Military Review

Bestiaries of the Middle Ages

167
Bestiaries of the Middle Ages
Image of a tiger (tigress) on a miniature in the Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century. British Library, London



From the mound
The lion prostrated
Up to half, paws scraping,
He torso rest
Freed with claws
And, escaping, as if from shackles,
Shaggy, red mane began to shake.
Like moles, snow leopard, leopard
And the tiger, scattering the soil with mounds,
Climbing from deep holes;
Branching horns from underground
The deer is agile. Hippopotamus,
The largest of earthly creatures,
From a viscous clay form with difficulty
Unburdens an unreasonable load
Their bodies are huge. Like sprouts
Sheep bleating up above the soil
Curly runes. Hippopotamus
And the scaly crocodile arose,
Fluctuating between land and water.

J. Milton. Paradise Lost, book. VII (translated by M. Lozinsky)

History and culture of the Middle Ages. The main source of knowledge of 80% of our citizens about the Middle Ages is a textbook on the history of the Middle Ages for the 6th grade. And then - someone read something. This, of course, is not about specialists - professional historians, but about all those who are interested in medieval history or have simply heard about it. Moreover, some are interested in it from a very, so to speak, strange direction: they cannot understand why our distant ancestors did this or that. And since the “official history” does not explain this to them, then there is only one conclusion - it is not true.

Meanwhile, life has changed so much that it is so difficult to penetrate into the nature of thinking of a person of centuries ago that ... it is often simply impossible. Even with written sources at hand, we often simply cannot explain their content, although it is ... completely obvious. And, perhaps, the best example of the difference between the spiritual world of a person of the Middle Ages and modern times are ... bestiaries - "stories" of medieval authors about the living nature that surrounds them.


"Creation". Page in the Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century. British Library, London

I have long wanted to write about them, since the source is infinitely interesting, but in the process of working on the topic, it turned out that this was almost impossible. The fact is that if we turn to the list of bestiaries of that era that have come down to us, stored in museums and libraries, including university libraries, it turns out that there are 168 of them (well, maybe I just missed a couple more).

Just imagine: 168 volumes of hand-written thick books on parchment with a mass of color miniatures. It’s physically hard for me to view at least a part, and it’s simply impossible to read. I had to act by the "poke method" - which bestiaries will be the most accessible here and now, and work with those, well, plus the relevant studies of foreign authors made earlier. By the way, there are also a lot of them, and in general this topic is worthy not only of a candidate's, but also of a doctoral dissertation.


"Adam and Eve". Miniature in the Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century. British Library, London

Nevertheless, the illustrative material of even one bestiary turned out to be quite enough to show how the miniaturists saw animals known to them (and unknown ones). Well, the content was collected bit by bit from a variety of sources.


"Adam gives names to animals." Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

So, let's get acquainted with medieval bestiaries (from Latin bestia "beast") - that is, medieval collections of articles on zoology with illustrations.

The earliest bestiaries in Europe have been known since the XNUMXth century. In particular, this is the so-called "Aberdeen Bestiary", the miniatures of which we will use. In fact, this is a real encyclopedia of knowledge about nature.

Well, for the first time it was mentioned back in 1542 in the inventory of the Old Royal Library of the Palace of Westminster. It has a total of 100 pages or spreads divided into the following chapters or sections:

1. Creation.
2. Animals.
3. Livestock.
4. Small animals.
5. Birds.
6. Snakes and reptiles.
7. Worms.
8. Fish.
9. Trees.
10. Human nature.
11. The stones.



"Elephant and Dragon". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

As for the content, then ... you can get an impression about it from the very first illustration of this article, because it is completely incomprehensible who is depicted there and what the beast and knight are doing on it. So, it turns out that it depicts a scene ... the abduction of a tiger cub from a tigress.

“If a tigress discovers an empty lair because one of her cubs has been stolen, she immediately sets off in the footsteps of the thief. The kidnapper, even if he mounted a swift horse, will not be able to go far, because he is inferior in speed to the tigress, and will be caught. Therefore, in order to get a tiger cub, the hunter embarks on the following trick: when he sees the approaching tigress, he throws a glass ball, and she grabs it, seeing her reduced reflection in it, which she takes for her own baby.


"Owl". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

And here again, the question without an answer is exactly the same as that of our reader: “Why did the author of this bestiary write this?” Well, the question is already a specialist: what sources did he use? But in both cases, we have no answer. And there is a bestiary and illustrations in it!


"Basilisk and Weasel" "Aberdeen Bestiary", XII century. British Library, London.

Another ancient writer Gaius Julius Solin in his book "Collection of Memorable Information" reported the following entertaining information about him:

“He brings with him death not only to man and other animals, but also to the earth itself, which this monster poisons and burns wherever it lives. Thus the basilisk destroys the grass, destroys the trees, spoils even the air itself, so that not a single bird can fly through the air poisoned by destructive breath.

The natural enemy of the basilisk was ... weasel (the miniature just shows how she bites him). And he was also afraid of the cry of a rooster and a mirror, looking into which he was dying of a broken heart.


"Ram". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

However, there are so many interesting things in the descriptions of the animal world of the Middle Ages that you don’t even know what to choose. Well, here's how you, let's say, this: William d'Ecublein, Bishop of Lausanne, in 1225 ordered the eels that flooded Lake Leman to be placed in a place specially fenced for them and sentenced them to stay there forever.


"Leopard". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

In Kure, the judges of the provincial tribunal carried out a real trial on the larvae of the cockchafer for attacking the roots of plants. Considering them as God's creatures, the judges sentenced them to be deported to a wild place covered with forests, ordering them never to leave these places again and to stop their destructive activities in relation to the crops.

These two court verdicts were rendered in accordance with the text of the law, which states:

"All creatures are subject to God, the creator of canon law." Animals are also subject to this right. Everything that exists was created for man, therefore, to tolerate animals that want to harm him means to misunderstand the Intention of the Creator. That is why religion permits to set traps for birds and beasts that destroy the fruits of the earth; for, as the evangelist St. Mark said: "Let the tree that does not bear fruit be cut down and thrown into the fire."


"Beaver". The text about the beaver said that the testicles of the beaver are of great medical value, which is why, they say, they hunt it. But... knowing this, the beaver bites off his own testicles and, when pursuers catch up with him, demonstrating to them in such a way that he is no longer of value to them. Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

The beaver, which was called "bièvre", inhabited almost all rivers from Kyiv to Andalusia in the Middle Ages. It was hunted for its warm fur and musky glands, which produced raw materials used in the manufacture of medicinal ointments. Beaver fat was also highly valued.

A very interesting message from 1251, that King Henry III of England received a polar bear as a gift. He ordered that the whole city pay four pence a day for his food.

“It was possible to observe how this quite civilized beast, together with the owner, goes to the Thames to fish. He seems to prefer fish to the meager diet given to him by the townsfolk."

In 1294, King Denish of Portugal (whom his subjects called Generous) once hunted in the mountains near Beja. And suddenly he found himself in front of a bear, which jumped on him and knocked him to the ground. The noble warrior entered into a fight with the beast and pierced it through with his dagger, hitting the heart and insides of the bear.

In memory of that hunt, the king ordered his people to catch a live bear and transport it to the Fuellas estate so that it would serve as entertainment for court ladies and gentlemen.


"Satyr". That's just a satire and that's it! Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

It is known that in 1300 an Irish sailor named Patrick Walton, the only survivor of a terrible hurricane that threw his boat onto the deserted shore of the Gulf of Eguilloia, discovered how to breed edible shells, the so-called mussels that live in sea waters.

In order not to die of hunger, he adapted to catch the birds that inhabit the shore in many places, with the help of a net stretched on pegs stuck in the water. He noticed that the pegs are covered with mussels that breed right on them. Today, this man of remarkable intelligence has built hundreds of piles, which give him a bountiful harvest.

In 1330, the monks of the Abbey of St. Bernard received several animals from India, which were called buffaloes and buffaloes. Their milk can compete with cow's, and the meat is not inferior to beef in taste and worthy of decorating the best tables.


"Boars". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

In 1305, the British villains managed to circumvent a royal edict forbidding them to use dogs to hunt deer and wild boars. Lumberjacks in the New Forest county were able to train pigs so that they drove game out of the forest on them. No one has ever been able to find out what diabolical tricks they used to achieve their impure goals.


"Domestic cats". Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

1333: The city chronicle of Saint-Denis tells how one day the townspeople heard plaintive cries for help coming from a cat covered with earth. Breaking the hole, they found a box with a cat and food inside it. The judge found the perpetrators of this witchcraft rite: they turned out to be the abbot of Sito and several of his monks. Under interrogation, the demon-possessed revealed that they called on Satan to help them in order to conduct a successful trade. Two churchmen were sentenced to exile, and two others to be burned at the stake.


"Two storks". Interestingly, one of them eats a frog! Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

In 1328, King Louis IV of Bavaria ordered that all bells ring in his honor when he entered the city, despite the fact that he was excommunicated. One monk did not want to indulge this criminal whim, and then, by order of the sovereign, he was tied to the end of a falling beam, which was lowered into the lions' den. There, the ill-fated churchman was eaten by the lions of the Capitol.


"Hyena" "Aberdeen Bestiary", XII century. British Library, London

King John II the Good issued an ordinance in 1350 which stated:

“Let no one dare to have, feed and keep a single pig inside the walls of Paris in public places, and whoever is seen otherwise will pay a fine of ten coins. And the pigs will be slaughtered by the guards, or by anyone who finds them in the named city, and after slaughtering, he will take his head, and the body will be given to the Central Hospital.

The terrible disease, to which the Italians gave the name "tarantula dance" (or the dance of St. Vitus) and which every year with the advent of summer makes those affected by it jump and jump like rabid animals, was defeated by a pious lord who stopped in the city of Metz in Lorraine. .

One day, in his room, he indulged in reflections on how to heal the poor, tormented by illness people. At this time, jumping out of the chimney, a black cat reared up in front of him and stared at him intently. The cavalier made the sign of the cross, and the cat flew away at the same moment, spitting vile blasphemy. Glory to the Almighty God! The inhabitants of Metz were soon freed from the disease that made them dance.

To prevent cats from ever infecting the townspeople with the dance of St. Vitus, it was decided to burn thirteen cats at the stake every year on June 23, thereby honoring the memory of the miracle, to thank the Lord and receive his blessing to prolong the miraculous healing. Before lighting the fire, echevens and warriors armed with halberds make three circles around the fire, after which the mayor and the commandant of the city, taking torches in their hands, light the fire.


War horses fought alongside men... The Rochester Bestiary, 1230-1240. British Library, London

"Destrier" or the knight's war horse, owes its name to the fact that the page always leads him, holding the "dextroy", that is, the right hand, with his right hand. The "Palefroy" or parade horse is a more graceful animal, having a better gait (and more agile), which is mounted to keep up with the hunt and chase a boar, wolf, bear or deer.

The pacer is often white. He got his name because he walks with an amble; it is more suitable for noble ladies for a walk. The "Russin" or warhorse is used for traveling because it is capable of carrying a large load. The sommier or packhorse is an animal for the Villans. It is used to pull a plow or to drag wood and stones.


Elephants fighting ... "Rochester Bestiary" 1230-1240. British Library, London


And elephants in nature ... Ibid

Here we should interrupt our narrative a little, based on the reports of medieval authors, and remind the reader of VO that the wild fauna of Europe in the Middle Ages was not much different from the modern one. Except one - the abundance of animals. The forests literally teemed with deer, roe deer and wild boar, which caused significant damage to crops, despite hunting and many large predators.

Of the latter, the ubiquitous wolf took first place, followed by the lynx by a small margin. Wolves fearlessly penetrated cities and villages, attacked cattle, dogs, birds, and even people who were forced to lock themselves in their homes at night to protect themselves from their bloody raids.


Just a wolf. Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

In those days, the wolf, as Gaston Phoebus (1331–1395) wrote about it, “is a fairly common animal, it makes no sense to describe it, since there were few people who would not have encountered it.”

Among the animals that have become rare today, it is necessary to name the genet, which was kept in castles as a pet. The stone marten also became a rarity. But the cats brought by the crusaders from Egypt filled everything around.


But this is a rabbit ... "De Lisle Psalter", England, ca. 1310 British Library

Cage-raised rabbits arrived in Europe at the end of the Roman era. They were kept in cages or spacious pens, which were essentially pastures for game. At the same time, the expansion or construction of new cages was regulated by a royal ordinance. But this is, so to speak, "general knowledge" about the rabbit of the Middle Ages.

Private, specific knowledge about him at that time was as follows - the rabbit, like the hare (apparently because of its fertility), was a symbol of voluptuousness. That is, they were a symbol of sin! That is why in medieval manuscripts there are so many images of hares with swords, spears, attacking people and beating them. In fact, this is not at all a satire, as many people think, but an edifying image of sin triumphing over a person!


The male spits sperm into the female's mouth, and their offspring are born, gnawing through the mother's body. Aberdeen Bestiary, XNUMXth century British Library, London

Such was the knowledge of the people of the Middle Ages about the world of animals around them. They believed in something, perhaps they didn’t believe in something, but ... they lived in this informational world.

PS


In the description of medieval animals, materials by Paul-Henri Plantin "Animal World in the Time of the Knights" (Hachette, Paris, 1976. Edition in Russia "Olma-Press", 1998, translated from French by A. Rochko) were used.
Author:
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 15 October 2022 07: 40
    +8
    Amazing.

    And after all, in the text, apparently, echoes from Pliny's Natural History and before Buffon, many legends could be preserved.

    The fight between the elephant and the dragon is most likely the echoes of legends from India.
    So it seems that dracaena grew out of this struggle and blood.

    But with a categorical conclusion about the abundance of animals in dense medieval forests - I would wait a little.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 08: 59
      +5
      Good morning Sergey!
      Leafing through illustrations with animals by Vyacheslav, he remembered the oral descriptions of the Yakuts about the “underground mammoth beast”. In fact, medieval illustrators also encountered something similar. Try to draw a cat - if you have never seen it!!!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 15 October 2022 09: 59
        +6
        Yes. Is very similar. What you see regularly is reproduced. And from the words and descriptions, fantasy is turned on.
        1. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 15 October 2022 11: 31
          +9
          Great article! Hello everyone! Shpakovsky - Thanks!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 15 October 2022 11: 42
            +5
            Yes. I want to look at the pictures. But will have to leave for the evening.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 15 October 2022 14: 16
              +7
              Hello, Sergey!

              And the images of elephants are very different, from very "fabulous"



              to very realistic
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 15 October 2022 15: 40
                +6
                Hi Constantine!

                There is a trunk, ears, tusks - it means an elephant.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 15 October 2022 17: 02
                  +6
                  There is a trunk, ears, tusks - it means an elephant.


                  What if he has wings? smile

                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 15
                    +8
                    What if he has wings?
                    Then it's dellirium tremens.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 15 October 2022 17: 39
                      +3
                      Then it's dellirium tremens.



                      Do the wings grow after ingestion? wink

                      And if you remove the drawing from the can and repaint it in green, then it will look like a grenade one-on-one.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 43
                        +4
                        Do the wings grow after ingestion?
                        No, damn it, after rubbing!
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 18: 03
                        +3
                        No, damn it, after rubbing!


                        However ... I tried alcohol, but never with this one. laughing
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 15 October 2022 19: 36
                        +4
                        And if you remove the drawing from the can and repaint it in green, then it will look like a grenade one-on-one.
                        Uncle Kostya, don't militarize. This is an ordinary five-liter keg with beer.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 19: 38
                        +4
                        However, certain thoughts are brewing. laughing soldier
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 15 October 2022 19: 43
                        +3
                        Watch less TV. He, you know, gives birth to monsters, much more than the "sleep of reason"
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 20: 23
                        +4
                        I don't watch it at all; at all. For everything about everything, I have enough computer. smile

                        He, you know, gives birth to monsters, much more than the "sleep of reason"


                        TV - Absolutely.
                  2. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 15 October 2022 17: 49
                    +4
                    So I talked a lot with Skliss.
                    And mastered the art of levitation.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 15 October 2022 18: 01
                      +5
                      So I talked a lot with Skliss.


                      Interspecies sexual intercourse? wassat

                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 15 October 2022 20: 19
                        +3
                        Where did you get these pictures, doctor?
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 20: 27
                        +5
                        Well, if the doctor is a sex therapist, then it is clear where. wink

                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 15 October 2022 20: 35
                        +3
                        Thirty-three heroes decided that in vain
                        They took care of the king and the sea.
                        Everyone took his own clothes, started chickens and sat there
                        Protecting their inheritance out of work.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 21: 30
                        +4
                        Here the cat really walks, as to the right - so he sings,
                        How to the left - so the anecdote will bend,
                        But the learned son of a bitch - the golden chain was demolished in torgsin,
                        And to the rescue one - to the store.

                        Once he received a fee for God's gift:
                        In Lukomorye, fumes are per hectare.
                        But his blow was enough. To avoid God's judgment
                        The cat dictates a memoir about the Tatars.


                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 15 October 2022 21: 51
                        +3
                        “Maybe I have a primus full of hard currency,” the cat-like fat man rushing to the store passionately interjected into the conversation. The audience was already pushing and angry from behind. Looking with hatred and doubt at the outlandish couple, the porter stepped aside, and our acquaintances, Koroviev and Behemoth, found themselves in the shop.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 15 October 2022 22: 12
                        +4
                        In an instant, hands seized the curtain and ripped it off along with the cornice, causing the sun to flood into the shaded room. But neither the fraudulently recovered cat nor the primus fell down. The cat, without parting with the stove, managed to wave through the air and jump onto the chandelier hanging in the center of the room.

                        - Stepladder! shouted from below.

                        I challenge you to a duel! yelled the cat, flying overhead on a swinging chandelier, and then again he had a Browning in his paws, and he placed a primus stove between the branches of the chandelier. The cat took aim and, flying like a pendulum over the heads of the newcomers, opened fire on them. The roar shook the apartment.

          2. kalibr
            15 October 2022 21: 13
            +2
            Quote: Hunter 2
            My hello!

            The opinion of the Hunter is especially valuable!
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 15 October 2022 10: 53
      +6
      Quote: Korsar4
      ....... But with a categorical conclusion about the abundance of animals in dense medieval forests - I would wait a little.

      hi I want to add that even the ancient Greeks depicted Bacchantes slaughtering ... a leopard with sticks! And back in the XNUMXth century A.D. there was a so-called irish moose, which died out because of the huge horns (with a span of ~ 2 meters!), because they prevented him from effectively escaping from predators. And Prince Vladimir Monomakh was knocked off his horse (there is an opinion) not by a lynx, but by a wild leopard! And tours, ancient bulls, were still around for some time! And they were not the ancestors of domestic cows! Tours were not domesticated and therefore were exterminated ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 15 October 2022 11: 24
        +7
        Hello Dmitry! The question of extinct species of animals and the reduction of their habitats is, of course, interesting. I recently wrote here that the famous Hercules killed the Red Book cave lion. And the lynx will not knock Vladimir Monomakh off his horse (unless the prince was drunk), then a more powerful cat is needed.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 15 October 2022 12: 11
          +3
          Quote: Aviator_
          Hello Dmitry! The question of extinct species of animals and the reduction of their habitats is, of course, interesting .....

          hi Greetings Sergey! In order to fully describe the whole CRYPTOSOLOGY in general, you will need a whole bookcase with books ... I will only say about two.
          It is known that earlier in the selva of South America, there were megateria (giant sloths), and glyptodonts (giant armadillos), as well as various intermediate stages of evolution from ordinary sloths and armadillos to giant ones. Considered extinct. But it is documented that the Cuban Indians treated Christopher Columbus with Megatherium meat! It turns out that hundreds of thousands of years lived, and for some half a millennium they disappeared!!! Somehow it doesn't fit...
          And the pygmy sperm whale, or COGIA, has never been seen alive ... And after all, they recognize it, no one doubts! The debate is only about how many species of these kogi are left by now! Something like this.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 15 October 2022 12: 36
            +6
            Dmitry, the study of nature is directly related to fundamental scientific research, which means that there will be no immediate return. Therefore, the depths of the ocean, to put it mildly, are underexplored. More precisely, only the hydrology of those depths where nuclear submarines sail, that is, up to 300-400 m, is being investigated, and even then not everywhere. So there, inside the ocean, there are many more interesting things. Look, coelacanth from 300 m was caught from Africa only in the 30s of the last century, and its subspecies - in 1999 from Indonesia. As for the treats of Columbus - then, most likely, this is a fake. Are there drawings? Well, where in Cuba to live megatherium? In the mountains ?
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 15 October 2022 13: 16
              +4
              Quote: Aviator_
              Dmitry, the study of nature is directly related to fundamental scientific research, which means that there will be no immediate return. Therefore, the depths of the ocean, to put it mildly, are underexplored. More precisely, only the hydrology of those depths where nuclear submarines sail, that is, up to 300-400 m, is being investigated, and even then not everywhere. So there, inside the ocean, there are many more interesting things. Look, coelacanth from 300 m was caught from Africa only in the 30s of the last century, and its subspecies - in 1999 from Indonesia. As for the treats of Columbus - then, most likely, this is a fake. Are there drawings? Well, where in Cuba to live megatherium? In the mountains ?

              Yes, Sergei. Regarding the seas, I agree with you. Indeed, already in the XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries, European and American intelligence services confused the sounds made by fish, shrimps and whales with enemy watercraft and their weapons. Then they learned to identify. But there is a well-known fact: specific marine sounds, the so-called Quakers! No one knows who publishes them, and what they have in mind. The world ocean is still
              less explored than the surface of the moon.
              And what about Megatherium in Cuba. His meat, like other things, was brought from South America! Guiana lowland, etc. At that time, the Caribbean lived in Cuba, such a tribe. And they still live east of Venezuela! They could have sailed.
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 15 October 2022 13: 48
                +3
                His meat, like other things, was brought from South America! Guiana lowland
                Did they bring him quick-frozen and filleted, or what?
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 15 October 2022 14: 05
                  +4
                  Did they bring him quick-frozen and filleted, or what?
                  Alex, preservatives were already known in those days - salt, spices, withering (essentially - sublimation). In the end, then everyone aspired to India for spices, not because they really wanted pepper (they managed with onions, garlic and mustard with horseradish), but because peppercorns were a good preservative. And I am skeptical about the version that Columbus was fed with the meat of an ancient animal.
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter 15 October 2022 14: 15
                    +4
                    meat of an ancient animal, I am skeptical.
                    I don't believe either. Moreover, meat was hardly traded along the sea routes in those days - it ran nearby.
                    peppercorns were a good preservative
                    Rather, a muffler of bad taste / smell - piperine (its distant relative - "ecstasy", by the way) does not have pronounced bactericidal properties.
                  2. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 15 October 2022 14: 35
                    +4
                    Quote: Aviator_
                    ..... preservatives ...... salt, spices ...... then to India ..... peppercorns were a good preservative ......

                    I totally agree about pepper! Just in the time of Columbus, the rich were called not "money bags", but --- peppers!
                    In fact, the most peppery territories are not India, but the Molluk Islands (now part of Indonesia). It's just that India is bigger, richer and more cultured. Ginger, cardamom, coriander, turmeric, cloves, nutmeg, saffron, rosemary, many many more.
                    After all, spices made it possible to preserve food, at that time, without a refrigerator! For this they were appreciated!
                    But the Arabs, 5 thousand years ago, traded in spices for their own benefit, and the ancient Egyptians respected them very much.
                    In America, by the way, black pepper was not found, but red was in abundance.
                    in ancient Rome, for 3000 pounds of black pepper they gave 5000 pounds of gold ..... for a pound of nutmeg, for example, they gave ~ 3 ~ 4 sheep or a cow

                    There was a monopolization of the spice trade, so in the Middle Ages, Venice got rich...
                    1. Konnick
                      Konnick 15 October 2022 14: 51
                      +5
                      After all, spices made it possible to preserve food, at that time, without a refrigerator! For this they were appreciated!

                      Appreciated for the ability to beat off the bad smell and taste of spoiled foods, and also reduced the risk of poisoning. And salt, saltpeter and pickling with smoking helped to preserve food. And so there were glaciers and cellars
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 15 October 2022 15: 34
                        +1
                        for the ability to beat off the bad smell and taste of spoiled foods, and also reduced the risk of poisoning.
                        So why the risk of poisoning decreased - different bacteria in the pepper medium did not survive. And that is conservation.
                      2. Konnick
                        Konnick 15 October 2022 15: 44
                        +2
                        So why the risk of poisoning decreased - different bacteria in the pepper medium did not survive. And that is conservation.

                        Preservation is conservation, if with bacteria then death. And the use of pepper is a preventive measure against already existing bacteria in the product during cooking. The hotter the country, the faster the food spoils, the more peppered the food.
                      3. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 15 October 2022 16: 13
                        +2
                        The hotter the country, the faster the food spoils, the more peppered the food.
                        Absolutely agree. Cuisines of all peoples of the world confirm this. In general, the subject of our dialogue is incomprehensible - protection from damage, is this not conservation, but something else?
                      4. Konnick
                        Konnick 15 October 2022 16: 55
                        +2
                        In general, the subject of our dialogue is incomprehensible - protection from damage, is this not conservation, but something else?

                        Preservation is a preparation for the future, and pepper is needed mainly when cooking directly. Of course, it is used during drying and salting, but only as an improvement in the taste of the preserved product. And when preparing an eaten product in the Middle Ages, to eliminate the taste and smell of a spoiled product and prevent poisoning.
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 15 October 2022 13: 57
                +4
                Indeed, already in the XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries, European and American intelligence services confused the sounds made by fish, shrimps and whales with enemy watercraft and their weapons.
                As for the special services, you are somewhat wrong. For the first time, French physicist Paul Langevin proposed using ultrasonic location against submarines in 1916. By the way, he was a communist. Well, as for various sound debris in the ocean, there is enough of it now, it is only unclear which part of it is of an animal, and which part is of a geological origin. About Columbus - did they find the bones of this fossil in the Guiana lowland, or was everything established according to local legends? Having the bones would help a lot with their dating, determining when this beast was slaughtered.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 15 October 2022 14: 50
                  +3
                  Paul Langevin
                  hi
                  Thanks, I'll read about it.
                  As for the bones, yes they were found. classified. For example, Megatherium. Several types are known. There is also a reconstruction. And glyptodont bones were also found, as well as bone brushes of shells, there are many types of them at different times.
                  Here's something else interesting. When the entire prehistoric world base became computerized, they put things in order with all these animals. Therefore, even, some new species were discovered "on the computer".
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 15 October 2022 15: 32
                    +4
                    And glyptodont bones were also found, as well as bone brushes of shells, there are many types of them at different times.
                    And what dates were obtained for these bones?
                    1. Reptiloid
                      Reptiloid 15 October 2022 15: 57
                      +3
                      Quote: Aviator_
                      And glyptodont bones were also found, as well as bone brushes of shells, there are many types of them at different times.
                      And what dates were obtained for these bones?

                      The species Boreostemma pliocena lived in Venezuela 6,8 ~~ 4,0 million years ago, before the appearance of man. But the latter species are believed to have disappeared at the beginning of the Holocene period, ~10~12 thousand years ago. It's about glyptodonts.
                      Megatheria lived from 2 million to 12 thousand years ago. That is, in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. There are 8 types of megateria known. And in the subfamily Glyptodontina there are as many as 34 genera (if from memory) and many species. Although in 2007 a previously unknown species of glyptodont was found that lived 18 million years ago wink With the progress of science --- do not argue
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 15 October 2022 16: 17
                        +3
                        Thanks for the info. But the bones of the megatheriums gnawed by Columbus at the turn of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries have not yet been shredded.
                  2. kalibr
                    15 October 2022 16: 14
                    +3
                    Read, Dimitri, H. G. Wells' novel "Mr. Blettsworthy on Rempole Island." There and about megatheriums and in general - unusual Wells ...
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 15 October 2022 11: 57
        +6
        Here we once discussed Vladimir Monomakh and the fierce beast. Opinions differed.

        But I'm also leaning towards the leopard version.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 15 October 2022 13: 01
          +5
          Quote: Korsar4
          ...... Opinions differed ......

          And there is nothing surprising in this! Since many such different creatures are noted in ancient murals, sculptures, mosaics, reliefs ... And in ancient myths, legends, epics, eyewitness accounts --- and do not count! good wink
          And in a time closer to us, bestiaries did not give rest. Hieronymus Bosch depicted these horrors in his paintings! And Jorge Luis Borges, for example, compiled a huge Encyclopedia of Fictional Creatures!
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 13: 42
          +3
          Quote: Korsar4
          Here we once discussed Vladimir Monomakh and the fierce beast. Opinions differed.

          But I'm also leaning towards the leopard version.

          But, Monomakh himself wrote about Leo. Could he, having been in Constantinople more than once, confuse leopards with lions? The question is open. By the way, pardus (cheetahs) were kept at the court of the Chernigov princes.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 15 October 2022 13: 58
            +2
            "A fierce beast jumped on my hips and overturned the horse with me, and God preserved me unharmed."


            And then there is room for interpretation. But it will go into the second circle.
          2. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 15 October 2022 14: 10
            +4
            But, Monomakh himself wrote about Leo.
            Of course, he wrote about the lion. It is not good for some domestic cat-Vaska to jump on such a big boss. There must be service compliance.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 16: 44
              +6
              I agree Sergei! Although if Vaska had been shitting in a princely slipper for five or six years before that and got caught, then ...... belay
              “What did the prince catch the mustachioed bastard? Caught a "zasanets", and write it down in a letter - it will be a lion. And where to write to the prince - yes, write here after “The Cursed Bear, which bit through my ass-e-saddle”! So, light-prince, you yourself were to blame then why you sat down in honey ass-saddle. The Gypsies had a meek bear, only hungry for honey. Well, I couldn't resist." You don’t write this, otherwise we write to the children, and the woman will still read it. Scrap paper - everything was on the hunt. Is it on the one when, drunk, we killed two peasant cows? Pip on your tongue clerk. Write - a tour, there is no better than two, I personally took it - on a horn!!! And ento more pigs ... no wild boars .... Do not add boars - 5 pieces, no 6. Damn, he already managed to write “Ka”, then leave it with “boars”. Moreover, this is true - two milk pigs were then served for dinner. Oh yes, write about the zebra. Well, you give father. - “Where do we get zebras from”? And who can? Let's "wild tarpans" without counting! Maybe the prince and if they mentioned the bear and write about the gypsies. He had three hundred St. Vladimir in Kyiv, three hundred in Vyshgorod and 60 mistresses in Berezovo? Tfu on you! His missus could not read hand-to-hand, but mine knows five languages. Slept. And the prince, what are we going to do with Vaska? Already half an hour, as Vaska mustachioed, and Lev. So pour milk into the kalgushka for Leo and let him out of the cellar. I, we will roll a beer-medka and then we won’t go out into the street, but to him, cursed in the tray ..., for a couple ...., so that he knows whose slippers !!!!!
              1. depressant
                depressant 15 October 2022 17: 01
                +5
                Oh, what a monologue interrupted by dialogue! wassat )))
                Shocked to the core! Fantasy flowering il quote will be? )))
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 17: 28
                  +6
                  We are not working today. Only the pump was removed from the pit for the winter.
                  And so in the continuation, only Lyudmila Yakovlevna for you to add "illustration".
                  Five years later! A gray-haired and oblique black-and-white cat Vaska sits on a bench and broadcasts. That pot-bellied trifle ask why I am listed in the barn book of the housekeeper - Leo, and not the cat Vaska? It was like this, I’m sitting under the stove, I’m not touching anyone, I’m lapping milk from kalgushka! Then the drunken Prince-Father came to the zyuzyu from the gypsies and how he stepped on my tail. I meow to him, and he sneaks into me! For five years, every morning I left him a “surprise” in this slipper. Oh, and that morning - got it!
                  The barn book is trifles. When I was sitting in the underground, they even included a will in me and the bear! Yes, not simple, but with a lesson! Yes, and for the spoiled tray, I took revenge. Dropped the pot. The princess then drove the faithful with a pisurchuk with a rolling pin around the tower for half an hour. You can't run around with your pants down.
                  Learn young and green!
                  love
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 15 October 2022 20: 10
                    +4
                    Learn young and green!

                    Admiration and respect! love )))
                    Do you know what association? In the Strugatskys' book Lame Fate, the writer Felix Sorokin, the writer of military stories, plays and scenarios, suddenly unexpectedly wrote and published a book called Modern Tales, which was a stunning success. There, pets interact with people on an equal footing, officials, bandits, war veterans, the city bottom participate, fantastic stories are mixed up ...
                    Your impromptu is, apparently, the need of a civilized person to perceive a pet as a person.
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 15 October 2022 18: 21
                +3
                The whole script for the film turned out.laughing good good good
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 19: 03
                  +2
                  Sergey, thanks for the kind assessment, but most members of the forum are much more talented than me.
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 15 October 2022 20: 06
                    +1
                    Come on, Vladislav, it is important that the comment is in place, and you can imagine it with your own eyes. good
                  2. depressant
                    depressant 15 October 2022 20: 17
                    +4
                    Most of the members of the forum are lazy and can only work from under a club. Creativity is when you hit yourself on the head with a club.
  2. Fat
    Fat 15 October 2022 07: 58
    +6
    hi Elephants walking on the savannah and fighting from the Aberdeen bestiary are simply wonderful. The stingy verbal description gave such a wonderful scope to the flight of the artist's imagination. Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, for the article and great illustrations.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 09: 02
      +7
      Hi Andrew!
      Perhaps, just because of the scarcity of information about the bishop, his chess piece has a completely different image. Unlike a horse!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 October 2022 09: 22
        +8
        his chess piece has a completely different image.
        In medieval chess, the "elephant" was called the "bishop". Hence the characteristic shape of the figurine, similar to a bishop's miter.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 15 October 2022 09: 49
          +9
          In English and now the chess bishop is "bishop".
      2. Fat
        Fat 15 October 2022 09: 26
        +7
        Hello Vladislav. The modern rules of the game of chess were formed relatively recently, I believe in the 18th century, although chess appeared in Europe in the 10th century ... What is it for. About the figure "elephant" ...
        When chess came to Western Europe, they knew about elephants only by hearsay. In one of the earliest Spanish texts on games, this figure was called a cocatrice (a type of crocodile). In Spanish, alfil remained, which means nothing, just an Arabic word. And for example, in Italy she was called alfiere - a standard-bearer, which is phonetically similar to al-fil. In England, until the 16th century, the same figure was called archer - an archer, and in some other languages ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbit is called so. Then, perhaps, they decided that the "booth" looked like a miter - the headdress of a bishop, and called the figure bishop - a bishop. In French, he is fou - a jester (maybe also by analogy with a jester's hat; and in Romanian it is), in German läufer is a runner / messenger / messenger, and why - it just happened by chance, maybe because he walks like that .. And in Mongolian he is a camel.
      3. Luminman
        Luminman 15 October 2022 10: 56
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Perhaps, just because of the scarcity of information about the elephant, his chess piece has a completely different image.

        Just the same, there is plenty of information about this figure. In Europe, she is called bishop, which means "bishop" in translation. And in his pointed cap, this figure is very much like a bishop. In Russian, she is "elephant". Why so, I don’t know, probably, chess came to us from the East ...
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 15 October 2022 11: 48
          +5
          Phil is an elephant! In Uzbek, for sure ... perhaps borrowed from the Arabs.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 13: 46
          +3
          Thanks to all the members of the forum for the detailed answer about the "Elephant"!
          Another thing is interesting, in Russia there were even church persecutions of “chess players”. True, chess was played for money.
          1. Fat
            Fat 15 October 2022 14: 29
            +5
            This is true. In addition to being for money, a dice was used in the game. How many points fall out, so much figure and walk ... and this is not only in Russia but also in Western Europe, the same way. There, too, chess was considered a "devilish" game. The inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula were the first to adopt the game of shatranj, which came to the Arabs from the Persians, from the Arabs, and in general, the Indian “chaturanga” (for 2 players) is considered the harbinger of modern chess. In the 10th century, the Vikings were already playing chess.
            In 1061, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia Peter Damiani, in a letter to Pope Alexander II, condemned the Florentine bishop who played chess, because, from his point of view, there was no difference between chess and gambling with dice. The canonical prohibition of the latter was not questioned

            They used not only the usual 8x8 fields, but also 8x12 (courier chess) ... Even the goal of the game was not so much to drive the opponent's king as to show a beautiful "etude" ... Over time, the monks, who were carried away by the game, removed both dice and interest from the game.

            Playing courier chess in a painting by Lucas van Leyden
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 15 October 2022 17: 08
              +5
              We used not only the usual fields 8x8, but also 8x12 (courier chess).


              And what would you call them? wassat

              1. Fat
                Fat 15 October 2022 17: 56
                +3
                Anton already casually noticed something about delirium tremens. And I don’t even play chess sober, I just know that the horse walks with the letter “G” (the white knight from Alice in the looking glass falls all the time, periodically to the left, then to the right) Nevertheless, a certain number of cups of cognac and all unusualness will disappear in your picture wassat
                All clear. "Das motorrad unter dem fenster am sonntag morgen." He looked at me with the air of an examiner.
                “Well, a motorcycle…” I mumbled. - On a sunny morning ... Under the doors, it seems ...
                “No,” said Ahasuerus Lukich. - This painting is called "Motorcycle under the window on a Sunday morning."
                I didn't argue. We looked at the picture for a while in silence.
                The picture was of a room. The window is open. The morning sun shines through the window. In the room there are: on the left - a torn bed with an abnormal number of pillows and featherbeds; on the right is a monstrous chest of drawers with a drawer extended, on the chest of drawers there is a mass of porcelain knick-knacks. In the middle is a man in underwear. He is in a strange position - apparently, sneaking to the window. In his right hand, laid back to the viewer, a hand grenade is clamped. All. In general, it is clear: an allegorical painting on the theme "Take care of the sleep of your fellow citizens."
                “Most of all, he should like a grenade,” Agasfer Lukich said with conviction ...
                “Lemonka,” I said without much confidence. - In my opinion, they have long been removed from service with us.
                - That's right, "lemon", - Agasfer Lukich confirmed with pleasure. - She's a "bitch". And in America they call it "Pine Apple", which means - what?
                "I don't know," I said, taking off my coat.
                - What does "pineapple" mean, - said Ahasfer Lukich. - And the Chinese called it "shoulyudan" ... Although no, "shoulyudan" is their grenade in general, but what did they call "F-1"? I do not remember. Forgot. I began to forget everything ... Pay attention, she even has a fuse inserted ... A very talented artist. And the picture is good ... "(C)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 15 October 2022 18: 12
                  +2
                  - The face is ordinary, the painting is ordinary ... His surname is extraordinary.

                  - And what is his last name? Ahasuerus Lukich started up and bent down to the very floor, trying to read the signature in the lower right corner. - Why, there are only initials, my Ptah. "A" and "Es" Latin ...

                  "Adolf Schicklgruber," grumbled Demiurge. He was already retreating into the darkness. - However, it is unlikely that this name means anything to you ...


    2. Catfish
      Catfish 15 October 2022 14: 12
      +4
      combat from the Aberdeen bestiary - just wonderful


      They are certainly good, but it seems that their eyes are so "coquettishly" tinted. smile


      Hi Andrew! hi
      1. Fat
        Fat 15 October 2022 15: 39
        +4
        Greetings Konstantin. I'm more about the elephants from the Rochester Bestiary. Well, I just can’t correlate dog paws and elephants. wassat That's why it impressed, obviously the artist by association crossed war elephants with war dogs: fellow
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 16: 05
          +4
          Gee ... Anton and Mikhail should rejoice!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 23
            +3
            And what does Michael have to do with it? He's more into fighting trilobites.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 19: 05
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              And what does Michael have to do with it? He's more into fighting trilobites.

              I feel his hidden sympathy for dogs with my cat skin !!! laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 15 October 2022 19: 18
                +2
                Well, of course! He's a "follower".
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 15 October 2022 16: 54
          +3
          I just can't relate dog paws to elephants.


          Do you mean that? smile

          1. Fat
            Fat 15 October 2022 17: 13
            +4
            The illustration from the article implied where the brethren help the fallen elephant to rise, there it is somewhat brighter smile
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 08: 02
    +10
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, many thanks for the excursion into the Middle Ages!
    I thought about the next one.
    In 1305, the British villains managed to circumvent a royal edict forbidding them to use dogs to hunt deer and wild boars. Lumberjacks in the New Forest county were able to train pigs so that they drove game out of the forest on them. No one has ever been able to find out what diabolical tricks they used to achieve their impure goals.

    From my own experience I can say that a pig is a very intelligent animal. Comparing living creatures in general, in terms of quick wit, they are unlikely to yield to a dog and a horse. By the way, for a head of cabbage or for the sake of a neighbor's chicken, these heeled bread cutters can go for any sophisticated combination. Heck, constipation in the cubbyholes and in the yard they opened into the lung. Moreover, such "bastards" knew how not to get caught. At least wait until we hit the dacha, and only then make a raid for cabbage. Moreover, unlike the stereotype, they were able to endure not the entire garden "like a pig", but gobble up a couple of three heads of cabbage and return back. The gang of pigs burned down on the neighbor's chickens.
    Well, somewhere like that.
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 08: 15
      +5
      Great comment, Vladislav, thanks! Didn't know that about pigs.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 15 October 2022 08: 18
      +7
      There is a good family film "Babe" about a pig. And how "Animal Farm" can not be remembered.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 08: 48
        +8
        Quote: Korsar4
        There is a good family film "Babe" about a pig. And how "Animal Farm" can not be remembered.

        Sergey the first and second are fairy tales. The first is good, the second is not so good. It is true that the domestic pig is a smart and cunning animal, capable of much for the sake of its instincts.
        Only one thing spoils the pig issue, pork goes well for cutlets (unlike cat meat)! laughing
        In fact, humanity does not allow the "heels" to develop evolutionarily. The only niche of Winnie the Pooh's friends, outside of gastronomic passions, is truffle hunting.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 15 October 2022 08: 51
          +6
          Vladislav, fairy tales are based on something.

          And boars are evolving. Only night vision devices begin to interfere with them.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 13: 56
            +3
            Quote: Korsar4
            Vladislav, fairy tales are based on something.

            And boars are evolving. Only night vision devices begin to interfere with them.

            I do not argue, but in the wild the animal is sharpened for survival. In the home environment, other qualities are manifested.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 15 October 2022 17: 53
              +4
              For example, friendliness.

              However, not everyone is cut off the chance to spin in the wild.
              Like goose Martin.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 19: 13
                +2
                Quote: Korsar4
                For example, friendliness.

                However, not everyone is cut off the chance to spin in the wild.
                Like goose Martin.

                Nature is a cruel enough teacher! I would remember Jack London with his Eternal Call.
                In most cases, alas, this is a sad ending.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 15 October 2022 20: 21
                  +2
                  Of course it is.

                  Both "Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" were interesting to read.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 October 2022 08: 56
          +7
          "If a pig had eight legs, I would love them even more." (FROM)
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 October 2022 08: 36
      +6
      From my own experience I can say that a pig is a very intelligent animal.
      "- They even transplant organs ...
      - Whom, pigs?
      - No, people ... "(C)
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 13: 57
        +2
        A pig, it is a pig in Africa too! (With)
        ..........
  4. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 15 October 2022 08: 26
    +8
    In 1328, King Louis IV of Bavaria ordered that all bells ring in his honor when he entered the city, despite the fact that he was excommunicated. One monk did not want to indulge this criminal whim, and then, by order of the sovereign, he was tied to the end of a falling beam, which was lowered into the lions' den. There the ill-fated churchman was eaten by lions Capitol.

    As I understand it, the city was - Rome, in which there was no pope, since he was in Avignon captivity. And King Ludwig came nothing less than to be crowned. It all ended with the election of the last imperial antipope - Nicholas V.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 15 October 2022 08: 30
    +5
    Shalom, Orthodox!
    In my opinion, the greatest informational value of this material is the postscript, which provides comprehensive information about the original source. It would always be like this!
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 15 October 2022 08: 34
      +5
      Hello Anton!

      If you suddenly get hold of an electronic version of Plantin's book, sign up for a reading queue at our library.

      This is our profile.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 October 2022 08: 42
        +6
        If you suddenly get hold of an electronic version of Plantin's book,
        "There are no fortresses that the Bolsheviks would not take!" (FROM)
        Hello, Sergey!
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 15 October 2022 08: 44
          +7
          If it's hiding somewhere, you can always find it.
          It is only important to be puzzled.
          And so that the next task does not block interest.
  6. tlauicol
    tlauicol 15 October 2022 08: 33
    +4
    Sorry, the male of which animal in the last image is engaged in indecency? Dragon, worm?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 October 2022 08: 52
      +5
      There is such a frog - pipa, carrying eggs in the cavities on the back. She could become the prototype of the depicted animal, but sadly, she is found in South America.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 15 October 2022 08: 53
        +5
        Darrel beautifully describes this toad.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 October 2022 09: 00
          +6
          I don't remember Darrell.
          However, this is not a toad, but a frog as it is. Toads are not lungfish.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 15 October 2022 09: 53
            +6
            As far as I remember, it was a toad. Surinam pipa (Pipa pipa). And Darrell devoted several pages to her in Three Tickets to Adventure.
          2. Fat
            Fat 15 October 2022 10: 06
            +8
            Greetings, Anton.
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Toads are not lungfish.

            Of course not. Lungfish are fish! There are 6 modern lungfish species: the Australian horntooth, four species of African protopters and the South American flake.
            And frogs are amphibians (or amphibians). Toads are the same...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 26
              +3
              Hello Borisych!
              And who does the mudskipper belong to?
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 15 October 2022 17: 54
                +4
                The mudskipper is a fish. Found in mangrove forests.
      2. depressant
        depressant 15 October 2022 13: 24
        +7
        There is such a frog - pipa

        I once had Darrell's book. I remember that when I saw this very "pipa", I experienced a physiological disgust so strong that I still feel it to an almost unrelenting extent. Which is not surprising, given that in life I am a natural xenophobe.
        So what to do? wassat )))
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 31
          +2
          Which is not surprising, given that in life I am a natural xenophobe.
          So what to do?

          Get a goat.
          1. depressant
            depressant 15 October 2022 19: 54
            +2
            Your proposal, Anton, is excessively paradoxical, because I am not a goatherd, I have no skills.
            It's sad, isn't it?
            But the goats... It's amazing, the whole herd they faint together if some construction equipment roars loudly next to them. With regard to goats, nature has developed a strange mechanism of protection from a predator.
        2. Dkuznecov
          Dkuznecov 15 October 2022 22: 54
          +4
          And I re-read all of Darrell, starting with the "way of the kangaroo".
          Started with this book.
          And I just fell in love with pipa in absentia, thanks to the translators,
          as well as everything else, from koalas, wombats and ending
          capybaras and anteaters.
          The author wrote well, with humor.
  7. Tests
    Tests 15 October 2022 09: 26
    +8
    It seems that after looking at this bestiary, Vladimir Vladimirovich wrote his own "Every page, then an elephant, then a lioness":
    "Like living in our book
    elephant,
       elephant
            and elephants.
    Two- and three-story growth,
    with an ear dish both,
    tail in front of muzzle
    called "trunk".
    How much food, drink,
    how many dresses to wear!
    Even their child
    as tall as our dad."
    Forest African elephants are drawn correctly: the height at the withers is not higher than 2 meters, the ears are small, round, covered with brown hair.
    Basilisk, it turns out, was not great, but we were afraid of him! Weasel (male), on average, 20 cm and tail, on average, 4 cm, females are even smaller. It turns out the basilisk is a capercaillie? The color and taste of capercaillie meat do not cause delight for many ...
    The beaver in the picture looks more like an otter ... Boars and storks are very, very good
    .
    But the owl ... All owls have a very short phalanx of the third finger, and the outer finger is very mobile and can bend back. Therefore, when an owl sits, 2 fingers are directed forward, and 2 - back. But rarely anyone, both in nature and in the zoo, can closely examine the fingers of an owl. If only a sparrow owl flies close during the day (he actively hunts during the day), sits on a branch and from a distance of 3-5 meters he will look at you with curiosity.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 15 October 2022 10: 02
      +7
      The day before yesterday, a sparrow owl was sitting at the entrance. At the level of the second floor.

      A compassionate grandmother with a man stood downstairs and decided for a long time how to help the "owlet".
    2. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 15 October 2022 11: 24
      +4
      Descriptions of plants in the Middle Ages were also no less unusual. It is enough to remember the mandrake. Well, measurement values ​​were rarely used, mainly visual descriptions and drawings.
    3. depressant
      depressant 15 October 2022 13: 17
      +5
      It seems that after watching this bestiary


      Tests, do not scare like that! You must give the name of the author of the poem wassat )))
      I am a nervous person!
    4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 16: 09
      +3
      . ..Boars and storks are very, very good

      The best drawing in the article is the Cat! laughing
    5. Dkuznecov
      Dkuznecov 15 October 2022 22: 57
      +3
      The funniest thing is inside this chic body kit -
      skinny chicken with skinny legs.
  8. Nephilim
    Nephilim 15 October 2022 11: 04
    +4
    Just imagine: 168 volumes of hand-written thick books on parchment with a mass of color miniatures. It’s physically hard for me to view at least a part, and it’s simply impossible to read. I had to act by the "poke method" - which bestiaries will be the most accessible here and now, and work with those, well, plus the relevant studies of foreign authors made earlier.

    A small addition on this issue. In fact, 168 volumes do not need to be read. All surviving bestiaries are classified into "families" of related manuscripts. This system was proposed in 1928 by the British historian M.R. James and despite periodic criticism, has remained, with some changes, relevant today.
    Given this classification, it suffices to describe one book from the "family". Bestiaries in Latin have four "families". That is, having examined one manuscript, you will have a complete picture of the entire "family". The French, Italian, and Catalan bestiaries are translations of the Latin ones and each have the same family. The Old English bestiary survives in the singular and is also a translation of the Latin.
    Thus, even if we complicate the task and consider subfamilies, we will have to work with a maximum of a dozen manuscripts.
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 16: 07
      +2
      I read about this in Wiki too ... But writing about it in an article for me did not make sense at all. And to work even with a minimum of manuscripts, when two are enough for the eyes, why? There shouldn't be too much information. I remember we had one author here, and so, at the request of readers, he wrote as many as four articles about why the Mosin rifle was shot with a bayonet. And when the last one came out, the questions again went - so why? Yes, because too much information is just as bad as not enough.
  9. Luminman
    Luminman 15 October 2022 11: 06
    +4
    Quote: Thick
    When chess came to Western Europe, they knew about elephants only by hearsay.

    But what about Charlemagne's favorite elephant?

    Quote: Thick
    In one of the earliest Spanish texts on games, this figure was called a cocatrice (a type of crocodile). In Spanish, alfil remained, which means nothing, just an Arabic word. And for example, in Italy she was called alfiere - a standard-bearer, which is phonetically similar to al-fil. In England, until the 16th century, the same figure was called archer - an archer, and in some other languages ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbit is called so. Then, perhaps, they decided that the "booth" looked like a miter - the headdress of a bishop, and called the figure bishop - a bishop. In French, he is fou - a jester (maybe also by analogy with a jester's hat; and in Romanian it is), in German läufer is a runner / messenger / messenger, and why - it just happened by chance, maybe because he walks like that .. And in Mongolian he is a camel.

    I am a big fan of chess, but for some reason I always focused on English names - "bishop", "knight", "castle", "queen" ... I read your comments - and how they poured English salt under the skull! It is surprising that he did not ask about the names of the figures in other languages ​​... Thanks for such information!
  10. Nephilim
    Nephilim 15 October 2022 11: 16
    +5
    The earliest bestiaries in Europe have been known since the XNUMXth century.

    Here it is worth disagreeing with the author. "Physiologist" was first translated into Latin in the XNUMXth century, into European languages ​​a little later.

    Bernese physiologist, XNUMXth century.
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 14: 44
      +2
      I have read Wikipedia. But I thought that why write about it if the topic is the Middle Ages. There will always be someone who will complement.
      1. Nephilim
        Nephilim 15 October 2022 15: 11
        0
        Wikipedia, even the English one (recently the Dutch one has gained momentum) is, shall we say, an ambiguous object. To consider it as a source of some kind of fundamental knowledge is extremely reckless.
        1. kalibr
          15 October 2022 15: 59
          +1
          Do not try to convince me that you knew about "Physiologist" before the release of my material. And then it was enough to open Wikipedia - then erudition flooded.
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 12
            0
            Tell me - why should I convince you of something? I am already at the age when I have already surprised and convinced everyone I wanted to. Moreover, there is a suspicion that it is quite difficult to convince you of something. So why waste resources?
            1. kalibr
              15 October 2022 16: 30
              +1
              Quote from Nephilim
              Moreover, there is a suspicion that it is quite difficult to convince you of something.

              Error again. This is not suspicion, but certainty! But about the "Physiologist" I, of course, am right. So easy - read, looked, added and you are an erudite. There were already those who specialized in this.
              1. Nephilim
                Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 37
                0
                But about the "Physiologist" I, of course, am right.

                Ah you directly Horace. Exegi monumentum.
  11. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 15 October 2022 11: 23
    +2
    ahaha, I was hoping that you would mention Bonacon, but no -)) And so, oh. cute little animal feel
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 14: 45
      +4
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      Bonacona

      I wrote about him in articles about heraldry.
  12. saygon66
    saygon66 15 October 2022 11: 38
    +3
    Fierce clawed Tarbormoths and vicious Bandersnatch! winked
  13. Nephilim
    Nephilim 15 October 2022 11: 45
    +5
    So, let's get acquainted with medieval bestiaries (from Latin bestia "beast") - that is, medieval collections of articles on zoology with illustrations.

    To consider medieval bestiaries as "collections of articles on zoology", forgive me for such a remark, is a mistake. Physiological information about the structure and habits of animals is only part of the content, often not the most important. If you look at the texts, then no less volume is occupied by descriptions of certain meanings of an animal or its individual properties. For the medieval reader, the beast existed in the world not only as a living organism, but also as a sign that it not only moves, eats, hunts, but also "means". In the bestiary, each beast can mean both virtue and vice, both heavenly and infernal. Excursions of this kind lose in fascination to fantastic information about physiological "realities", which is usually emphasized when describing bestiaries. However, the semiotic sections of the bestiary are not an optional addition to animal physiology, but, on the contrary, the main thing in the bestiary, that is, the bestiary is not just a set of animal descriptions.
    here, but one of the subsystems of medieval semiotics, based on the doctrine of the meaning of things.
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 14: 47
      +1
      Quote from Nephilim
      one of the subsystems of medieval semiotics,

      Yes, we don’t even know such Slavs, but we are sure that 99% of readers are interested in such arguments. Since they are losing, then ... why write about them? It's about what wins.
      1. Nephilim
        Nephilim 15 October 2022 15: 25
        0
        Yes, we don’t know such glories

        Honestly, it is rare to meet an individual who simultaneously claims to be a kind of enlightener and flaunts his ignorance. You either take off the cross, or put on your underpants, the right word. And if for a candidate of historical sciences who undertook to enlighten the broad masses on the topic of medieval bestiaries, the information in my commentary is a discovery, and the semiotic interpretation of the concept of "historical fact" is a revelation, then, dear sir, you will be offended again, but ... Well, you will tell me understood. Although I met a candidate of historical sciences who defended a dissertation on a topic like: "The leading and guiding role of the CPSU in the introduction of the square-nest method of planting corn in the Non-Black Earth Region" and on this basis considered himself a historian.
        1. kalibr
          15 October 2022 15: 56
          +2
          What else did he write besides this dissertation?
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 07
            +3
            I did not follow his creative biography, there was hardly anything outstanding, although there was a serious aplomb. The only thing I remember about him is that he took it to "read" and did not return Nikolai Ivanovich Pavlenko's book "Peter the First" with the inscription "To a colleague. Author".
            1. kalibr
              15 October 2022 16: 27
              +2
              Quote from Nephilim
              I did not follow his creative biography, there was hardly anything outstanding, although there was a serious aplomb. The only thing I remember about him is that he took it to "read" and did not return Nikolai Ivanovich Pavlenko's book "Peter the First" with the inscription "To a colleague. Author".

              Then it is a trifling person. And there are also women ... Ph.D. those who have received their degree through...interest in them from the outside. And there are many, sir. The degree is the key, not a medal nailed to the forehead. It is important how much and what a person did after the defense ...
              1. Nephilim
                Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 32
                +1
                The degree is the key, not a medal nailed to the forehead.

                As experience shows, someone has a key, someone has a medal.
                1. kalibr
                  15 October 2022 16: 49
                  +2
                  Quote from Nephilim
                  someone a medal.

                  There are more stupid people at all levels than smart people.
                  1. Nephilim
                    Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 56
                    +1
                    There are more stupid people at all levels than smart people.

                    I remember that you are a fan of Vilfredo Pareto.
        2. Nephilim
          Nephilim 15 October 2022 15: 57
          +2
          The author's glories, as I understand it, were very offended for him. What about the ten commandments?
        3. kalibr
          15 October 2022 15: 58
          +2
          Quote from Nephilim
          you will be offended again

          I? Take offense? Yes you are laughing...
          1. Nephilim
            Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 09
            +1
            Yes you are laughing...

            Yes, for God's sake ... Why is there to laugh.
            1. kalibr
              15 October 2022 16: 28
              +1
              Quote from Nephilim
              What's there to laugh at.

              Then do not write about "my grievances." I wrote here many times that the words of no people can offend me in principle.
              1. Nephilim
                Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 34
                +1
                the words of no people can offend me in principle.

                A controversial statement, ambiguous. But I'll take note.
                1. kalibr
                  15 October 2022 16: 47
                  +1
                  My grandfather told me: "Call at least a pot, just don't put it in the stove." And one more thing: "Swearing does not hang on the collar!". I follow his command!
                  1. Nephilim
                    Nephilim 15 October 2022 16: 53
                    +3
                    Mikhelson has a better option: "At least call the devil, just feed with bread." Although, nevertheless, the meaning of the proverb is somewhat different, not about insult, but, as I think, a Freudian slip.
  14. depressant
    depressant 15 October 2022 13: 00
    +5
    Welcome all!
    Just imagine, just the other day a photo came from a friend from Brazil. In the photo, an animal common for those places. I read the signature and was stunned!
    Monkey!.. Monkey is...
    All my adult life I thought that a monkey is just a synonym for a small grimacing monkey, if not of any kind, then a chimpanzee for sure, but it means like that ... And then it suddenly dawned on me why Redrick Shewhart in Roadside Picnic At first jokingly, and then bitterly, he began to call his mutating daughter "Monkey".
    Yes, the monkey in the photo has a long fluffy striped tail, but the face ... It is the face and nothing else, covered with whitish silky fur, with regular, not at all monkey, but purely human features, and these sad eyes filled to the bottom with universal sorrow The more I stared at them, the scarier it got. Is it a product of human de-evolution?
    How could I think that I understand the meaning of the Strugatskys' book without knowing what a monkey looks like? They knew.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 October 2022 13: 35
      +5
      and these sad eyes filled to the bottom with universal sorrow
      Like these ones?
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 13: 52
        +4
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        and these sad eyes filled to the bottom with universal sorrow
        Like these ones?

        Seeing a similar post from Anton! I went to the kitchen opened a bottle of cognac and rolled a little!!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 October 2022 16: 58
          +4
          Something like this cats react to my dog, make such eyes and want to roll valerian.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 October 2022 19: 00
            +2
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Something like this cats react to my dog, make such eyes and want to roll valerian.

            I do not know a single cat who would refuse valerian! And the Petersburgers have an eternal holiday - they came, they saw, they conquered!!! More precisely, he pinned himself to the entrance, tyk the front door sat on the curb, oh no, on the curb. I waited for the dog Anton, hissed sweetly (with all his eyes) and received five drops of nectar from the valerian root - the day was a success! I'm afraid Anton this minute ticket offices are stormed by dozens of cats, with one thought to get their five drops of valerian !!! So, my friend, stock up on sim nekton boxes !!! drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 15 October 2022 19: 13
              +2
              I will spill nectar on the cat tribe:

              And canines in my presence, I ask you not to touch! I can bite randomly...
              )))
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 15 October 2022 20: 28
          +3
          A small gap in the template is more expensive than numerous cat-glorifications.
      2. depressant
        depressant 15 October 2022 15: 06
        +2
        Like these ones?

        Thank you, Anton, cheered me up, giggled)))
        No, the eyes were like yours wassat )))
        But my pathos brought down cool, on the fly! good )))
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 October 2022 17: 01
          +2
          But my pathos brought down cool, on the fly!
          I can...
          And my eyes are hidden behind glasses.
          1. depressant
            depressant 15 October 2022 20: 45
            +2
            And my eyes are hidden behind glasses.

            You are the person outside the window. Transparent, but a barrier.
    2. Nephilim
      Nephilim 15 October 2022 14: 48
      +4
      Is it a product of human de-evolution?


      Why offend these charming primates by comparison with the regulars of the "News" section of the VO website?
      1. depressant
        depressant 15 October 2022 15: 14
        +2
        So I don't...
        In general, there is something from the visitors of the "Opinions" section - they mourn there - loudly, bitterly and non-stop, as if grief can stop what is destined from above. Only the independent section "History" can stop and redirect the streams of being!
        Is not it? wassat )))
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 15 October 2022 15: 35
          0
          Stop and redirect the streams of being

          Alas and ah, no section, especially in the form that it has acquired to date, cannot stop what was destined from above. And grief too. Although in "Opinions" and in "News" this high human feeling is not even close. Some kind of animal instincts rule there.
        2. kalibr
          15 October 2022 16: 02
          +3
          Quote: depressant
          Is not it?

          Exactly!
  15. astra wild2
    astra wild2 15 October 2022 15: 36
    +3
    Colleagues, Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon
    Unfortunately, I'm less and less able to find time for the site. Women often have a lot of trouble, and I also have concern for the "boys": "the kid" volunteered, now he is in the Rostov region in training
    The son was transferred to the Kursk region, and the T 72B3 does not listen to nightingale trills there. Probably preparing for November?
    Now I thought: it would be great: by 7 th to take: Avdeevka, Artyomovsk, Liman and drive away from Kherson. I'm scared that Kherson will lose.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 October 2022 18: 23
      +2
      Vera, "let go" of your children. They do what they see fit. Like the boys from the other front line.
      1. astra wild2
        astra wild2 16 October 2022 11: 00
        +2
        Anton, with my mind I understand: they are adult men-wars, but the heart of a mother ..
        P
        S
        Wouldn't you worry about your son in a similar situation?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 16 October 2022 11: 36
          +1
          I have this situation coming in December.
  16. Tests
    Tests 15 October 2022 17: 26
    +5
    Dear comrades on "VO"! I apologize to everyone for my first experience in posting a photo, for some reason it doubled, but I wanted, in addition to a photo of a gray owl, to post a photo of a common owl. But! The first pancake is lumpy...
    depressant (Lyudmila Yakovlevna Kuznetsova), dear, always said that most of the visitors to the "History" section were pioneers, they did not study according to the Bologna system, almost everyone knows, since there were books ... Although ...
    As a child, I had a book "Children in a Cage" by S. Marshak with drawings by E. Charushin. In the 90s or at the very beginning of the 2000s, I saw the poem "Hyena" in the children of acquaintances in "Children in a Cage". It wasn't in my book. And as soon as my granddaughter appeared, I already learned via the Internet that there were no poems in my publication: "Lion cub", "Lioness", "Bear", "Jackal", "Kangaroo", "Fomka", "About the hippopotamus". In the poem "Monkey" in the book of my childhood there was no text of the monkey's song:
    "In the far hot south,
    On palm trees and bushes
    My friends are screaming
    Ride on their tails.
    wonderful bananas
    In my homeland.
    monkeys live there
    And there are no people at all."
    And the poem "Dingo" was shortened by as much as 4 lines:
    "But I do not live alone
    My son is growing up to replace me.
    He is a Leningrad citizen
    And I am an overseas Dingo!"
    I also found out on the Internet that there was a poem "Kudu Antelope", but I never found the text.
    1. kalibr
      15 October 2022 21: 26
      +1
      Dear colleagues! Maybe someone has been to France and has a photo of Saumur castle? It's a gift to me, no claims to authorship. We really need at least one photo that can be considered "Public Domain"
      1. Nephilim
        Nephilim 15 October 2022 23: 38
        +1
        In a personal link to sites. Only the link is better to copy and paste into a search engine, then "search in Google", it may not go directly. All photos are freely available.
        1. kalibr
          16 October 2022 07: 35
          +1
          Thank you! I'll definitely take a look. But I have already looked at a lot of things, from the site of the castle itself to the sites of travel agencies and private photographers. I ate a big dog on it. And there is no "public domain" anywhere. If you are lucky with your help, it will be great.
  17. Tests
    Tests 16 October 2022 08: 59
    0
    Korsar4 (Sergey), dear, not only wild boars are evolving. Birds that live next to a person, for sure, are distinguished by intelligence and quick wits. That magpies, that gray crows.
  18. Tests
    Tests 16 October 2022 12: 16
    0
    Kote pane Kokhanka (Vladislav), I like blue and yellow cats since the last century. From Annie-Frida and Agneta: https://sedov-05.livejournal.com/1801768.html
  19. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 17 October 2022 10: 42
    0
    Milton believed that "the largest of earthly creatures" is the hippopotamus. Did he not know about the elephant? Did you know about the hippopotamus? Rather, Milton singled out the elephant in some special place. Considering that our tales about the "Indrik the Beast" are also very strange...