealth did not give the Cossack either one or the other. The idea that he was Orthodox was for the Cossack a vague childhood memory or an abstract idea that did not oblige to anything and was not suitable for anything in Cossack life. During the wars, they treated the Russians and their churches no better than the Tatars, and worse than the Tatars. Orthodox Russian sir Adam Kisel, government commissar of the Cossacks, who knew them well, in 1636 wrote about them that they are very fond of the Greek religion and its clergy, although religiously they are more similar to the Tatars than to Christians. The Cossack remained without any moral content. In the Commonwealth there was hardly another class that stood at a lower level of moral and civic development: unless the highest hierarchy of the Little Russian Church before the church union could compete with the Cossacks in savagery. In its Ukraine, with extremely tight thinking, it is not yet accustomed to seeing the fatherland. This was hindered by the extremely rabble composition of the Cossacks. The five-hundred-listed, registered detachment of Cossacks, recruited under Stefan Batory, included people from 74 cities and counties of Western Russia and Lithuania, even as remote as Vilna, Polotsk, then from 7 Polish cities, Poznan, Krakow, etc., in addition , Muscovites from Ryazan and from somewhere on the Volga, Moldovans and, on top of that, one Serb, a German and a Tatar from Crimea with an unbaptized name. What could unite this rabble? A pan was sitting on his neck, and a saber was hanging on his side: to beat and rob a pan and sell a saber - in these two interests the entire political worldview of a Cossack, all social science taught by the Sich, the Cossack Academy, the highest school of valor for every good Cossack and a den of riots, as the Poles called it. The Cossacks offered their military services for a proper reward to the German emperor against the Turks, and to their Polish government against Moscow and the Crimea, and to Moscow and the Crimea against their Polish government. The early Cossack uprisings against the Commonwealth had a purely social, democratic character without any religious national connotation. They, of course, began in Zaporozhye. But in the first of them, even the leader was a stranger, from an environment hostile to the Cossacks, who had betrayed his fatherland and class, a shady gentry from Podlyakhia Kryshtof Kosinsky. only due to the fact that the mercenaries were not paid their salaries on time, he recruited the Cossacks and all sorts of Cossack rabble and began to ruin and burn Ukrainian cities, towns, estates of the gentry and pans, especially the richest landowners in Ukraine, the princes of Ostrozhsky. Prince K. Ostrozhsky beat him, took him prisoner, forgave him and his Zaporozhye comrades and forced them to swear an obligation to sit quietly at their doorsteps. But two months later, Kosinsky raised a new uprising, swore allegiance to the Muscovite tsar, boasted with Turkish and Tatar help to turn the whole of Ukraine upside down, cut all the gentry there, laid siege to the city of Cherkasy, planning to cut out all the townsfolk with the headman of the city, thereby prince. Vishnevetsky, who begged him for mercy from Prince. Ostrozhsky, and finally laid down his head in a battle with this headman. His work was continued by Loboda and Nalivaiko, who until 1595 ravaged the right-bank Ukraine.

    Briefly about the protection of Russia and Orthodoxy by the Cossacks.
    In 1615, envoys of the Russian Tsar Peter Mansurov and clerk Samsonov were sent from Moscow to Constantinople,
    persuading the sultan to tell the Crimean khan to go to Lithuania, because the Polish king, having recognized the amateur link between the tsar and the sultan, constantly refers to the emperor, the pope, the king of Sweden and other sovereigns, intent on all sorts of famously Russia and Turkey.

    Simply put, the tsar father tried to conclude an alliance with Turkey against Poland, which threatened Russia with war. However, this attempt to conclude an alliance was cynically and brazenly thwarted by the Don Cossacks, since this potential alliance prevented them from going to Turkey for zipuns. Despite the requests, exhortations and bribes of the king's envoys, they broke loose and harassed the Turks with their raids until they brought the Sultan to white heat.
    In 1617 the Polish prince Vladislav made peace with Turkey and entered Russia with 11 thousand troops and 20 thousand Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, led by Hetman Petro Kononovich Konashevich-Sagaydachny. Sahaidachny is one of the saints of the modern pantheon of fighters against Muscovites.
    On the way to Moscow, Sahaidachny ravaged Putivl, Livny, Yelets, Lebedyan, and others, and then, while Vladislav stood in the siege of Moscow, the hetman devastated all Moscow environs.
    Well, the Don people stood up in defense of the Fatherland and sent Ataman Boris Yumin and Yesaul Afanasy Gavrilov to Prince Vladislav to declare that they wanted to serve him with truth and straighten him. They plundered Russia in a glorious company with the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
    From the speech of the head of the Main Directorate of the Cossack troops of the Imperial Ministry of the Eastern Occupied Territories of Nazi Germany P.N. Krasnova at the propaganda courses in Potsdam in the summer of 1944:
    Cossacks! Remember, you are not Russians, you are Cossacks, an independent people. The Russians are hostile to you. Moscow has always been an enemy of the Cossacks, crushed and exploited them. Now the hour has come when we, the Cossacks, can create our own life independent of Moscow.
    .
  4. Dkuznecov
    Dkuznecov 17 October 2022 23: 02
    -1
    There are no shoulder pads on the hussar's chain mail (pictured),
    while a fracture of the collarbone from a saber strike is fatal.
    Chain mail will save you from piercing weapons, but this is not enough.
  5. 9lvariag
    9lvariag 19 October 2022 17: 55
    0
    Quote: RVAPatriot
    Maybe it's about how the Commonwealth was puffed up to do something ??? And where did it lead her?
    Yes, about Ukrovsky chatter, this is all and the whole article here is chatter. 1. What are the "Cossacks" Orthodox? Cossack Tyuksk. "tribe of the rootless", Kazakhstan - "lands of the rootless" i.e. who betrayed the precepts of Tengri the Heavenly Father and who disgraced their family who lost their liyuo! Yes, and these types of Slavs were very excellent in the markets of Kafa, Sugdeya and Chersonesus, they traded very well. Selling them into slavery and the Mamluks. They traded in such a way that before Minich, with whom my paternal ancestor served, the Slavs did not even settle in the Black Sea region.